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never backwards and forwards-a method which boys are sometimes apt to acquire, but nevertheless a bad one, as it causes the horse to look rough, or as if he had been drawn through a hedge backwards. Many persons are very scrupulous in having their horses made quite dry before the clothing is put on, but there are circumstances which do not render that nicety advisable. In the early part of the year, or indeed whenever the coat is rather long, the surface of the skin will be perfectly cool before the surface of the hair becomes quite dry; and the consequence is, that if the horse is exposed too long he will become chilled, and perhaps take cold: indeed, I am perfectly convinced that many horses do take cold and are afflicted with cough from this very circumstance. The moment, therefore, that the horse's body is found to be cool is the time for him to be re-clothed. It is to be observed that the process of cooling is effected by evaporation, which takes place very rapidly on these occasions. If, therefore, coolness is produced below the degree of heat which the system recognises, the circulation of the blood is checked in its passage to the extremities, especially that which passes to the skin, and the most dangerous consequences may be expected to ensue. All the dry clothing being adjusted, and the saddle put on, the horse is to be led about for the space of five minutes, when he must be mounted, and take a steady gallop at about half-speed from three-quarters of a mile to a mile, or, if thought requisite, a mile and quarter; when, after walking half an hour, he will be ready to go into his stable. If the weather be windy and cold, it will be desirable to throw an extra rug over him during the time that he is walking home, so that the circulation may be kept up; and although the horse should be cool when he arrives at his stable, he should have a glow on the surface of his coat.

The sweaters which have been used are to be rolled together and carried home by one of the attendants, and arrangements made previously to going out to have half a pailful of gruel in readiness for each horse on his return. I am an advocate for that which is made with wheat-flour, and always have it prepared in the following manner-Half a pint or rather more of fine fresh flour, to be mixed with cold water, care being taken that it is quite smooth and free from lumps; about two quarts of water is put into a saucepan and made to boil, when the flour is poured in and thoroughly stirred during the process of boiling, which continues a quarter of an hour; it is then poured into the bucket, and some cold water added. It must, however, be allowed to stand a sufficient time to become of the required temperature before being offered to the horse. Many persons use oatmeal thus prepared, but wheat-flour is decidedly more nutritious and balsamic-properties which are exceedingly necessary on all occasions when a horse has fasted for some time and undergone considerable labour.

When the horse is in the stable the hood and bridle are to be taken off, and the former thrown over his quarters: the girths must then be slackened, and he must be allowed to stand a minute or two to ease himself. The gruel is then to be presented to him. A nice sweet lock of hay, well shaken and pulled to free it from every par

ticle of dust which might possibly intrude, is then thrown before him. Many persons moisten the hay with water; to that process, however, I object, and will explain my reasons. The animal is naturally thirsty, and seizing the wet hay gives it a twist or two with his teeth and bolts it. Thus it passes into his stomach in the form of a little wisp, but if given dry he is compelled to masticate it, which excites the natural flow of salivary juice from the glands destined to secrete that fluid, which not only assists the power of deglutition, and by compelling the animal to masticate the food prepares it for digestion, but it more effectually relieves the mouth from being parched and dry than any other fluid. other fluid. Whilst the horse is picking this little bit of hay, his head and neck are to be dressed agreeably to the instructions given on that subject, after which his legs are to be well fomented, thoroughly washed with warm water, and bandaged; not forgetting that the bandages are to be taken off after the horse is dressed, his legs well hand-rubbed, and dry bandages replaced. His legs being washed and bandaged, he will then be ready for his water, to which some linseed gruel should be added, the bland and softening properties of which are found so conducive to the healthy condition of the urinary secretions, that no valuable horse when at hard work should be without it. It softens the water and equalizes its quality; so much so, that when horses are travelling, if linseed be prepared and given to them on such occasions, they will experience very little, if any, effect from the change which they must inevitably undergo from drinking waters possessing different properties. During the time the legs are being washed a handful of bran-mash should be given, and after he is dressed the remainder of that which has been prepared. His bed should be set fair, and if he have eaten his mash a small feed of corn offered to him. Should he refuse his mash, let that which remains be taken away, and the manger thoroughly cleansed, otherwise that which adheres to it will very quickly become If he does not appear disposed to feed, it will be useless, and indeed improper, at this crisis to give him any corn; but, as many horses will eat corn when they will not touch a mash, the experiment may be tried, always observing one maxim-that if he will not eat it, it should be taken from him. The corn being disposed of, a small allowance of hay is to be given, when he is to be shut up till five or half-past five o'clock in the evening.

sour.

It is not usual to strip a horse for the purpose of dressing him on the evening after he has been sweating; nevertheless, his quarters and hocks can be done by simply turning up his clothing; his legs must also be attended to, and the operations will now fall into the regular routine of the stable. Great attention must, however, be paid to the due temperature of the stable, and of all things to have it thoroughly ventilated. That currents of air are objectionable at all times, but more especially dangerous on these occasions, no person can contend against, but yet there requires a free escape for the foul air generated by the animal. After the circulation has been so highly excited and exhausted, the consumption of hydrogen is greater than on ordinary occasions; therefore it is the more necessary to ensure a sufficient supply, otherwise the horse is sure to break out after he is shut up; a

consequence of not being supplied with sufficient quantities of pure air to refresh the blood on its passage to the lungs, which is returned into the circulation in an impure state, whence the impurity forces its escape through the pores of the skin, and produces the cold perspiration so commonly observed with horses after work.

The average lapse of time for horses of good constitution to be sweated is about six or seven days; the discretion of the trainer, however, must regulate this subject. If positive rules could be established, simplifying the art of training like a rule-of-three sum or any other operation in arithmetic, trainers would be as plentiful as blackberries; indeed, skill, observation, and experience would be at a discount, and nothing required beyond regularity and order-two virtues, however, which must ever be attendant upon the former attributes. Reason, discretion, and moderation are precepts which a man desirous of bringing a horse to the post in his best form, must invariably adopt as his motto. With all these qualities a man will sometimes err, and many instances may be recorded of horses having run very moderately, although trained with the utmost care and experience, which passing under the management of another possessing less judgment and practical knowledge, have vastly improved. This may readily be accounted for by the latter person accidentally hitting upon a system of treatment suitable to the peculiar temper and constitution of the animal.

Light, flashy-tempered horses require great caution as to the frequency of their sweats, the distance and pace which they can bear, and the manner in which they are ridden. One of the greatest errors that can be fallen into is that of galloping them, or indeed any others, to a stand-still.

TWILIGHT THOUGHTS.

BY ROSLYN CAWDOR.

Oh! it is glorious, thus, at eve's sweet close,
To watch the golden gleams of light that fly
Across the heavens-and view the changeful sky,
Tinged with a thousand bright and varying glows,
That haste to paint the horizon, ere they die
In the embrace of night, with rich supply
Of brilliancy and loveliness! To those
Who love to mark the mysteries which rule
The course of Nature, it is sweet to rove
At this enchanting hour, the woodland grove,
And woo the muse within her favourite school-
Green turf beneath and vermeil sky above!
"Tis then the minstrel hears unearthly lyres,
That soothe his fervid spirits' wild desires!

TURF DEFAULTERS.

BY CASTOR.

"Can honour set a leg? No.

What is honour? A word. What is in that word honour? What is that honour? Air. A trim reckoning! Who hath it? He that died o' Wednesday. Doth he feel it? No. Doth he hear it? No. Is it insensible, then? Yea, to the dead. But will it not live with the living? No. Why? Detraction will not suffer it-therefore 1'll none of it."

SHAKSPEARE.

"For ask we truth, or probity, or sense,
In what distinct, in what the difference,
"Twixt one who robs on this insidious plan,

And yon declared, half famish'd highwayman?
The latter, want impels to seek relief;
The first, a mean, a pettifogging thief!"

PURSUITS OF FASHION.

It is pretty generally admitted that when an established favourite for "the race of all races" proves himself worthy of the confidence placed in him, and the money placed on him, a tolerable amount of something more than surprise finds its way into the market. Some who have had "the office," and profited thereby, are such large winners that they are almost at a loss what to do with the money-when they get it. While others who, previous to the race, had been quite sure that the crack could not pull through, and, acting on this opinion, had been laying it on thick at all sorts of prices, after that event feel rather more certain of another thing-that they never can pay. The settling day comes at last, as it was always expected it would; but then many who were also fondly expected with it, do not. Some certainly come and-promise; a second party sends-not often the money-but an excuse; while others do neither. "One fool makes many" is an old saying; and one defaulter, we have seen, at times tends very much to the same result. Something like half a dozen years back I recollect hearing this, as I then thought, good piece of advice from one who had years, experience, and, what is more than all, had profited by them :-"Don't be shy of standing against the first favourite for the Derby, but be careful, on the other hand, how you lay it out against the animal in the same position for the St. Leger." Now had any man-and perhaps there are such unfortunates-taken this as a rule, how would his account have stood for the last three years? Coronation, Attila, and Cotherstone-all established favourites for the Derby, and all, as it turned out, deservedly so-one after another disappointed those who had determined, by standing on them for the St. Leger, to get back a portion of what they had dropped by standing against them for the

Derby. Not one of these Epsom races proved an exception to the rule which I alluded to at starting; a smash, more or less, was the consequence of the Derby of 1841, 2, and 3, having been carried off by horses backed by large and influential parties. Coronation led the way, his black list, headed by a man who, by the advice of his friends-save me from my friends!-thought proper to proclaim, or rather they did for him, that he should not pay, having been told that others-in short, just on the system of "one makes many." As it appeared that this ill-used individual meant doing the thing that was right, time was asked for and given, and arrangements made for making all straight. This is now an old story; but the mention of time being asked for, brings to my recollection an anecdote of the late Dick Bayzand, who, to use his own words, was "the most unfortunate beggar alive." The year Smolensko won the Derby-an event, by-the-bye, which also produced a somewhat considerable smash --Dick stood by his book to win a good round sum. "For once in my life" (ipse loquitur) "I had a turn." Sure enough the horse he stood on did win, but still he was "the most unfortunate beggar alive;" for, thinking very properly that a bet was nothing without a hedge, he effected the latter to the amount of something like seven hundred. On the Monday after the race, the man he had hedged to was true to time at the Corner; but the gentleman, an officer in the army, who was down in Bayzand's book for nearly all the latter's winnings, was not. Being unable to meet the immense losses he had sustained, he destroyed himself on the Saturday morning; so that Bayzand, instead of receiving about two thousand clear, was seven hundred out of pocket, without the chance of a return. This great and sudden alteration in his book Dick was not prepared to meet; and, after informing his creditor precisely how the case was, he begged for time. "Well," said the other, a regular cool hand, "I don't mind giving you" (this was Monday evening) "till Wednesday morning." Such as knew poor Dick can well imagine how he opened his eyes at this extremely liberal offer.

To return, however, to the great defaulters of the last three seasons. Rather more time, we find, was given to Mr. G., and trustees appointed to receive and pay. The very next year one of these trustees shut up himself, without anything like the noise that accompanied the gazetting the unfortunate for whom he had acted; merely intimating that he should not trouble trustees on his own account, and would be very sorry to trouble any one. To carry it out in this manner, we need only take one more sample from the present year-a man who has won and received his thousands by betting, but who now, on experiencing a reverse, refuses to pay in full, or even in part; retiring, to use his own words, "to live like the flowers in May", though anything but an otium cum dignitate-after

"Disowning debts he justly has incurred,
And glorying in the power to break his word:
Nay! proudly vaunting in the face of day,

He nor desired, nor wished, nor meant to pay!"

The rules of the Jockey Club, if properly carried out, have always been sufficient with regard to defalcations in stakes or forfeits; in

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