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incessantly on Arminian, Socinian, Reformed, and Roman Catholic doctrines, and with the greatest bitterness against Calixtus. He was six times married, the last time in his 72d year. His chief writings are: System of Theological Locations'; 'History of Syncretism'.

Caloy'ers, (kaλós, "beautiful," "good"; and yépwv, "an old man"), Greek monks belonging with a few exceptions to the order of St. Basil, who led a very austere life, eating no meat and observing the fasts of the Greek Church very rigidly. They do not even eat bread unless they have earned it. During their seven weeks of Lent they pass the greatest part of the night in weeping and lamentations for their own sins and for those of others. The caloyers of the Greek Church occupy a position of much greater importance than the members of the religious fraternities of the Church of Rome, inasmuch as all the higher Church dignitaries bishops, archbishops, and patriarchs are chosen from their number. They are, indeed, the only individuals in the Greek Church who are instructed in theology, and even among them the amount of theological learning is very limited. They are commonly educated at the monasteries on Mount Athos, and on the Isle of Patmos, but besides these there are many monasteries dispersed over the archipelago and the Morea, and a few elsewhere belonging to this class of monks. Their most celebrated monastery in Asia is at Mount Sinai. They do not all agree as to their mode of life. Some of them are cenobites; that is, they live in common. Others are anchorites, living alone, or with only one or two companions; and others again are recluses, who live in grottoes or caverns in the greatest retirement, and are supported by alms supplied to them by the monasteries. There are also convents of female caloyers. The Turks sometimes call their dervishes by this


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smooth, flowing, and melodious, but lacking in simplicity and naturalness.

Caltanissetta, käl-ta-nē-sět'ta, Sicily, capital of the province of the same name, on the right bank of the Salso, 62 miles southeast of Palermo. It is fortified, and has a citadel and cathedral, broad streets, and well-built houses. In the vicinity, at Terra Pilata, are springs of petroleum and of hydrogen gas, a mud-volcano, and important sulphur mines, producing annually about 5,500 tons. Caltanissetta owes its origin to the Saracens, by whom it was called Kalat al Nisa ("the lady's castle"). Pop. (1901) 44,600. The province of the same name has an area of 1,445 square miles. Pop. 330,972.

Caltha, the genus of ranunculaceous plants belongs. See CowSLIP. to which the marsh-marigold (C. palustris)

Cal'throp, Samuel Robert, American Unitarian clergyman: b. Swineshead Abbey, Lincolnshire, England, 7 Oct. 1829. He was educated at Cambridge University and came to the United States in 1853. He entered the Unitarian ministry in 1860 and has been pastor of a church in Syracuse, N. Y., for several years. He has published Essay on Religion and Science'; The Rights of the Body'; The Primitive Gospel and Its Life of Jesus.'

Calton Hill, a hill in the city of Edinburgh at the eastern end of Princes Street. It is rocky, and has a broad, grassy summit, which commands a view of the Forth and the surrounding country. On the hill are monuments in memory of Dugald Stewart and Lord Nelson, and one in commemoration of the victory at Waterloo.

Caltonica, Sicily, a town in the province of Girgenti, situated 15 miles northwest of the town of Girgenti. The sulphur works in the neighborhood produce annually upward of 1,000 tons of sulphur. Salt is also manufactured in the district. Pop. 7,000.

Caltrop, a kind of thistle growing in southern Europe. It is armed with prickles, which, if trodden on by men or animals, are capable of wounding. Hence in the military art the name of caltrop is given to an instrument with four iron points disposed in a triangular form, three of them being turned to the ground, and the other pointing upward. They are used to impede the progress of cavalry.

Calumba, or Colombo, the root of the Cocculus palmatus, a herbaceous plant, belonging to the natural order Menispermacea, which grows in Ceylon in the neighborhood of Colombo, whence it is said to derive its name. It is imported in the form of round slices or cut pieces, the interior of which is of a greenish-yellow color, while its thick and furrowed skin is greenish-brown; its odor is slightly aromatic, but somewhat nauseous; its taste extremely bitter. Calumba is often administered as a tonic, and is considered an excellent stomachic. It is regarded as of great value in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery; but it is necessary that all symptoms of inflammation should have disappeared before it can be used. It is usually given as a decoction, less commonly in the form of pills or powders. The root of a gentian, the Frasera Walteri, is sometimes substituted for the true calumba, and is


hence frequently called the false calumba. It is not very bitter, and is almost without smell; it has no very marked effects.

Calumet, Mich., a township in Houghton County, at the terminus of the Mineral Range R.R., 42 miles north of L'Anse. It is the seat of the famous Calumet and Hecla copper mine, the richest in the world, producing nearly 50,000 tons a year. It is the trade and supply centre of the Superior mining district, and has a national bank, several weekly newspapers, manufactories, and an assessed property valuation of over $26,000,000. Pop. (1900) 25,991.

Calumet, the pipe of peace, a tobacco-pipe used by the North American Indians. On ceremonial occasions, as when Indian chiefs and warriors meet in peace, or at the close of a war with those of another nation, in their talks and treaties with the whites, or even when a single person of distinction comes among them,

the calumet is handed round with ceremonies peculiar to each tribe, and each member of the company draws a few whiffs. To accept the calumet is to agree to the terms proposed; to refuse it is to reject them. Some symbols of amity are found among all nations; the white flag or flag of truce of the moderns, and the olive branch of the ancients are similar in character to the Indian calumet. There is also, it appears, a calumet used in the ceremonial declaration of war, and differently made from that of peace. Tobacco is smoked in the calumet, and the leaves of various other kinds of plants. The bowl of this pipe is made of different kinds of soft stone, especially a kind of red soapstone, and the stem of a reed, or of some light kind of wood which is easily perforated. This stem is adorned in various ways; sometimes it is marked with the figures of animals and hieroglyphical delineations, and almost universally has beautiful feathers attached to it, disposed according to the taste of the individual, or of the tribe to which he belongs.

Calumpit, Philippines, a town of the province of Bulacan, situated in the southwestern part of the island of Luzon on the Pampanga River. It is about 27 miles northwest of Manila, with which it is connected by rail. Pop. about 15,000.

Calvados, käl-vä-dos, France, a department in Normandy, bounded on the north by the English Channel, east by the department Eure, south by Orne and La Manche, and west by La Manche. Area, 2,145 square miles. It comprises the ancient Auge, Bessin, and part of Lieuvin. The region is undulating and picturesque, and possesses rich pastures. The principal rivers are the Touques, Dives, Orne, and Vire, which are navigable for small vessels. Agriculture is in a more advanced state than in many other parts of France. Dairies are numerous and well managed, and large herds of cattle are brought in from the departments of Finisterre, Côtes-du-Nord, etc., to be fattened on the pastures for the markets of Paris, Rouen, and Caen. Horses of the Norman breed are extensively reared and held in high estimation. The principal manufactures are linen and lace. The latter, near Caen and Bayeux, employs about 50,000 hands. About 25,000,000 of oysters, procured in the roads of

Cancale, are annually laid down in beds at the mouth of the Seulles. The department is divided into six arrondissements, containing 37 cantons. Chief town, Caen. Pop. (1901) 407,639.

Calvados, a dangerous ridge of rocks on the northern coast of Normandy in lat. 49° 22′ N., and extending to the west of Orne for the space of 10 or 12 miles. It is so called from a vessel belonging to the Spanish Armada which was wrecked on it, and gives its name to the department.

Calvaert, käl'värt, Dionys (called in Italy DIONISIO FLAMMINGO), Flemish painter: b. Antwerp, 1555; d. Bologna, Italy, 17 March 1619. He went very young to Italy as a landscape painter, where, in order to learn how to draw figures, he entered the school of Fontana and Sabbatini, in Bologna, with the latter of whom he visited Rome. After having passed some time in copying the paintings of Raphael, he opened a school at Bologna, from which proceeded 137 masters, and among these Albano, Guido, and Domenichino. The Bolognese regarded him as one of the restorers of their school, particularly in respect to coloring. Calvaert understood perspective, anatomy, and architecture; but the attitudes of his figures are sometimes mean and exaggerated. best paintings are to be seen at Bologna.


Calvary, the English name for the eminence which was the scene of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. It lay beyond but near Jerusalem, and by some is identified with the old House of Stoning, or place of public execution, according to the law of Moses, on the top of the remarkable knoll outside the Damascus gate, on the north side of Jerusalem. It was from this cliff that the criminal used to be flung before being stoned (according to the Talmud), and on it his body was afterward crucified; for the spot commands a view all over the city, and from the slopes round it the whole population might easily witness the execution.

Calvé, käl'vā, Emma, French opera singer: b. Madrid, Spain, 1864. Her real name is Emma de Roquer. She was born of a French mother and Spanish father, and was educated in a convent school in the south of France. She made her début at Brussels in Gounod's Faust. She has made successful tours of the United States in leading roles, her first appearance in New York being on 29 Nov. 1893.

Calverley, kǎl'ver lĩ, Charles, American sculptor: b. Albany, N. Y., 1 Nov. 1833. He has won distinction with groups and figures and portrait busts of Greeley, Cooper, Howe, He was elected to the National Academy of Design in 1875.


Calverley, Charles Stuart, English poet, son of the Rev. Henry Blayds: b. Martley, Worcestershire, 22 Dec. 1831; d. London, 17 Feb. 1884. In 1852 his father dropped the name of Blayds and resumed that of Calverley, formerly borne by his family. He was educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, and during his college career showed great skill in Latin and Greek composition, and in 1856 was second in the classical tripos. As a writer of humorous English verse he also made himself famous.


He afterward studied for the bar, and was called in 1865, but his promising legal career was cut short by a serious accident which befell him on the ice in the winter of 1866-7. The effects of this misfortune clouded the whole of the remainder of his life. As a parodist and writer of light verses Calverley is perhaps unequaled, but his published volumes are not numerous. The earliest of them appeared in 1862 under the title of 'Verses and Translations'; and the others are Translations into English and Latin' (1866); Theocritus Translated into English Verse (1869); and Fly Leaves' (1872). A Memoir and Literary Remains' were published in 1885 by Sendall.

Cal'vert, George. See BALTIMORE FAMILY. Calvert, George Henry, American writer: b. Baltimore, Md., 2 Jan. 1803; d. Newport, R. I., 24 May 1889. He was a great-grandson of Lord Baltimore. After graduating at Harvard in 1823, he studied in Germany; then returning to Baltimore, became editor of the American) and a contributor to various periodicals. His published books include 'Poems' (1847); Joan of Arc' (1860); 'Goethe, his Life and Works' (1872); Brief Essays and Brevities' (1874), and "Wordsworth: a Biographic Esthetic Study (1875); Three Score and Other Poems' (1883).

Calvert, Leonard. See BALTIMORE FAMILY. Calvi, Lazzaro and Pantaleone, lätz-ä'rō and pan-tä-la-o'ne käl'vē, Genoese painters, sons of Agostino Calvi: the former b. 1502; d. 1606; the latter died 1595. They painted in concert many pictures in Genoa, Monaco, and Naples. In particular, the façade of the Palazzo Doria (now Spinola), a spirited composition crowded with figures, is highly extolled. Lazzaro was the more inventive genius of the two, his brother generally working out the details of their joint productions.

Calvin (Modified from the French form Cauvin or Caulvin), John. Swiss reformer of the 16th century. B. Noyon, Picardie, 10 July, 1509 d. Geneva, Switzerland, 27 May, 1564. Though born in humble condition, his father, by virtue of certain official relations that he sustained to the ecclesiastical court and diocese of Noyon was able by personal influence to further the interests of his family. Calvin's mother was distinguished alike by personal beauty and piety. Even as a lad Calvin was deficient in physical vigor, but gave early tokens of more than ordinary intellectual powers, a circumstance that attracted to him the regards of a noble family at Noyon who received him under their care and gave to him the same opportunities of schooling as were enjoyed by their own children (1523). It was his father's original intention to fit him for the priesthood and in pursuance of that object he was sent to the Collége de la Marche at Paris; then to the Collége Montaigu where he was trained in logic by a learned Spaniard who afterward directed the education of Ignatius Loyola while a student at the same school. He easily stood in the front rank of his fellow-students but was little disposed to affiliate with them and from a certain unsocial severity of bearing acquired among them the nickname of the "Accusative Case.»

He was already 18 and had done some preaching when from motives of ambition his father changed his plans with reference to him and determined to have him prepared for the profession of the law, putting him for that purpose under instruction at Orléans (1528) and Bourges (1530), where he applied himself to his studies with the same assiduity evinced at Paris, and attained immediate distinction though at the expense of impaired health. Without confining himself strictly to the curriculum of the school he devoted himself at the same time to the study of Greek under the German Professor Wolmar, whose Protestant views strengthened the bias toward the new faith already existing in his pupil's mind, for his attention had previously been drawn to the careful study of the Scriptures by his kinsman Olivetan, the first Protestant translator of the Bible into French. When Calvin was 22 his father died, whereupon the young man gave up his law studies and returned to Paris and theology, issuing soon after his first publication,

an annotated edition of Seneca's "De Clementia.»

Up to this point it is safe to presume that his interests and ambitions were purely those of a had in regard to the need of reform in the humanist, and whatever thought he may have matters of church doctrine and discipline, he doubtless felt with Erasmus and Reuchlin that all the reforms that might be required would come about as the result of completer knowledge.


It was not long after this that he experienced what he calls his "sudden conversion." writes: "After my heart had long been prepared by the most earnest self-examination, on a sudden the full knowledge of the truth, like a bright light, disclosed to me the abyss of errors in which I was weltering, the sin and shame with which I was defiled." His experience is near of kin to that of Luther, and we are set thinking also of the "great light" that shone upon Saul as he was nearing Damascus. Yet with all the profound disclosure thus made to him, he still felt no special call to the work of preaching the reformed doctrine, and sought only for the undisturbed retirement that would permit him farther prosecution of his studies.

His friend Nicholas Cop had been elected to the rectorship of the University of Paris and at his request Calvin prepared for him an inaugural address which was substantially a defence of the reformed doctrine (1533). To the Sorbonnists this was intolerable, and Calvin was obliged to escape to Basel, where in 1536, at the age of 26, he published his "Institutes." This remarkable work was intended to be a vindication of the Protestant doctrine, and its dedication to the reigning King, Francis I, sought to create royal sympathy for the cause and for its persecuted adherents. It has been claimed that no other work, written at so early an age, has produced such a marked influence upon the opinions and practices both of contemporaries and posterity. Although the book as then composed was but the germ of what it was subsequently developed into, yet the line initially laid down in it Calvin never swerved from. By his Catholic opponents his work was styled the "Koran of the heretics."

From Basel he made a secret visit to his old home in Picardie, returning by way of Geneva, where he arrived on the 5th of August, 1536. Here it had been his intention to remain but a single night. The situation, political and religious, which he there confronted, however, vetoed his plans and really determined his entire subsequent career. That situation briefly outlined is as follows: The Duke of Savoy, unable to secure the submission of Geneva, had by the aid of Pope Leo X forced upon the city the reluctant acceptance of John, the Bastard of Savoy, as bishop, it being stipulated that the civil administration of the city should be vested in the Duke. The Genevese revolted under the lead of Berthelier and Bonnivard, but were defeated, Berthelier was executed and Bonnivard became the Prisoner of Chillon' (1530-1536). Defeat did not however extinguish the spirit of revolt. Of the two parties into which the Genevese were divided the Confederates ("Eidgenossen," a word from which perhaps comes the word Huguenot) looked for relief to the Swiss and the Mamelukes favored supporting the Duke. The Confederates prevailed, the Duke was worsted and all power both military and civil passed into the hands of the people. This was in 1533.

To this civil overturning succeeded an ecclesiastical revolution. Protestant tendencies had established themselves in Bern, and from there had extended themselves to Geneva. The struggle in the latter place was a severe one, but Protestantism gained ground till under the leadership of Farel and with the assistance of Bern an ecclesiastical reconstruction was effected, the Bishop driven out, Protestantism established, and Geneva left independent. This meant not only a new form of doctrine and mode of worship, but a reformed system of morals, and thereby a strain put upon the large profligate element of the population that soon worked a reaction strenuously encouraged by the Savoyards and the Romish priests. The entire city was in this way wrought into a condition of tumultous faction, and it was just in the midst of this warring of civil, moral and ecclesiastical elements that Calvin arrived at Geneva as already stated, and took lodgings for the night with the distinct intention of going on to Basel the next day. Farel who was in charge of the Protestant movement accidently learned of Calvin's presence in the city, got into communication with him, and in an interview graphically described by Calvin in the preface to his "Commentary on the Psalms" (a work especially rich in autobiographical references), entreated him to remain and help work out the problem of Protestantism in Geneva, denouncing upon him the curse of God if he refused. Calvin was awe-stricken by what seemed to him the prophetic deliverance of Farel and yielded to his Elijah-like expostulation, so that the dictum is well justified that "Farel gave Geneva to the reformation and Calvin to Geneva.»

He prefaced his work in Geneva by introducing and setting in operation a system of stringent regulations relative to doctrine, discipline and daily conduct. Amusements like dancing and card-plaving were punishable offences, not because in his judgment inherently wrong, but because so abused that the only safe course was to prohibit them altogether. The stringency of

this policy excited a revolt led by the Libertines, so styled, and participated in even by many of the same "Eidgenossen" that had helped wrest Geneva from the grasp of the Duke. The opposition culminated in an act of Council expelling Calvin and Farel from the city (1538), the latter going to Neufchâtel, and Calvin to Strasburg, where, with a sense of relief, he thought to find himself free to gratify his tastes and resume his studies. Here again, however, as at Geneva, he was stirred by an intimidating call and applied himself to the work of ministering to the French refugees there gathered. It was during his stay in Strasburg that he married a lady of admirable character, with whom he lived in relations of tender attachment till her death nine years later, their only child, a son, dying in early infancy.

In Geneva, in the meantime, matters had been going from bad to worse, till by the united voice of government and people Calvin was recalled. Crime and vice had become rampant. Catholics were scheming for the restoration of the old faith. Cardinal Sordelet had addressed to the people a flattering and cajoling letter calculated to win them back to the Papal Church. To that letter Calvin while still in Strasburg had published a reply both sagacious and masterly. Bern was suspected of having ambitious political designs on the city. The local government was too weak to maintain itself amid such a storm of conflicting elements and so after three years the people turned again helplessly to the man they had exiled. He fought against the overtures tendered him but was overborne by their earn. estness and unanimity and came back to Geneva to make there his life-long home (1541).

Calvin entered at once upon his office of administrative head of the city considered in both its ecclesiastical and civic character. Though combining the two in his own person he was no Erastian, and Church and State stood to him as theoretically distinct, and yet contributing, each, to the interests of the other, the Church infusing its spirit into the State and the State in turn furnishing authoritative support to the Church. Civil authority which had previously been widely distributed he made more oligarchic and vested it primarily in what was known as the Little Council of twenty-five. The code devised for the city bears everywhere the marks of Calvin's authorship. For this his legal training especially qualified him. Larger and smaller matters alike came under his purview. Like the English Alfred the Genevese legislator braced his system of enactments by a liberal infusion of the Mosaic letter and spirit. Ecclesiastical discipline was delegated to the Consistory composed at first of 18 members, 6 clerical and 12 lay, with Calvin as its president. The city was divided into districts or parishes and a system of vigilance so thoroughly organized that every family was at least once a year visited by responsible parties for purposes of censure, counsel or relief. Although introducing his administration with measure of moderation its animus soon evinced itself in a way that made evident to the lawless and vicious classes what it was they had to contend with, and a wide-reaching opposition began immediately to organize itself. This opposition included the Libertines and the "Patriots," which latter class bitterly opposed


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the close aristocratic lines with which the previous popular government had been placed, and regarded with jealousy the foreigners that in great numbers were coming to make their home at Geneva. The enmity toward him and his administration was still farther fomented by the irrational and merciless severity shown in the punishment of small offences, such as the beheading of a child for striking its mother, the committal of heretics to the flames, the eliciting of testimony by torture. His rule was one of terror and he was both feared and hated. Mobs attempted to intimidate him. Dogs in the street were named after him. To antagonize Calvin was a crime, as Castellio found to his cost, and to speak disrespectfully of predestination, as did Bolsec, a felony. But cases like these two are quite eclipsed by the instance of Servetus.

Servetus was a Spaniard, a scholar of independent thought, who convinced himself of the groundlessness of papal claims, but without cordially accepting the theology of Protestantism. In 1531 he published a book entitled "The Errors of the Trinity." Irritated by Calvin's treatment of him and his speculations he retorted upon him and the reformed doctrine flatly and acrimoniously. Though out of sympathy with the Roman Catholic Church Servetus continued for twenty years in outward conformity with its doctrine and discipline and then wrote another volume under the title "The Restoration of Christianity." This was issued by him during his residence at Vienne and resulted in his arrest at the instance of the Archbishop. A copy of the work came under Calvin's eye, who declared that if Servetus were to come to Geneva he should not get away alive if his authority was sufficient to prevent it. Having escaped from Vienne Servetus did come to Geneva, where his presence soon reached the knowledge of Calvin, who ordered his arrest. Thirty-eight heretical propositions were alleged against him, among others the rejection of the Trinity and speculations leaning toward pantheism and, although he conducted his defence with vigor and with a degree of acuteness, he was condemned and, to the disgrace of the Protestant cause, was burned a little way out from Geneva on the 27th of October 1553. It is claimed in behalf of Calvin that he tried to mitigate the severity of the penalty. However that may be, he was set on pursuing Servetus to the death, and it is on record that he wrote as follows to Farel two months before the execution,- "I hope the sentence will be capital but desire the atrocity of the punishment to be mitigated." It has to be remembered however that all of this was in keeping with the barbarism of the age and that so gracious-spirited a man as Melancthon gave to it his assent.

During the entire course of his conflict with heresy and the Libertines, Calvin was actively engaged in preaching and lecturing. He had crowds of hearers from all parts of Europe. Protestant refugees were in attendance upon his lectures and discourses and went back carrying with them the impression made upon them by his doctrines and personality. Thus was he able to stamp himself ineffaceably upon the religious thought of his own and aftertimes, and to cause Geneva to sustain to the Latin nations in particular a relation similar to that subsisting between Wittenberg and the Germanic. The

weight and permanence of the influence he exerted was due partly to his own idiosyncrasies. Both his mode of thinking and his policy of action were measurably determined by his natural temperament and his physical debility. He was composed principally of will and brain, with too little of the tenderer sensibilities to sweeten the action of the one or to rectify the aberrations of the other. Naturally enough then he made the doctrine of God's sovereignty the key-stone of his system, and could conceive of heresy as being none other than the unpardonable sin. The same combination of volitional and intellectual genius made him also a born organizer enabling him to compact and mature the reform tendencies of the times into a corporate whole where before everything had been incipient and sporadic.

Calvinism is Augustinianism in its developed and protestant form, the two theologians coinciding in their views of predestination, sin, and grace, though differing in the matter of justification and other less important matters. The keynote of Calvinism is not predestination, as is sometimes claimed, but divine sovereignty, out of which, understood as Augustine and Calvin understood it, predestination issues as a necessary corollary. Predestination so derived carries with it perforce the notion that those who are elected to be saved are so elected by the arbitrary action of the divine will; - "He hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth." The motive therefore leading to God's exercise of grace in specific cases has its inexplicable grounds in the mind of God, and is nowise referable to any condition existent in the sinner. 'Infralapsarianism,' 'Permissive Decree,' etc., are merely philosophical attempts to relieve divine arbitrariness from the charge of immorality.

For a detailed history of the life of Calvin see Merle d'Aubigné's History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin.' For a briefer outline of the same consult G. P. Fisher, The Reformation.' See also under Calvin' and 'Calvinism' in Schaff-Herzog Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge. A very complete Bibliography is given in Schaff's 'Creeds of Christendom.'

CHARLES H. PARKHURST, Madison Square Presbyterian Church, N. Y.

Calvin, Samuel, Scottish-American scientist: b. Wigtonshire, Scotland, 2 Feb. 1840. He came to the United States when a youth and served in the Civil War. He studied geology as a life pursuit, and since 1874 has been professor of geology at the University of Iowa, and State geologist of Iowa since 1892.

Calvinism. See CALVIN, JOHN.

Calvinistic Methodists, a section of the Methodists in Great Britain, distinguished by their Calvinistic sentiments from the ordinary Wesleyans, who are Arminian. Wesley and Whitefield, the colleagues in the great evangelistic movement in the 18th century, differed with regard to the doctrines of grace, Wesley being Arminian, and Whitefield Calvinistic. Whitefield may be regarded as the founder of Calvinistic Methodism. Other names, and especially that of Howell Harries, of Trevecca, should be mentioned in connection with it. In its distinctive form it dates from 1725, but did

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