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CAMPANELLA - CAMPANILE
paintings of his are in the same city and he also painted the altar-piece of the Church of Santa Anna in Triana, a suburb of Seville.
Campanella, Tommaso, tom-mä'sō kämpa-něl'la, Italian philosopher: b. Stilo, Calabria, 5 Sept. 1568; d. Paris, 1639. He displayed great quickness of parts when quite young, and at the age of 15 entered into the order of the Dominicans. He studied theology and other branches of knowledge with assiduity, but was principally attracted by philosophy. The opinions of Aristotle, then generally taught in the schools, appeared to him unsatisfactory; and in 1591 he published at Naples a work entitled Philosophia Sensibus Demonstrata,' intended to show the futility of the prevailing doctrines. This book procured him some admirers, and more enemies. He then went to Rome, and afterward to Florence, where he was well received by the Grand-duke Ferdinand. In 1598 he returned to Naples, and revisited shortly after Calabria, where, in the following year, he was arrested on a charge of conspiracy against the Spanish government, to which Naples was then subject. A scheme was imputed to him of having engaged the Turks to assist him in making himself master of Calabria. On this improbable and apparently unfounded accusation he was imprisoned, and after being repeatedly tortured, condemned to perpetual confinement. In this situation he wrote many learned works, afterward published. At length, in 1626, Pope Urban VIII. procured his removal to Rome, and in 1629 gave him his liberty, and bestowed on him a pension. Dreading some further persecution from the Spaniards, he withdrew in 1634 to France, where he was honorably received by Louis XIII. and Richelieu, and much esteemed by the learned men of that country. He died at the monastery of his order. Among his numerous works may be mentioned: Atheismus Triumphatus) (1631); Monarchia Messiæ (1633); Defense of Roman Catholicism and the Papal Supremacy'; 'Discorsi della Libertà (1633); Prodromus Philosophiæ Instaurandæ (1617); ‘De Sensu Rerum et Magia' (1620); 'De Monarchia Hispanica Discursus' (1640). A Life of Campanella,' by Baldacchini, was published at Naples (1840-3).
Campanero. See BELL-BIRD.
Campani-Alimenis, Matteo, mät-tā'ō kämpä'nē ā-lē-mā'nis, Italian mechanician: fl. 17th century. In optics, his greatest achievement was the manufacture of the object-glasses through which Cassini discovered two satellites of Saturn. He wrote 'Horologium solo naturæ motu (1678), a work on the construction of clocks.
Campa'nia, the ancient name of a province of Italy, in the late kingdom of Naples, which, partly on account of its natural curiosities, including Vesuvius, the Phlegræan fields, the Lake of Avernus, and partly for its remarkable fertility, was a favorite resort of the distinguished Romans, who built there magnificent country houses. Cumæ, Puteoli, Naples, Herculaneum, Pompeii, Baiæ, Stabiæ, Salernum, and Capua, the principal cities of Campania, are names rich in classical associations. The Appian and Latin ways led into the interior of this charming province. Even now Campania, or the province of Caserta, is the most beautiful and fruitful part of Italy, and no traveler can wish for a more
delightful country than the fields of Campania, filled in the month of April with barley four feet high, and adorned with lofty poplars, which are connected by luxuriant vines, forming a canopy over the fields. "There," says Goethe, "it is worth while to till the ground."
Cam'panile, a detached tower containing bells. Campaniles are most common in Italy. Several of them have deviated considerably from the perpendicular, in consequence of their great height and narrowness of base. The campanile of Pisa, called Torre Pendente (or Leaning Tower), is one of the most remarkable. Its architects were Bonano of Pisa, and Willhelm of Innsbruck, and it was begun in 1174. The tower consists of eight stories, each of which is surrounded by columns, and it inclines nearly 13 feet from the perpendicular. Another celebrated campanile is that which was begun at Florence in 1334, after the designs of Giotto, and finished by Taddeo Gaddi. Its height approaches 300 feet, and it is adorned with 54 bas-reliefs, and 16 statues, representing biblical, pagan, and allegorical subjects. Giotto intended to surmount this tower with a spire nearly 100 feet high, but his intention was never carried out. The Torre degli Asinelli and the Torre Garisenda at Bologna are also remarkable specimens of the campanile. The campanile of St. Mark's Church, Venice, is probably the best known to Americans. Begun as far back as 888 by Pietro Tribuno, it did not assume the form which tourists are familiar with until 1590. For centuries its majestic height dominated the city. Its pinnacle was about 325 feet from the ground.
In 1417 a marble top was put on the old tower. One hundred years later it was crowned with the figure of an angel nearly 16 feet high. Simple in design, the campanile stood out in sharp contrast with the famous belfry of Flor
The Loggetta at the foot of the campanile was built by the famous Jacopo Sansovino, and was the rendezvous for the nobles of the town. Sansovino adorned it with reliefs and with bronze statues of Minerva, Apollo, Mercury, and Peace. The bronze doors of the vestibule have long been regarded as masterpieces that deserve to rank by the side of the work of the great Italian sculptors. Like many another Italian structure, the Loggetta lost much of its old-time signifidegenerated into a waiting room for the comFrom a meeting-place for the nobles it the great council. Latterly it was used for aucmanders of the guards during the sessions of tions and lottery drawings.
staircase. It was ascended by a winding inclined The tower was peculiar in that it had no plane, having 38 bends and ending in a few steps. The tower was always open; but visitors were not allowed to enter alone. For that reason a single traveler was compelled to engage a bystander to accompany him.
From time immemorial a watchman was stationed in the lantern. In the days of the grand maritime Venetian republic it was from the tower that the watchman caught the first glimpse of home-coming war vessels. In modern times the watchman no longer scanned the horizon for vessels, but kept a lookout upon the city for fires.
The campanile served other purposes as well. It was also used for the purpose which its name signifies. According to some authorities, four
bells were hung in the olden days in the tower, to be sounded for different purposes. La marangola was sounded at dawn to call the laboring classes; la sestamezzana opened the official bureaus; la trotterar called the councils to duty; and the bell del malefizio tolled out the requiem for those who were to be put to death. A fifth bell was later brought from Candia, and tolled only on Ascension Day. In 1518 there hung halfway up the tower a wooden cage, in which prisoners were kept until they starved to death. Scientifically, the tower was of interest by reason of the fact that from it Galileo made many observations. On the morning of 14 July 1902, the campanile collapsed and fell with a great crash into the square. The church of St. Mark and the palace of the Doges were not hurt, but the campanile in falling carried away the Sansovino Loggetta and the library of the Royal Palace. Steps were taken at once to rebuild, and the corner-stone of the new edifice was laid on 24 April 1903. A study of the data provided by the examination of the remains of the fallen tower showed that the bricks had been used for various purposes at a previous stage, in arches, fortifications, tops of walls, etc. The most important fact was that they were not Venetian, but Roman bricks. Moreover, when they were manufactured, they were not manipulated like modern bricks, but formed from slices of clay, as they were found without the natural layers being disturbed. This process resulted in each individual brick being able to support a weight quite four times as great as the modern brick. The bricks examined are of the first century. One bore the impression of a horseshoe, proving the debated point that horseshoes were then in use.
Campanini, käm-pa-në'ne, Italo, Italian singer: b. Parma, 29 June 1846; d. 23 Nov. 1896. His father was a blacksmith. At 14 the boy enlisted in Garibaldi's army and served in two campaigns, after which he worked at his father's trade until the age of 18. Meanwhile, having shown that he possessed an excellent voice, he had taken singing lessons, and after spending a year at the Conservatory in Parma, he appeared in that city as the notary in 'La Sonnambula,' but suffered failure and ridicule. He still continued to sing in public, and in 1869 began to study under Lamperti, a celebrated teacher of Milan. In that city, at La Scala, he sang in 'Faust,' and immediately was acclaimed a great tenor. He appeared in London in 1872, and in the following year made his first visit to the United States, appearing with Nilsson at the Academy of Music, New York, in 'Lucrezia Borgia. Afterward, in this country and Europe, he sang with great success, and was regarded as the foremost tenor of his time. The partial failure of his voice, mainly through an affection of the throat, caused some interruption of his career, but scarcely diminished his popularity until near the close of his life.
Campan'ula, Bell Flower, or Bellwort, a genus of mostly annual, biennial, and perennial herbs of the natural order Campanulacea. The species, of which there are about 300, are almost all natives of the cooler parts of the northern temperate zone, and among them are some of the most widely grown garden plants which are popular on account of their bell-shaped blue, violet, or white flowers, and the ease with which
they can be cultivated. They do best in a rich, well-drained garden soil, and are readily propagated, the annual and biennial kinds from seeds, and the perennial either from seeds or by division or cuttings. All are hardy. A few species were formerly used in medicine, but are now considered inert. For a list of species and for details of cultivation consult Bailey and Miller, Cyclopædia of American Horticulture.'
Campanula ceæ, a natural order of herbaceous and shrubby plants, generally abounding in a bitter, white juice. Their leaves are alternate and entire, rarely opposite. Their flowers form spikes, thyrsi, or heads. They have a monosepalous calyx, with four, five, or eight persistent divisions, and a regular or irregular monopetalous bell-shaped corolla, having its limb divided into as many lobes as there are divisions in the calyx. The stamens are five in number, the anthers free, or brought together in the form of a tube. The ovary is inferior or semi-inferior, with two or more cells, each containing numerous seeds. The style is simple, terminated by a lobed stigma, sometimes surrounded by hairs. The fruit is a capsule crowned by the limb of the calyx, with two or more cells opening either by means of holes which are formed near the upper part, or by The seeds are very small incomplete valves. natives of the temperate and colder climates of and very numerous. These plants are chiefly the northern hemisphere.
Campanula'rians, Or Sertula'rians, hydroids of the order Campanularia. They are always colonial and possess hydrothecæ, and in most cases give rise to a medusa, with auditory organs on the flaps. The ectoderm is protected by a horny or chitinous sheath (perisarc) enveloping the zooids. The hydroids retract, when disturbed, into small cells (hydrothecæ), arranged in opposite rows on the stalk as in Sertularia, or singly at the ends of the stalks, as in Campanularia, while the sheaths (gonothecæ) protecting the medusa-buds are distinguished by their much larger size and cupshaped form. The Sertularians abound on seaweeds, and may be recognized from their resemblance to mosses. The meduse of these and many other hydroids can be collected by a towing-net, and emptied into a jar, where they can be detected by the naked eye after a little practice. It is possible that the extinct paleozoic group, Graptolites, belong near the Campanularians, as they have a similar perisare composed of cells (hydrothecæ). Consult: A. Agassiz, North American Acalephæ (Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, No. 2, Cambridge 1865); E. C. and A. Agassiz, Seaside Studies in Natural History (Boston 1871); Nutting, American Hydroids' (Special Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum': Washington 1900), contains a full bibliography.
Campardon, Emile, a-mēl kän-pär-dôn, French writer: b. Paris, 1834. He was educated at the Ecole des Chartes, and then had charge of the archives there. In this position he had opportunity to examine the documents relating to the 18th century and the period of the French Revolution. He has written: History of the Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris' (1861); Marie Antoinette at the Conciergerie) (1862);
Madame Pompadour and the Court of Louis XV. (1867); Unpublished Documents of J. B. Poquelin Molière'; Voltaire, Unpublished Documents'; 'The Royal Academy of Music in the 18th Century); and Memoirs of Frederic II., King of Prussia' (with E. Boutaric).
Campbell, kǎm'bël, Alexander, American clergyman: b. near Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Sept. 1788; d. Bethany, W. Va., 4 March 1866. He emigrated to the United States in 1807. He was originally a Presbyterian, but withdrew from that Church in 1812, and received baptism by immersion the same year. In connection with his father, Thomas Campbell, he formed several congregations, which united with a Baptist association, but protested against all human creeds as a bond of union, accepting the Bible alone as the rule of faith and practice. He met with much opposition in the assertion of this principle, and in 1827 was excluded from the fellowship of the Baptist churches. Certain vaguely defined expressions in his writings have been interpreted as implying a belief in baptismal regeneration, a doctrine which the Disciples repudiate. By his discussions on public platforms, and his serial publications, the 'Christian Baptist,' and the Millennial Harbinger,' as well as by his assiduity in preaching tours and in training young men for the ministry, Campbell gradually formed a large party of followers, who began about 1827 to form themselves into a sect under the designation of "The Disciples of Christ" (q.v.), but who are most commonly known as Campbellites. 1841 Campbell founded Bethany College in West Virginia (q.v.). His writings were numerous, and among them are The Christian System'; and Remission of Sin.' Consult: Richardson, 'Memoir of Alexander Campbell (1868).
Campbell, Alexander, American politician: b. Concord, Pa., 4 Oct. 1814; d. La Salle, Ill., 9 Aug. 1898. He received a common-school education and entered the iron business, removing to Illinois and attaining prominence in local politics. He was mayor of La Salle, Ill., in 1852, a member of the Illinois legislature in 1858 and a member of Congress in 1875. He was widely known as the "father of the Greenback party."
Campbell, SIR Alexander, Canadian statesman: b. Yorkshire, England, March 1822; d. Toronto, 24 May 1892. He began the practice of law in 1843, and in 1856 became queen's counsel. In 1858 he entered the legislative council, and in 1862 was elected speaker. In 1864-7 he was commissioner of Crown Lands. He was a member of the Quebec Conference in 1864, received an appointment to the Dominion senate (1867), where he was the government leader; became a member of the Queen's Privy Council in 1897, and was postmaster-general in Sir John Macdonald's first federal cabinet. In 1873 he became minister of the interior. With the other
cabinet officers, he resigned in the same year, because of the Pacific Railroad scandal. On the return of Macdonald to power, he was minister of militia and defense and again postmastergeneral. In 1881 he was minister of justice, and in 1887 lieutenant-governor of Ontario. In politics he was a Conservative, and represented Canada in the imperial federation conference held at London in 1887.
Campbell, Allan, American civil engineer: b. Albany, N. Y., 1815; d. New York, 18 March 1894. He laid out the route of the New York and Harlem R.R.; built a railroad from Callao to Lima, Peru (1855); was appointed engineer of the harbor defenses of New York in the early part of the Civil War; was chief engineer in the construction of the Union P. R.R. He superintended the Harlem R.R. improvement, and became commissioner of public works in New York (1876).
MARQUIS OF ARGYLE): b. 1598; d. 1661. He was Campbell, Archibald (8th EARL and Ist a zealous partisan of the Covenanters. Charles I. created him a marquis in 1641, notwithstanding the opposition he had shown to his favorite object of effecting a conformity between the churches of Scotland and England. It was by his persuasion that Charles II. visited Scotland, At the . and was crowned at Scone in 1651. Restoration he was confined in the Tower for five months, and was then sent to Scotland, where he was tried for high treason in connection with the death of Charles I., and beheaded.
Campbell, Archibald (9th EARL OF ARGYLE): d. 30 June 1685. He was the son of the 8th Earl of Argyle, and served the king with great bravery at the battle of Dunbar, and was excluded from the general pardon by Cromwell in 1654, for his exertions in favor of the royal cause. He was afterward made a privy-councilor and one of the lords of the treasury. For refusal to take contradictory oaths, he was tried for treason, and condemned to death, but escaped to Holland, whence he returned with several other disaffected persons, and landed in the Highlands, with a view of aiding the insurrection of the Duke of Monmouth. The plan, however, failed; and he was taken by some country people, who conveyed him to Edinburgh, where he
Campbell, Bartley, American dramatist: b. Allegheny City, Pa., 12 Aug. 1843; d. Middletown, N. Y., 30 July 1888. He engaged in journalism early in his career and established the Evening Mail in Pittsburg (1868) and the Southern Magazine' in New Orleans (1869). His first drama that met with success in New York was My Partner,' appearing in 1879. 'Fairfax, or Life in the Sunny South, and 'The Galley Slave,' were on the metropolitan boards during the same season. Included in his plays are: Matrimony); The White Slave'; 'Siberia'; and Paquita.' Several of his plays were brought out in England.
Campbell, Beatrice Stella Tanner (MRS. PATRICK CAMPBELL), English actress: b. London, 1867; married in 1884 Patrick Campbell, killed in 1900 in the Boer war. Her first appearance on the professional stage was made in 1888 at the Alexandra Theatre in Liverpool. She has been particularly successful in such plays as 'The Second Mrs. Tanqueray, Johna-Dreams, and The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith. She has also appeared in such Shakespearean roles as Juliet, Ophelia, and Lady Macbeth. She has frequently visited the United States, playing in most of the leading cities.
Campbell, Charles, American historian: b. Petersburg, Va., 1 May 1807; d. Staunton, Va., II July 1876. His life was mainly spent in teaching in his native city. Among his publica
tions are: The Bland Papers (1840-3); An Introduction to the History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia' (1849); Genealogy of the Spotswood Family) (1868). He belonged to the Historical Society of Virginia; was a contributor of the 'Historical Register) and the Southern Literary Messenger); and editor of the Orderly Book of Gen. Andrew Lewis in 1776 (1860).
Campbell, SIR Colin (LORD CLYDE), general: b. Glasgow, 20 Oct. 1792; d. 14 Aug. 1863. His father was a carpenter, named Macliver, but the son assumed the name of Campbell. Entering the army in 1808, and serving in the Peninsular war (1809-14), he was severely wounded at the siege of San Sebastian and the passage of the Bidassoa. He took part in the expedition to the United States (1814), and then passed nearly 30 years in garrison duty at Gibraltar, Barbados, Demerara, and various places in England, in 1837 becoming lieutenant-colonel of the 98th foot. He served in India previous to the Crimean war, on the outbreak of which, in 1854, he was appointed to the command of the Highland brigade. The victory of the Alma was mainly his; and his, too, the splendid repulse of the Russians by the "thin red line" in the battle of Balaklava. When, on 11 July 1857, the news reached England of the Sepoy mutiny, Lord Palmerston offered him the command of the forces in India. He effected the final relief of Lucknow, and on 20 Dec. 1858, having five months earlier been created announced to the viceroy that the rebellion was Baron Clyde, ended. Returning next year to England, he was made a field-marshal, and received an annuity of £2,000.
Campbell, Colin, Scottish clergyman: b. Campbelltown, Argylshire, 1848. He was educated at the universities of Edinburgh and Heidelberg, entered the ministry of the Established Kirk of Scotland, and has been minister of the parish of Dundee from 1882. He preached nearly every year from 1883 to 1900 before Queen Victoria at Balmoral Castle and Craithie Parish Church, and has published The First Three Gospels in Greek'; 'Critical Studies in St. Luke's Gospel (1891).
Campbell, Lady Colin, English writer. She is a daughter of Edmond Blood of County Clare, Ireland, and was married to Lord Colin Campbell, youngest son of the 8th Duke of Argyle. She became a widow in 1895. Besides many contributions to journalism, she has published 'Darell Blake'; A Book of the Running Brook'; A Miracle in Rabbits.'
Campbell, Douglas, American lawyer and writer, son of W. W. Campbell (q.v.): b. Cooperstown, N. Y., 13 July 1840; d. Schenectady, N. Y., 7 March 1893. He practised law in New York (1865-90), but devoted his latest years to historical research. He was the author of The Puritan in Holland, England, and America (1892), which has been widely read.
Campbell, Douglas Houghton, American educator: b. Detroit, Mich., 16 Dec. 1859. He was graduated at the University of Michigan in 1882, and then studied in Europe for four years. Returning he was professor of botany in the University of Indiana till 1891, when he was called to the similar chair in Stanford University. He is author of 'Elements of Structural and Systematic Botany'; 'Structure and
Development of Mosses and Ferns'; and 'Lectures on Evolution of Plants.
Aberdeen, 25 Dec. 1719; d. 6 April 1796. He Campbell, George, Scottish clergyman: b. burgh. In 1741 he relinquished the law and was educated at Marischal College, and afterstudied divinity. In 1759 he was appointed prinward articled to a writer of the signet at Edinlished his celebrated 'Dissertation on Miracles,' in answer to Hume's essay. cipal of Marischal College. In 1763 he pubchosen professor of divinity, and in 1776 gave to the world his Philosophy of Rhetoric,' which In 1771 he was established his reputation as a grammarian and critic.
Campbell, SIR George, English statesman: b. 1824; d. London, 18 Feb. 1892. He was edudian government, serving several terms in Parcated at Haileyburg for the East Indian service and held several important posts under the Inliament also. He published: 'Modern India' of the Eastern Question (1876); White and Black in the United States'; 'The British (1852); India as It May Be'; 'Handy Book Empire' (1889).
Margaretting, Essex, England. Campbell, Harry, English physician: b. medicine at Saint Bartholomew's Hospital College and was appointed to the staff of NorthHe studied west London Hospital, 1886, and that of Welbeck Street Hospital, 1896. He has published: The Physiology of Eyesight' (1885); The Morbid Blushing (1890); Differences in the Causation of Disease (1889); Flushing and Nervous Organization of Man and Woman' Sensations) (1894); Respiratory Exercises in (1891); Headache and Other Morbid Cephalic the Treatment of Disease) (1898).
b. Lockport, N. Y., 4 July 1839. She was eduCampbell, Helen Stuart, American author. cated at Mrs. Cook's Seminary, Bloomfield, N. J., 1850-8, and very early began contributing Our Continent) (Philadelphia). Her especial to periodicals. From 1881 to 1884 she edited interest has been in social and domestic questions, such as the condition of the poor, household management, etc., and her writings for the trating these topics. Chief among them are: most part consists of essays and stories illusThe Ainslee Series) (1864-7); Šix Sinners' (1878); Unto the Third and Fourth Generation' (1880); Under Green Apple Boughs' Cooking) (1881); The Problem of the Poor (1881); The Easiest Way in Housekeeping and (1882); Mrs. Herndon's Income: a Novel'
(1885); Prisoners of Poverty) (1887); PrisBerkeley's Probation (1891); Anne Bradoners of Poverty Abroad' Earners' (1893); In Foreign Kitchens' (1894); (1889); Roger street and Her Time) (1892); Women WageScarborough) (1893); Ballantyne: a Novel 'Some Passages in the Practice of Dr. Martha (1901).
tist: b. Lexington, Va., 29 July 1862. He was
tician: b. Middletown, Ohio, 7 July 1843. After
bar. During the Civil War he served for a time in the navy and was with the Mississippi and Red River flotillas. He was a Democratic member of Congress, 1883-9; governor of Ohio, 1890-2. He was defeated for re-election by William McKinley, afterward President of the United States. In 1895 he was again a candidate, but was defeated by A. S. Bushnell. His home is at Hamilton, Ohio, where he has a successful law practice.
Campbell, James M., Scottish-American clergyman: b. Scotland, 5 May 1840. He received his education at the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow and in 1874 came to the United States. He has lectured much on religious themes and has published: Unto the Uttermost) (1889); The Indwelling Christ' (1895); After Pentecost, What?? (1897); The Teachings of the Books (1899); Clerical Types' (1900); 'Bible Questions' (1900).
Campbell, James Valentine, American jurist: b. Buffalo, N. Y., 25 Feb. 1823; d. Detroit, Mich., 26 March 1890. When three years old he accompanied his parents to Detroit. He graduated at St. Paul's College, L. I., in 1841 was admitted to the Detroit bar, 1844; practised with success until 1857. He was then elected a judge of the supreme court of Michigan, re-elected at every succeeding election, and was chosen chief justice for nine terms in succession. From 1859 he lectured for 20 years in the law department of the University of Michigan. Much of his leisure was devoted to literary and historical studies, especially the history of Michigan and the northwest territory, Until 1854 he was a Whig, but thereafter acted chiefly with the Republicans. He wrote Outlines of the Political History of Michigan' (1876).
Campbell, John, American editor: b. Scotland, 1653; d. 4 March 1728. He was one of a family or kin of Boston booksellers and public officials whose relationships are not determinable, but which included John, in the middle of the 17th century, Duncan, postmaster of Boston from 1694 on, and John (above), who was appointed postmaster-probably succeeding Duncan-in the latter part of 1702. There seems to have been a Thomas also about this time. The later John as postmaster was the news centre of the New England provinces; and in 1703 was writing "news letters" of European news to Gov. Winthrop of Connecticut, and perhaps other governors, made up of information received from arriving travelers, etc., with inferences as to New England policy. In 1704 he concluded to make these public and for sale; and on 24 April issued the first newspaper in America, the Boston News Letter (q.v.), which he edited till 1722. In 1719 he was deprived of the postmastership. He was justice of the peace for Suffolk County for some years.
Campbell, John (2d DUKE OF ARGYLE and DUKE OF GREENWICH), British general and statesman: b. Scotland, 1678; d. 1743. In 1706 he served under the Duke of Marlborough, and was a brigadier-general at the battle of Ramilies. He was a promoter of the union, for which he incurred considerable odium in his own country. He commanded at the battles of Oudenarde and Malplaquet, and assisted at the sieges of Lisle and Ghent. For these ser
vices he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1710, and the year following was sent as ambassador to Charles III. of Spain. He was also appointed commander-in-chief of the English forces there. In 1712 he had the military command in Scotland, of which post he was soon after deprived for opposing the court measures; but on the accession of George I. he was restored, and received additional honors. In 1715 he engaged the Earl of Mar's army at Dunblane, and forced the Pretender to quit the kingdom. In 1718 he was created an English peer with the title of Duke of Greenwich. He filled successively several high offices, of which he was deprived for his opposition to Sir Robert Walpole, but on the removal of that minister he was buried, is a noble monument to his memhe was replaced. In Westminster Abbey, where ory.
Campbell, John, British historian: b. Edinburgh, 8 March 1708; d. 28 Dec. 1775. His writings before 1742 were published anonymously. From 1755 to the close of his life he was agent of the British government for the province of Georgia. Among his works are: A Concise History of Spanish America) (1741); 'Lives of the English Admirals (1744); A Survey of the Present State of Europe (1750); and Trade of Great Britain to America (1772).
Campbell, John (BARON), lord high chancellor of England: b. Springfield, near Cupar, county of Fife, Scotland, 15 Sept. 1779; d. 23 June 1861. He was educated at the grammar school of Cupar, and at 12 entered the University of St. Andrews (1791) for the purpose of studying for the Church. After remaining, however, for the clerical profession, and determined to try some years at college, he resolved to abandon his fortune in London. In 1798 he quitted his native country for the metropolis, where he became reporter and theatrical critic on the Morning Chronicle. In November 1800 he entered as a student of Lincoln's Inn, and in 1806 was called to the bar. He traveled the Oxford circuit, and obtained considerable practice. In 1830 he was elected member of Parliament for Stafford, and in 1832 was appointed solicitorgeneral. In 1834, on the retirement of Sir William Horne, he became attorney-general, and the same year was elected one of the members of Parliament for the city of Edinburgh, serving till 1841, when he was created chancellor of Ireland, and raised to the peerage as Baron Campbell of St. Andrews. He had scarcely, however, assumed his official duties in Ireland when he quitted office with the Melbourne ministry; and having now more leisure worked on his Lives of the Chancellors, the first series of which of Lord John Russell to power in that year Lord was published early in 1846. On the accession Campbell accepted the chancellorship of the Duchy of Lancaster, but still continued his literary labors, completing, in seven volumes, his Lives of the Chancellors,' and adding two other supplemental volumes, entitled 'Lives of the Chief Justices of England.' In 1850, on the retirement of Lord Denman, he was appointed chief justice; in 1859, on Lord Palmerston's resumption of the premiership, Lord Campbell reached the highest legal dignity in the British empire, being raised to the woolsack as lord high chancellor.