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Campbell, John, Canadian Presbyterian clergyman: b. Edinburgh, Scotland, 18 June 1840. He was educated in the University of Toronto, and New College, Edinburgh, and in 1868 became pastor of the Charles Street Church in Toronto. In 1873 he was appointed professor of Church history and apologetics in the Presbyterian College, Montreal. Twenty years later he was convicted of heresy by the Montreal Presbytery, but the decision was reversed by the synod. He has published The Hittites: Their Inscriptions and Their History' (1890).
Campbell, John Archibald, American lawyer: b. Washington, Ga., 24 June 1811; d. Baltimore, 12 March 1889. He was graduated from the Georgia University in 1826 and was admitted to the bar in 1829 before coming of age, by virtue of a special act of the legislature. Removing to Alabama he soon became prominent in his profession, and in 1853 was appointed associate justice of the supreme court of the United States, resigning in 1861. He was subsequently appointed Confederate secretary of war, and was one of the commissioners named by President Davis to meet President Lincoln and Secretary Seward at the conference in Fortress Monroe in February 1865. He was imprisoned for some months after the close of the Civil War and on his release resumed his legal practice.
Campbell, John Douglas Sutherland. Argyle, CamPBELLS OF.
Campbell, John Francis, Scotch folklore writer: b. 29 Dec. 1822; d. Cannes, France, 17 Feb. 1885. His first success was 'Popular Tales of the West Highlands' (1860-2), an accurate and discriminating compilation; to which succeeded 'Frost and Fire) (1865).
Campbell, John Lorne, American Baptist clergyman: b. Dominionville, Ontario, 14 Jan. 1845. He was graduated from Woodstock College, Ontario, and from the Baptist Theological Seminary of the same institution, and subsequently from Toronto University. He was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 1868. Since 1889 he has been pastor of the Lexington Avenue Baptist Church in New York. He has published Heavenly Recognition and Other Sermons' (1895); Sanctification' (1901).
Campbell, John McLeod, Scotch theologian: b. Kilninver, Argyle, 4 May 1800; d. 27 Feb. 1872. Sent to Glasgow University at 11, he was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Lorne in 1821. His views on salvation and the atonement brought upon him a charge of heresy, which led to his deposition in 1831. For years he labored in the Highlands and preached without remuneration. When his health broke down he advised his people to attach themselves to the church of Norman Macleod. He spent the remainder of his life in retirement. In 1868 his university gave him the degree of D.D., and in 1871 a testimonial and address was presented to him by men of nearly every religious denomination in Scotland. He wrote: Christ the Bread of Life (1851); The Nature of the Atonement (1856); and Thoughts on Revelation) (1862).
Campbell, John Pendleton, American scientist: b. Cumberland, Md., 20 Nov. 1863. He studied at Johns Hopkins University, and in 1888 became professor of biology at the University of Georgia.
Campbell, John Preston, American lawyer and author: b. Boston, Mass., 8 April 1849. He practised law at Abilene, Kansas, but since 1897 has lived in Washington, D. C. Among his numerous writings are: Merl of Medevon and Other Prose Writings) (1888); My Mate Immortal'; and Queen Sylvia and Other Poems' (1886).
Campbell, John TenBrook, American scientist: b. Montezuma, Ind., 21 May 1833. A carpenter in early life, he enlisted as a private at the outbreak of the Civil War, and rose to the rank of captain. He studied engineering and physical science, and has perfected many surveying implements. He has written National Finances, and pamphlets on mathematical science and astro-physics.
Campbell, Lewis, British classical scholar: b. Edinburgh, 3 Sept. 1830. He received his early education at Edinburgh Academy, and afterward attended the University of Glasgow, and Trinity and Balliol colleges, Oxford, taking the degree of B.A. (with first-class honors in classics) in 1853, and that of M.A. in 1856. Ordained in 1857, he became vicar of Milford, Hants, in the following year, a post which he held till his appointment, in 1863, as professor of Greek in St. Andrew's University. He retired from this chair in 1892, becoming emeritus professor. The 1894-5 series of Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews was delivered by him. As a writer he is known mainly by his editions and translations of ancient Greek authors, the chief of which are: Plato's Theætetus' (1861); Plato's Politicus' 'Sophistes and (1867); (Sophocles - The Plays and Fragments' (1879); (Sophocles in English Verse' and Plato's Republic (with the late Benjamin (1873-83); Æschylus in English Verse) (1890); Jowett 1894). The Christian Ideal,' published in 1877, is a volume of sermons; and his other works include a Guide to Greek Tragedy (1891); Life of James Clerk Maxwell' (with W. Garnett 1882); Life of Benjamin Jowett (with E. Abbott 1897); Religion in Greek Literature (1898), the substance of his Gifford Lectures; and the articles, 'Plato' and Sophocles' in the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Campbell, Loomis J., American philologist: b. Oneonta, N. Y., 1831; d. there, 6 Nov. 1896. He was author of a United States History, also of the popular Franklin Series' of school books; and edited a 'Young Folks' Book of Poetry) and a 'Hand-Book of Synonyms.'
Campbell, Mrs. Patrick. See CAMPBELL, BEATRICE.
Campbell, Reginald John, English Congregational clergyman: b. London, 1867. After receiving a collegiate training at University College, Nottingham, and Christ Church College, Oxford, he entered the Congregational ministry in 1895. He is pastor of the Union Church, Brighton, and is widely known as a preacher. He has published 'The Making of an Apostle'; The Restored Innocence' (1898); 'A Faith for To-day (1900).
Campbell, Thomas, British poet: b. Glasgow, 27 July 1777; d. Boulogne, France, 15 June 1844. He was educated at the University of Glasgow, where he distinguished himself by the excellence of his poetical translations from
the Greek. After leaving the university he re-
Campbell, Thomas W., American clergy-
in 1894, and resigned to enter the Presbyterian
Campbell, William, American soldier: b.
Campbell, William (LORD), English royal
Though not of a very firm character, he was
Campbell, William W., American lawyer
Campbell, William Wallace, American as-
Campbell, William Wilfred, Canadian
CAMPBELL - CAMPE
and was for some years in the Episcopal ministry in Canada, retiring from it in 1891 in order to devote himself entirely to literary pursuits. He has published Lake Lyrics' (1889); (The Dread Voyage (1893); Mordred, a Tragedy; and Hildebrand (1895), the two latter being dramas in blank verse; 'Beyond the Hills of Dream (1899); and numerous separate poems, among them (England) (1897). He is cited, in the Victorian Anthology,' among the notable poets of Canada.
Campbell. See ARGYLE, CAMPBELLS OF. Campbell-Ban'nerman, SIR Henry, English statesman: b. 7 Sept. 1836. He was the son of Sir James Campbell, but added the surname Bannerman, under the will of a maternal uncle. He was educated at Glasgow University and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1868 he was elected member of Parliament for Stirling Borough. From 1871-4, and from 1880-2, he was financial secretary of the war office; 1882-4, secretary of admiralty; 1884-5, chief secretary for Ireland; 1886 and 1892-5, secretary for war. In February 1899 he became leader of the Liberal party in succession to Sir William Har
Campbell's Station, Tenn., the scene of an engagement between Federal and Confederate forces, 4 Nov. 1863. Gen. Braxton Bragg, who was besieging Chattanooga, detached Longstreet's corps of 10,000 men and 35 guns, with Wheeler's cavalry force of 5,000 men, to capture Burnside or drive him out of East Tennessee. Longstreet reached the south bank of the Tennessee, near Loudon, on the 13th, and that night and next day laid bridges at Huff's Ferry, two miles below Loudon, and began crossing his infantry. Burnside, who was holding the north bank of the river from Kingston to Lenoirs, concluded to leave one brigade at Kingston and retire the rest of his command to Knoxville, about 30 miles, where he had prepared to make a stand behind defensive works. He skirmished sharply with Longstreet's advance on the 14th, and gradually falling back on the 15th, at night concentrated Hartranft's and Ferrero's divisions of the 9th Corps, and White's of the 23d, at Lenoirs. He had about 5,000 men. Longstreet followed, attacked during the night, and was repulsed. Before daybreak of the 16th Hartranft, with his division and some cavalry, was put on the march to secure Campbell's Station, the intersection of roads coming from the south. After destroying many wagons and contents, taking the teams to
assist his artillery over the bad roads, axle-deep in mud, Burnside followed with the other two divisions, artillery and trains, closely pursued by Longstreet, with Hood's division, commanded by Gen. Micah Jenkins, with whose advance his rearguard had several sharp encounters. McLaws' division of Longstreet's corps took a more direct road to the left, the two roads intersecting about a mile southward of Campbell's Station, 15 miles south of Knoxville. Hartranft reached the coveted point in advance of McLaws and, turning west on the Kingston road, deployed his division in such manner as to confront McLaws, and at the same time cover the Lenoir road, along which the trains were moving in advance of the infantry. He had scarcely made his dispositions when McLaws appeared and attacked, but Hartranft held on until Burnside, with the trains and the remainder of the troops, had passed and the troops taken position, when he fell back and formed on the left of White's division, in position half a mile beyond the junction of the two roads, Ferrero's division on White's right, and the artillery on commanding ground sweeping the road and the open country in front. The jaded train continued on the road to Knoxville. McLaws advanced and drew up in the plain, but the forbidding aspect of Burnside's artillery, which opened viciously on him, forbade direct attack with infantry, whereupon he opened with artillery, and Longstreet ordered attacks upon both flanks of Burnside's line, which were made and nicely parried or repulsed; but, largely superior in numbers, Longstreet was able to move around both flanks, especially on Burnside's left, which obliged him to fall back to a ridge nearly a mile in the rear. This he did in a handsome manner, though under a heavy and constant fire, and closely pressed on all sides. It was four o'clock when Hood's division made an attack on Burnside's left, which was repulsed. McLaws attacked his right and was thrown back, and Longstreet then prepared for a general advance of his entire line; but before his preparations were completed it was coming dark, and his train secure and well resumed his march. His advance reached Knoxon the way to Knoxville. Burnside, after dark, ville about daybreak next morning, 17 November, Longstreet warily following during the day, and the siege of Knoxville began. In this action at Campbell's Station and the skirmishes preceding it at Huff's Ferry, Lenoirs, and on the march, the Union loss was 303 killed and wounded, and 135 missing. The Confederate the most seriously engaged, lost 174 killed and loss is not definitely known. Hood's division, wounded; the loss of McLaws was much less. Consult: Official Records,' Vol. XXXV.; the Century Company's Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Vol. III.; Woodward's Burnside and the 9th Army Corps.
E. A. CARMAN. Campe, Joachim Heinrich, yō'äн-îm hìn riн käm'pë, German author: b. Deensen, Brunswick, Germany, 29 June 1746; d. 22 Oct. 1818. He studied for the Church, acted for some time as a teacher in various positions, and in 1786 was chosen by the government of Brunswick to superintend and reform the schools of that duchy. He became likewise the head of a school-book publishing house at Brunswick, and his own works, which were issued
from it, contributed greatly to extend its reputation. These consist principally of educational works and books for youth, the most successful being 'Robinson the Younger,' an adaptation of Defoe's 'Robinson Crusoe.' This attained an immense popularity, being translated into almost all the languages of Europe. He also wrote a "History of the Discovery of America.'
Campe'che, or Campeachy, Mexico, a seaport town in the state and on the bay of the same name, on the west coast of the peninsula of Yucatan, about 100 miles southwest of Merida, with which it is connected by railroad. It contains a citadel, a university with a museum, a hospital, and a handsome theatre. Campeche is an important mart for logwood or Campeachy wood, of which great quantities are exported. Other important exports are wax, cigars, and henequen or sisal-hemp. Owing to the shallowness of the roadstead large vessels have to anchor five or six miles off. There is a lighthouse on the coast at this port. Pop. 16,631. The state of Campeachy has an area of 18,091 square miles. Pop. 84,000. The Bay of Campeachy, part of the Gulf of Mexico, lies on the southwest of the peninsula of Yucatan, and on the north of the province of Tabasco.
Campeggio, käm-pěj'ō, or Campeggi, Lorenzo, Italian ecclesiastic: b. Bologna, 1472; d. Rome, 19 July 1539. He succeeded his father as professor of law in the University of Padua in 1511, and gained a high reputation. When holding this office he married, and became the father of several children, but having lost his wife, took orders. Pope Julius II. made him bishop of Feltri, and Leo X., after giving him a cardinal's hat, employed him on several important missions, the execution of which gave him some prominence in connection with the Reformation. One of his missions was to Germany, for the purpose of regaining Luther; and another to England, to attempt to levy a tithe for defraying the expense of a war against the Turks. He failed signally in both, but ingratiated himself with Henry VIII., and was made bishop of Salisbury. Under Clement VII. he was sent as legate to the Diet of Nuremberg, where he vainly endeavored to unite the princes in opposition to Luther; and to the Diet of Augsburg. He again visited England, with extensive powers to decide in the question of divorce between Henry VIII. and Queen Catherine; but his temporizing measures lost him the confidence of all parties, as well as his bishopric of Salisbury. Notwithstanding his repeated failures, he remained high in favor at the papal court; and at his death was archbishop of Bologna.
Campen. See KAMPEN. Campen, Jacob de. See KAMPEN, JACOB DE. Campen, Jan van. See KAMPEN, JAN VAN. Camper, Peter, pa'ter käm'per, Dutch anatomist: b. Leyden, 11 May 1722; d. The Hague, 7 April 1789. He distinguished himself in anatomy, surgery, obstetrics, and medical jurisprudence, and also as a writer on æsthetics. From 1750 to 1755 he was professor of medicine at Franeker, and from the latter year to 1763 at Amsterdam. Henceforth till his resignation in 1773 he held a professorship at Groningen. His Dissertation on the Natural Varieties, etc., is the first work in which was thrown
much light on the varieties of the human species, which the author distinguishes by the shape of the skull. His Treatise on the Natural Difference of Features in Persons of Various Countries and Ages,' and one on 'Beauty as Exhibited in Ancient Paintings and Engravings,' followed by a method of delineating various sorts of heads with accuracy, is intended to prove that the rules laid down by the most celebrated limners and painters are very defective. His general doctrine is, that the difference in form and cast of countenance proceeds from the facial angle.
Cam'perdown (Dutch, Camperduin), Holland, a stretch of sandy hills or downs in the province of North Holland, between the North Sea and the small village of Camp, off which the British, under Admiral Duncan, gained a hard-won victory over the Dutch, under De Winter, 11 Oct. 1797. For this victory Admiral Duncan was raised to the peerage as Viscount Duncan of Camperdown. His son became Earl of Camperdown, and this title still belongs to a descendant.
Campero, Narciso, när-the'sō käm-pā'rō, Bolivian statesman and soldier: b. Tojo (now in Argentina), 1815. He studied and traveled in Europe, and on his return entered the Bolivian army, and rose to the rank of brigadier-general. He was minister of war in 1872. After the overthrow of Hilarion Daza in 1880 he was chosen president of Bolivia. He commanded the combined forces of Peru and Bolivia in Tacna campaign, but was defeated at Tacna, 26 May 1880. Internally, his administration was quiet.
Camphausen, Wilhelm, vil'hělm kämp'how-zën, German painter: b. Düsseldorf, 8 Feb. 1818; d. Düsseldorf, 16 June 1885. He was from 1859 professor in the art academy there. He was specially famous for battle-piecesscenes from Cromwell's battles, the Thirty Years' war, the wars of 1866 and 1870-and painted many notable portraits of soldiers and equestrian figures.
Cam'phene, or Camphine', (1) a general dinary temperatures (see TERPENE); (2) a puriname for those terpenes which are solid at orfied form of turpentine, obtained by distilling that substance over quicklime in order to remove the resins that the crude product contains, and widely used as an illuminating oil before petro
leum was available.
Cam'phol, a substance now better known as borneol (q.v.).
Cam'phor, a white, translucent, crystalline substance occurring in the wood and bark of the laurel-tree (Camphora officinarum, Cinnamomum camphora, or Laurus camphora), from which it is obtained by distillation with steam and subsequent sublimation. It has the chemical formula C10H18O, melts at 350° F., boils at 500° F., and sublimes to an appreciable extent at practically all temperatures. It has a strong, pleasant, characteristic odor, and a peculiar, cooling, aromatic taste. Its specific gravity is about 0.992, and it dissolves to a slight extent in water, and freely in alcohol or ether. Small shavings of it exhibit lively motions when thrown upon a water-surface that is absolutely free from oily matter. (See SURFACE TENSION.) It is familiar about the household, on account of its use for protecting furs and woolens from
CAMPHORIC ACID-CAMPO BASSO
the attacks of moths and other insects. It is also employed in the manufacture of celluloid and various explosives. The chemistry of camphor is very complicated, and numerous substances are known that resemble it closely, and yet differ from it in certain particulars. See BORNEOL.
Camphor'ic Acid, a substance crystallizing in colorless, needle-like, monoclinic crystals, and obtained by boiling camphor with concentrated nitric acid. It has the formula C10H10O4, and a specific gravity of 1.19, and melts at about 370° F. It is almost insoluble in cold water, but is soluble in hot water, alcohol, and ether.
Camphuysen, Dirk Rafelsk, dŭrk răf'ä ělz kämp'hoi zen, Dutch painter, theologian, and poet b. Gorkum, 1586; d. Dokkum, 9 July 1627. He lost his parents at an early age, and was left to the care of an elder brother; who, thinking that he observed in Rafelsk an inclination for painting, placed him as a pupil in the studio of the artist Govitz. He soon distinguished himself by his landscapes, which were generally of small size, but animated with huts, cattle, and human figures, and executed with a skill and delicacy to which no former Dutch painter had attained. His paintings are now very rare, for he abandoned his art to devote himself to the
ology, which was the reigning passion of the He embraced the doctrines of Arminius, and shared in the persecutions under which Arminianism then suffered. He was expelled from the curacy of Vleuten which he had previously obtained, became a fugitive from village to village, a prey to suffering and privation, and often regretted the canvas and brush which had erewhile opened to him so pleasant a career. He found now in writing short poems his only relief and consolation. These are generally upon religious subjects, and are characterized by a remarkable depth of feeling.
Campi, käm'pē, a family of Italian artists who founded what is known in painting as the school of Cremona. Of the four of this name, Giulio, Antonio, Vincenzo, and Bernardino, the first and the last are the best known. Giulio
(1502-72), the eldest and the teacher of the
others, was a pupil of Giulio Romano, and acquired from the study of Titian and Pordenone a skill in coloring which gave the school its high place. Bernardino (1525-90), was the greatest of the school. He took Romano, Titian, and Correggio in succession as his models, but without losing his own individuality as an artist.
Campion, Edmund, English theologian: b. London, 25 Jan. 1540; d. 1 Dec. 1581. He was educated at Christ's Hospital and St. John's College, Oxford, and distinguished himself greatly, becoming B.A. in 1561 and M.A. in 1564. Though at first a Roman Catholic he adopted nominally the Reformed faith and took deacon's orders in the Church of England. When Queen Elizabeth visited Oxford in 1566 he was selected to make the oration before her, as formerly while at school he had been chosen to deliver an oration before Queen Mary on her accession. He went from college to Ireland, and while there wrote the history of that country and connected himself with the Roman Catholic Church. His enthusiasm leading him to seek to make proselytes to his new faith, he was seized and imprisoned; but after a short time effected his escape to the Low Countries, and soon after
joined the English college of Jesuits at Douay, passed his novitiate as a member of that society, and became distinguished for his piety and learning. At Rome in 1573 he was admitted a member of the Order of Jesuits, after which he resided for a time at Vienna, where he composed a tragedy, which was received with much applause and acted before the emperor; and at Prague, where he taught rhetoric and philosophy for six years. Sent by Gregory XIII. on a mission to England in 1581, he challenged the universities and clergy to dispute with him. His efforts were followed by so large a number of conversions as to disquiet the ministry of Elizabeth; and he was arrested and thrown into the Tower upon a charge of having excited the people to rebellion, and of holding treasonable correspondence with foreign powers. Being tried, he was found guilty, condemned to death for high treason, and executed at Tyburn. The insults of the populace attended him to the Tower, where torture was fruitlessly applied to extort from him a confession of treason or a recognition of the supremacy of the English Church, and after his death a fragment of his body was sent to each of the principal towns for exposure. Beside his history of Ireland, he wrote 'Decem Rationes) (Ten Reasons'), and compiled a Universal Chronology,' and collections of his letters and several essays were published after his death. His biography has been written by Richard Simpson (London
Campion, Thomas, English poet: b. about 1575; d. London, 1 March 1619. He was a physician by profession. He wrote a volume of (Poems (1595), being Latin elegies and epigrams. He published (1610-12) four Books of Airs, containing songs written by himself to airs of his own composition: the first book contains Divine and Moral Songs'; the second, 'Light Conceits of Lovers'; the third and fourth are not distinguished by any separate sub-title. In his songs the verse and the music are most happily wedded.
Campo Basso, Niccolo, (CONTE DA), Italian soldier: fl. in the latter half of the 15th century. He had first supported the house of Anjou in the kingdom of Naples, but afterward transferred his services to their opponent, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. By pandering to the prejudices and caprices of that headstrong prince he acquired great influence over his mind, and in the end availed himself of the confidence placed in him by the Duke to sell him to his enemies. While the Duke was engaged in the siege of Nancy, in 1477, on the approach of a superior force under Ferrand, Duke of Lorraine, to relieve the place, Campo Basso deserted to the enemy immediately before battle. The Burgundians were in consequence defeated, and the Duke himself slain. The treacherous Italian was supposed to be the murderer, as the bodies of some of his men were observed near the spot where the unfortunate prince was found killed and stripped the day after the battle.