Page images



cal island "on the right hand of the Indies, very near the Terrestrial Paradise," peopled with Amazons and Griffins. The name was first applied to the peninsula (discovered by Jimenez 1533) and is first recorded thus in Preciado's diary of Ulloa's coastwise voyage in 1539. In time it came to be used indefinitely for the whole Pacific coast from the peninsula practically to Nootka; and later "the Californias," differentiated into Baja (or Lower) California and Alta (Upper) California, the former including about what is now the Mexican Peninsular Territory. The first European to touch the present State was Alarcon, who went up the Colorado River some hundreds of miles in 1540. The first seaboard exploration was by Cabrillo 1542; and the next important coast explorations were by Sir Francis Drake 1579, and Vizcaino 1602. The first colonization of Upper California was by the Franciscan missionaries under Junipero Serra, with a small escort of Spanish troops. These pioneer missionaries had by 1800 founded 18 missions, whose total population, mostly Indian phytes, was 13,000. Three other missions were established by 1823. The mission period lasted about 65 years; converted over 80,000 Indians; erected in the wilderness at least $1,000,000 worth of buildings, and had developed stockraising and wheat on a scale which astonished Humboldt. In 1834 the Mexican government "disestablished the missions and confiscated their property. The Indians were scattered, and perished in great numbers. The buildings were plundered and left to decay. At present the Landmarks Club (incorporated) is preserving the mission edifices. The State passed from Spanish rule to that of the Mexican republic, 1821; was seized, practically without resistance, by the United States in 1845, and ceded by Mexico at close of Mexican war; admitted to the Union, 9 Sept. 1850. The American discovery of gold caused an unprecedented transcontinental migration (see Population). Aside from the great impetus given steam and clipper ships, the migration had other unique features like the Merchant's Express, which employed 5,000 men, 2,000 wagons, and 20,000 yoke of oxen in freighting across the continent; and the Pony Express, which carried mail (letters only) at $5 per half ounce, 1,950 miles horseback from Independence, Mo., to San Francisco, in 10 days; and the Butterfield stages, 8 times a month between St. Louis and San Francisco, via Texas and New Mexico; quickest time, 21 days from New York to San Francisco. Extraordinary records were made in this overland traffic. Robert H. Haslam, ("Pony Bob") made one continuous ride of 380 miles; and William F. Cody ("Buffalo Bill") one of 384, without stopping except for meals and to change horses-both as riders of the Pony Express. Quickest time made by this route (1,950 miles), 7 days, 17 hours. The growth of this overland traffic led California capitalists, heavily subsidized by government, to build a transcontinental railroad. Ground was broken at Sacramento for the Central P. R.R., 8 Jan. 1863. The road was completed by driving of a spike of pure California gold by Gov. Stanford in presence of distinguished company at Promontory, Utah, 10 May 1869. In 1877 the Southern P. R.R. from Texas tidewater to San Francisco was completed. In 1885 the

Atchison, T. & S. F. R.R. reached Los Angeles from St. Louis; and within the last two years has been extended to San Francisco. The latter and the Southern P. R.R. are the longest railroad systems in the world, each with a mileage much over 7,000. The modern development of California dates from competition of these two lines during the decade beginning 1886.

The swift creation of an American commonwealth by the sudden horde of adventurous pioneers upon whom that duty at once devolved, is perhaps the most remarkable monument to the genius of the American people for selfgovernment. Ninety thousand wanderers, homeless, wifeless, and chaotic in the wilderness, fevered by enormous and sudden gains, without cities or laws or communication with the outside world, within a year installed soberly and firmly all essential machineries of an American State. The desperadoes who flocked in from all parts of the world - including a large contingent of Australian convicts were firmly suppressed, though not at once. Between 1849 and 1856 there were in San Francisco alone 1,000 homicides and 7 executions. In 1856 the second vigilance committee, composed of the best citizens, judicially, after full and formal trial, publicly hanged half a dozen worst desperadoes, and banished scores of others on pain of death. Since that time life and property have been quite as safe in California as in the eastern States. Chinese exclusion, though finally a national measure, was brought about by California, which then contained a majority of all Chinese in this country. In 1879 California voted exclusion by 154,638 to 883. The number of Chinese in the State has decreased from 75,132 in 1880 and 72,472 in 1890 to 45,753 in 1900. The bitterness aroused by the exclusion struggle has passed, and Chinese are well treated.

California entered the Union as a free State, thus giving balance of power to the North. In State elections since the war it has been peculiarly independent, having gone Democratic in 1867, 1875, 1882, 1886 (Democratic governor and Republican lieutenant-governor, who became governor by his superior's death) and 1894; Republican in 1871, 1879, 1890, 1898, and 1902.

Next to the gold excitement (see Mining and Population) the most sensational era in California history was the great bonanza silver period from 1859 to 1880. The mines were in Nevada, but were owned in San Francisco, and an era of stock-gambling theretofore unheard of in history, and probably not yet surpassed, sprang from their sensational yield. Stocks on the San Francisco board rose $1,000,000 a day for many months, and sales in one year were $120,000,000. Everybody gambled in stock, from bankers to scrub-women. In 1875, with less than 200,000 population, San Francisco had 100 millionaires. The "Consolidated Virginia" mines paid $1,000,000 per month dividends for nearly two years. One lode was valued at nearly $400,000,000 $250,000.000 was spent in "developing" a small group of hills. The decadence of these great bonanzas, following the subsidence of gold mining to sober methods, at last turned more general attention to agriculture, the real wealth of the State (see Agriculture). In 1880 California was first in the Union only in gold, sheep, and quicksilver; all other industries being far down the list. It is


now second in gold; ninth in sheep; first in diversity of crops; first in wines, total fruits, canned fruits, dried fruits, barley; first in number of irrigated farms; first in average wages in manufacturing establishments; first in borax, asphalt, quicksilver, platinum; second in copper; third in wheat; second in beet sugar; second in hops; first in oranges, lemons, olives, and all semi-tropic fruits, honey, prunes, walnuts, almonds, beans, grapes, pears, peaches, cherries, apricots, etc.; first in electric power transmission; third in ship-building; fourth in petroleum; fifth in total value products per farm; eleventh in value farm products per capita; twelfth in total value manufactured products.

The highest California gold product in any one year was $85,000,000. The total agricultural products for 1899 were $131,000,000; and total value of manufactured products (1900) $302,000,000.

A South Sea bubble as wild as the Comstock silver stock-craze was the great "Land Boom" of southern California, 1886-7; a period of land-gambling never quite equaled in any other part of America. An area as large as New England was involved, with varying intensity; but the chief focus of excitement was in Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties. Scores of thousands of city lots were staked out far from towns, hundreds of miles of cement sidewalks and curbs were laid; scores of big hotels and other buildings erected as baits, and great quantities of lands (purchased at from $10 to $30 per acre) were sold in town lots at $1,000 to $10,000 per acre. In Los Angeles County alone, with a population then not over 50,000, real estate transfers recorded in 1887 were over $100,000,000. Excursion auction sales of new "towns" sometimes realized $250,000 in a day; and $100 was often paid for place in the line waiting for a sale to open. The collapse of this gigantic bubble, early in 1888, was as extraordinary in its freedom from disaster as it had been in its inflation. Not a bank failed, nor a business house of respectable standing; and while desert town lots reverted to acreage and acreage values, all really desirable real estate, rural and urban, has constantly advanced in value every year - thanks to the uninterrupted continuance of large and wealthy immigration. Building of homes and setting out of orchards continue on an extraordinary scale. During 1902, besides other buildings, more than 4,000 new residences were erected in the city of Los Angeles. "Local option is in force; and nearly all towns of southern California are "prohibition.»

BIBLIOGRAPHY.- Outline Reference and Reading List.- General History: T. H. Hittell, 'History of California' (4 vols. 1897, exhaustively indexed and by one author); H. H. Bancroft, History of California' (7 vols. 1890, by anonymous staff, and inadequately indexed); J. S. Hittell, History of San Francisco' (1876, concise and reliable, to its date).

Mission Period: A. Duhaut-Cilly, Voyage autour du Monde, 1826-9' (2 vols. 1835); Alex. Forbes, 'History Upper and Lower California' (1839); Helen Hunt Jackson ("H. H."), Glimpses of Three Coasts (1886), reprinted in Glimpses of California and the Missions (1902). The vast bulk of sources on this

period is in Spanish, and inaccessible to English students.

Contemporary writers on Pioneer period American occupation: Rev. Walter Colton, Three Years in California' (1850); J. Q. Thornton, Oregon and California in 1848 (2 vols. 1849); Edwin Bryant, What I Saw in California' (1849); Lieut. J. W. Revere, Tour of Duty in California' (1849); F. Soulé, Annals of San Francisco (1855); Bayard Taylor, California and Mexico' (1850), and 'Home and Abroad' (1862, 2d series); A. M. Majors (manager "Merchants' Express"), 'Seventy Years on the Frontier) (1893).

Mining: C. H. Shinn, 'Mining Camps' (1885). and Story of the Mine' (1896); also both Hittells, sup.

Physiography, Mountains and Forests: John Muir, The Mountains of California' (1894), and Our National Parks' (1901).

Climate, Modern Development, and General: Chas. Dudley Warner, 'Our Italy) (1892); Chas. Nordhoff, 'California for Health, Pleasure, and Residence) (1882), and Northern California (1874); T. S. Van Dyke, Southern California' (1886), and Millionaires of a Day) (1892) (Land-Boom); Lindley and Widney, California of the South' (1896); "H. H." as above; Wm. E. Smythe, Conquest of Arid America' (1900); Chas. F. Lummis, 'The Right Hand of the Continent' (1903).

Statistical: Twelfth Census United States' (1900), Bulletins 10, 136, 164, 237, etc.; McCarthy's 'Statistician and Economist' (San Francisco), v. d. Reports, United States Department Agriculture, etc.

CHARLES FLETCHER LUMMIS, Editor of Out West Magazine. California, Gulf of, or Sea of Cortez, an arm of the Pacific Ocean, separating lower California from the Mexican mainland. It is 700 miles in length and varies in width from 40 to 100 miles. There is but little navigation carried on there. On the western coast are pearl fisheries. The gulf was discovered by Cortez, and for some time was called after him. The river Colorado empties into the northern extremity.

California, Lower or Old, a territory of the Republic of Mexico, forming a peninsula in the Pacific Ocean, united on the north to the continent, from which it is separated on the east, throughout its entire length, by the Gulf of California. It is about 750 miles in length, and in different places 30, 60, 90, and 150 miles wide. The coast forms many capes, bays, and havens, and is fringed by numerous islands. A chain of mountains extends throughout, of which the greatest height is from 4,500 to 4,900 feet above the sea, the latter being the height attained by its culminating point, Cerro de la Giganta. The chain is almost destitute of vegetation, having only here and there a few stunted trees or shrubs. It has a single volcano, and possesses distinct traces of volcanic origin. The foot of the range is covered with cactuses of remarkable size. Some of the hollows, where the soil is formed of decomposed lava, are tolerably fertile. On the plains the soil is often of the richest quality, and when the advantage of irrigation can be obtained, raises the most abundant crops; but this advantage often fails, owing to the great deficiency of water. Rain seldom


falls in summer, and the streams are very insignificant. The climate varies much according to locality. On the coast of the Pacific the temperature ranges in summer from 58° to 71°; the sky is peculiarly clear and perfectly cloudless, except toward sunset, the tints of which are remarkable for variety and beauty. At a distance from the coast, where the sea breeze is not enjoyed, the summer heat is excessive. The principal vegetable products are maize, manioc, wheat, grapes, oranges, lemons, pineapples, and many other varieties of the finest fruits. In the valleys horses, sheep, and cattle are raised successfully. The fish on the coast are very abundant, and a pearl-fishery was long very successfully carried on. Gold mining is also carried on with considerable success. La Paz, in the south, is the capital; Ensenada, in the north, is a rising port. California was explored by order of Cortez in 1532-3. The region was visited by Drake as early as 1579. In 1697 the Jesuits formed establishments in the territory, built villages and missions, and in some measure civilized the natives. On their expulsion in 1767, the missions were carried on by the Dominicans. Pop. (1895) 42,245, of whom half are Indians.

California Poppy. See ESCHSCHOLTZIA. California, University of, an important university which is a part of the State educational system of California. It was established in 1868, and instruction begun in 1869, when the College of California was united with it. The professional schools were contemplated in the original plan, but not organized till later. The governing body consists of the governor and lieutenant-governor of the State, the speaker of the Assembly, the State superintendent of public instruction, the presidents of the State Agricultural Society and the Mechanics' Institute of San Francisco, and the president of the university (all members ex officio), and 16 others appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. The university is divided into the following departments: (1) the colleges of general culture, including letters (degree of bachelor of arts), social science (bachelor of letters), natural sciences (bachelor of science), and commerce (degree not yet decided); (2) the colleges of applied science (leading to the degree of bachelor of science); (3) the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art; (4) the Hastings college of law; (5) the medical department; (6) the post-graduate medical department; (7) the college of dentistry; (8) the California college of pharmacy; (9) the veterinary department. The first two departments are situated at Berkeley; the others are at San Francisco; the Lick observatory on Mount Hamilton also became a part of the university in 1888.

In 1896 Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst in formed the regents that she proposed to erect two buildings, but wished first a general worthy plan secured for the Berkeley campus, and that she would bear the expense of an international competition to obtain such a plan. In 1898 an international jury assembled at Antwerp and voted upon more than 100 plans submitted, awarding prizes to 11 competitors, who were invited to visit the university and to prepare revised plans for a second competition. In September 1899, the jury met again in San Francisco and gave the first prize ($10,000) to

[blocks in formation]

M. Emile Bénard of Paris. After a long stay in Berkeley and many conferences with the university authorities, he undertook a revision of his drawings to fit the plans to the actual necessities of the site and the prospective needs of the university. In December 1900, he submitted a design which the regents formally adopted as the permanent plan, from which no important change may be made except with the approval of a self-perpetuating board of architectural advisers, comprising the jurors and other architects of high reputation. To Mr. John Galen Howard of New York has been entrusted the first work of construction. He is now at work on designs for the mining building, which will be the first to be erected. The cost of carrying out the whole plan will be from $10,000,000 to $12,000,000, and the work cannot be completed in less than a generation. Mrs. Hearst has also made provision for the annual expenditure of $30,000 or more on excavations and purchases in Egypt, Greece, Peru, New Mexico, and the Philippines, for the archeological museum of the university. Other recent gifts are $75,000 to endow a chair in classical literature, $10,000 for two book funds (both from Mrs. Sather), and $24,000 from D. O. Mills, to defray the expenses of a two years' expedition from the Lick observatory to an observing station in the southern hemisphere. In March 1901 the State legislature increased the income of the university by $100,000 per annum, raising the total from all sources, including the income from special funds, such as that for the support of the great Lick observatory and the Wilmerding Trades School, to $575,000 a year. As the university is a State institution, tuition is free for residents of California in the colleges of general culture; non-residents pay a small fee; and the professional schools are supported by fees. In 1902 there were 4,006 students in all the departments, of whom about one half were women; it is also to be noted that a comparatively large proportion of students are in the general or academic courses, as distinguished from the technical and professional courses. The number of professors and instructors in 1902 was 481. The president is Benjamin Ide Wheeler, LL.D., formerly a professor at Cornell.

Calig'ula, Caius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus, Roman emperor, a son of Germanicus and Agrippina: b. 31 Aug. 12 A.D., in the camp at Antium, and brought up among the legions; d. 24 Jan. 41 A.D. He received from the soldiers the surname of Caligula, on account of his wearing the calige, a kind of little boots in use among them. He understood so well how to insinuate himself into the good graces of Tiberius that he not only escaped the cruel fate of his parents, and brothers, and sisters, but was even loaded with honors. Whether, as some writers inform us, he removed Tiberius out of the way by slow poison is uncertain. When the latter was about to die he appointed, according to Suetonius, Caligula and the son of Drusus, Tiberius Nero, heirs of the empire. But Caligula, universally beloved for the sake of his father Germanicus, was able without difficulty to obtain sole possession of the throne. Rome received him joyfully, and the distant provinces echoed his welcome. His first actions were just and noble. He interred, in the most

THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. Locking toward Golden Gate from Observatory Hill.

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][graphic]
« PreviousContinue »