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yeomanry, the English began to burn the houses and pillage the property of the villagers at Connecticut Farms. In one of the houses was the family of Mr. Caldwell, whose wife had retired to a back room with her two youngest children —one an infant in her arms-where she was engaged in prayer, when a musket was discharged through the window. Two balls struck her in the breast, and she fell dead upon the floor. On 23 June Gen. Knyphausen made a second incursion with about 5,000 troops. On this occasion he passed over the same route to Springfield, where a battle was fought. Among the most active in the fight was the chaplain Caldwell. There is a tradition, well authenticated, that in the hottest period of the action the wadding of a portion of the Jersey infantry gave out, which fact being communicated to Caldwell, he rode to the Presbyterian Church, and hastily collecting the psalm and hymn books which were in the building, he distributed them to the soldiers with the exhortation, "Now put Watts into them, boys!" The British were finally compelled to retrace their steps, which they did with all possible rapidity. He was shot and killed by an American sentinel in the course of a dispute over a package the latter desired to examine. Sixty-four years after Caldwell's death a monument was raised to his memory in Elizabeth.

Caldwell, Merritt, American educator: b. Helron, Me., 29 Nov. 1806; d. Portland, Me., 6 June 1848. He was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1828 and was subsequently professor of mathematics and English literature in Dickinson College, Pa. He published Manual of Elocution (1846); Philosophy of Christian Perfection (1847); Christianity Tested by Eminent Men; The Doctrine of the English


Caldwell, Samuel Lunt, American Baptist clergyman: b. Newburyport, Mass., 13 Nov. 1820; d. Providence, R. I., 26 Sept. 1889. After studying at the Newton (Mass.) Theological Institution he entered the ministry and was successively pastor at Bangor, Me., 1846-58; and of the First Baptist Church in Providence 1858-73; professor of Church history in the Newton Theological Institution 1873-8; and president of Vassar College 1878-85.

Caldwell, William, Scottish-American educator: b. Edinburgh, Scotland, 10 Nov. 1863. He was graduated from the university of his native city and was assistant professor of logic and metaphysics in that institution 1887-8. In 1891 he was called to the Sage School of Philosophy, Cornell University, N. Y.; in 1892 to the University of Chicago, and since 1894 has been professor of moral and social philosophy in the Northwestern University at Evanston, Ill. He has published Schopenhauer's System in Its Philosophical Significance.'

Ca'leb, son of Jephunneh, a descendant of the tribe of Judah, or according to some authorities a foreigner of Kenezite origin incorporated with that tribe, according to Ussher born 1530 B.C. was sent with Joshua and 10 others to examine the land of Canaan. When Joshua had conquered the country, Caleb reminded the Jews of the promise which had been made by God, that they should enjoy this country. He obtained the city of Hebron for his share of the

spoil, besieged and captured it, and drove out three giants, or Anakim. He then marched against Kirjath-sepher, and offered his daughter Achsah to the first who should enter it. Othniel, his nephew, was the successful aspirant for the fair Jewess.

Caleb Williams, a novel by William Godand half psychological story. It met with imwin (1794), a curious, rambling, half sensational mediate popularity, and furnished the suggestion of the well-known play The Iron Chest.'


came to the rescue, and the Romans were vic

Caledonia, the name by which the northern portion of Scotland first became known to the Romans. The year 80 of the Christian era is the period when Scotland first becomes known to history. The invasion of Cæsar did not immediately lead to the permanent occupation of southern Britain. It was only in the year 43 that the annexation of this portion of the island to the Roman empire began. It was completed superficially about 78, and two years were occupied in reconciling the natives to the Roman yoke. Agricola then moved northward, invading Scotland by the eastern route, and occupying the country up to the line of the Friths of Clyde and Forth. Agricola ran defensive works across this line, and hearing, in the third year of his occupation, rumors of an organized invasion in preparation by the Caledonians, a name applied to the dwellers north of the boundary, he resolved to anticipate them, and again advanced divisions. The weakest, consisting of the ninth The Roman army marched in three legion, was attacked by the barbarians, who fought their way to the Roman camp. Agricola torious. The Roman army now advanced to Mons Grampius, where they found the enemy, 30,000 strong, under a chief named Galgacus. Agricola had to stretch his line as far as he deemed prudent to prevent being outflanked. The auxiliaries and Romanized Britons were in the centre and front, the legions in the rear. The Caledonians are described as riding furiously about in chariots between the two camps. Each chief (Roman and Caledonian) made a set speech to his followers; that of Galgacus was peculiarly eloquent. The Caledonians were armed with small shields, arrows, and large pointless swords. Their chariots routed the Roman cavalry, but afterward became embarrassed in the broken ground; and when the Roman auxiliaries charged the masses of the enemy with the gladius, they gave way before a method of fighting to which they were unaccustomed. Some further manœuvres OCcurred, but the victory of the Romans was combeen productive of great effects, as next mornplete. It does not appear, however, to have ing the enemy had entirely disappeared. Such is the account given by Tacitus of the only one

of the numerous battles between the Romans and the Caledonians, of which we have a detailed description. The site of the battle remains undetermined, and the origin of the name Caledonian remains in equal obscurity. Various derivations are given of the word, but whether it was a native term, and to what exact people it applied, cannot with certainty be determined. The name Caledonian is first used by Pliny, who, as well as Tacitus, is supposed to have derived it from Agricola. The name is applied by Ptolemy to one of the numerous


populations of North Britain. The use of the name by Tacitus gave it immediate popularity with the Romans, and to the same source its subsequent popularity in Britain is to be traced. Its historical importance is therefore exclusively limited to this first mention of it. See Dr. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography,' and Burton, 'History of Scotland.'

Caledo'nian Canal, in Scotland, counties of Inverness and Argyle, connects the North with the Irish Sea, extending from Murray Frith through Lochs Ness, Oich, and Lochy, in the great glen of Caledonia, to Loch Eil. The total length is 601⁄2 miles, of which the lochs compose 372. The canal was begun in 1803, and opened for navigation about the close of 1823.

Calef, Robert, American merchant of Boston: b. about 1648; d. Roxbury, Mass., 13 April 1719. His fourth son, also named Robert, died in 1722 or 1723, aged about 41. One or the other of these men was the author of a remarkable book on the witchcraft delusion in

New England. The best authorities, notably James Savage and Wm. F. Poole, ascribe it to the younger, who was about 23 when it appeared. The book was entitled 'More Wonders of the Invisible World' (Lond. 1700), the title being suggested by Cotton Mather's Wonders

of the Invisible World.' The substance of it

had been circulated in manuscript several years previous to its publication and its malicious attacks on Cotton and Increase Mather caused a bitter and life-long quarrel between the former and the author. The book abounds in ma

licious innuendos, directly charges the Mathers with inciting and being in full sympathy with the Salem tragedies, and accuses the Boston ministers, in their advice of 15 June 1692, of endorsing the Salem methods. When the book was printed and came back to Boston it was denounced and hated because it was an untruthful and atrocious libel on the public sentiment of Boston, and on the conduct of its ministers. It is said that Increase Mather publicly burned it in the Harvard College yard. The animus of the book has been greatly misunderstood, and the popular idea that Calef was a stalwart agent in putting an end to Salem witchcraft is both a myth and a delusion. Its historical value and the author's character have been greatly overrated. His personal history is a blank which the most assiduous investiga tion has never been able to fill, or even to supply with the most common details. It is not known where or when he was born, when he died, or where he was buried, although he lived in Boston and his will is on file in the Suffolk records. His book has now become very rare and copies bring high prices in the book auctions. It was reprinted at Salem in 1796, 1823, and 1861, and at Boston in 1828 and 1865. W. N. CARLTON, Trinity College, Hartford.

Calendar, a system of dividing time into years, months, weeks, and days for use in civil. life, or a register of these or similar divisions. Among the old Romans, for want of such a register, it was the custom of the Pontifex Maximus, on the first day of the month, which began with the new moon, to proclaim (calare) the month, with the festivals occurring in it. Hence, calenda (the first of the month) and

calendar. The periodical occurrence of certain natural phenomena gave rise to the first division of time. The apparent daily revolution of the sun about the earth occasioned the division into days. The time at which a day begins and ends has been differently fixed, the reckoning being from sunrise to sunrise, from sunset to sunset, from noon to noon, or from midnight to midnight. The changes of the moon, which were observed to recur every 29 or 30 days, suggested the division into months, but the month now used, though nearly equal to a lunation, is really an arbitrary unit; and, as a still longer measure of time was found necessary for many purposes, it was supplied by the apparent yearly revolution of the sun round the earth, producing the changing seasons. The time of this revolution is now known to be 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds, but as it has at various times been reckoned differently, this has given rise to corresponding changes in the calendar. This unit of time is called a solar year. The division adopted, is not founded on any natural pheinto weeks, which has been almost universally nomenon, and, as it originated in the East, has been attributed to the divine command to Moses in regard to the observation of the seventh day as a day of rest. By other authorities it has been ascribed to the number of the principal planets, a theory supported by the names given to the days. It was not used by the Greeks, nor by the Romans, till the time of Theodosius. The great influence of the sun's course upon the seasons naturally attracted the attention of men at all periods to this phenomenon; accordingly all nations in any degree civilized have adopted the year as the longest unit of time. The year of the ancient Egyptians was based on the changes of the seasons alone, without reference to the lunar month, and contained 365 days, which were divided into 12 months of 30 days each, with five supplementary days at the end of each year. The Jewish year consisted of lunar months, of which they reckoned 12 in the year, intercalating a 13th when necessary to maintain the correspondence of the particular months with the regular recurrence of the seasons. The Greeks in the earliest period also reckoned by lunar and intercalary months. They divided the month into three decades, a system also adopted long afterward at the time of the French Revolution. It possesses the advantage of making the smaller division an exact measure of the larger, and under it the number of a day in the 10-day period readily suggests its number in the month. The Greeks in the time of Solon had a year of 12 months alternately of 29 and 30 days, the total number of days being 354, and the year being very nearly equal to a lunar one. Soon afterward a month of 30 days began to be intercalated every other year in order to reconcile their year with that founded on the sun's movement, but as the error was still very large the intercalary month was afterward omitted once in four times. The Jewish and also the Greek year thus both varied in duration according as the intercalary month was introduced or omitted. This, with the uncertainty as to the exact duration of the year, was a constant source of confusion.

Various plans for the reformation of the calendar were proposed from time to time; but all proved insufficient till Meton and Euctemon finally succeeded in bringing it to a much


greater degree of accuracy by fixing on the period of 19 years, in which time the new moons return upon the same days of the year as before (as 19 solar years are very nearly equal to 235 lunations). (See CYCLE.) This mode of computation, first adopted by the Greeks about 432 B.C., was so much approved of that it was engraven with golden letters on a tablet at Athens. Hence the number showing what year of the moon's cycle any given year is is called the golden number. This period of 19 years was found, however, to be about six hours too long. This defect Calippus, about 102 years later, endeavored to remedy, but still failed to make the beginning of the seasons return on the same fixed day of the year.

The Romans first divided the year into 10 months, but they early adopted the Greek method of lunar and intercalary months, making the lunar year consist of 354, and afterward of 355 days, leaving 10 or 11 days and a fraction to be supplied by the intercalary division. This arrangement, which was placed under the charge of the pontiffs, continued until the time of Cæsar. The first day of the month was called the calends. In March, May, July, and October, the 15th, in other months the 13th, was called the ides. The ninth day before the ides (reckoning inclusive) was called the nones. The other days of the months they reckoned forward to the next calends, nones, or ides, whether in the same or the succeeding month, always including both days in the reckoning. Thus the 3d of March, according to the Roman reckoning, would be the fifth day before the nones, which in that month fall on the 7th. The 8th of January, in which month the nones happen on the 5th, and the ides on the 13th, was called the 6th before the ides of January. Finally, to express any of the days after the ides, they reckon in a similar manner from the calends of the following month. From the inaccuracy of the Roman method of reckoning it appears that in Cicero's time the calendar brought the vernal equinox almost two months later than it ought to be. To check this irregularity Julius Cæsar invited the Greek astronomer Sosigenes to Rome, who, with the assistance of Marcus Fabius, invented that mode of reckoning which, after him who introduced it into use, has been called the Julian calendar. The chief improvement consisted in restoring the equinox to its proper place in March. For this purpose two months were inserted between November and December, so that the year 707 (46 B.C.), called from this circumstance the year of confusion, contained 14 months. In the number of days the Greek computation was adopted, which made it 3654. The number and names of the months were kept unaltered with the exception of Quintilis, which was henceforth called, in honor of the author of the improvement, Julius. To dispose of the quarter of a day it was determined to intercalate a day every fourth year between the 23rd and 24th of February. This was called an intercalary day, and the year in which it took place was called an intercalary year, or, as we term it, a leap year.

This calendar continued in use among the Romans until the fall of the empire, and throughout Christendom till 1582. The festivals of the Christian Church were determined by it. With regard to Easter, however, it was necessary to

have reference to the course of the moon. The Jews celebrated Easter (that is, the Passover) on the 14th of the month Nisan (or March); the Christians in the same month, but always on a Sunday. Now, as the Easter of the Christians sometimes coincided with the Passover of the Jews, and it was thought unchristian to celebrate so important a festival at the same time as the Jews did, it was resolved at the council of Nice, 325 A.D., that from that time Easter should be solemnized on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox, which was then supposed to take place on 21 March. As the course of the moon was thus made the foundation for determining the time of Easter, the lunar Cycle of Meton was taken for this purpose; according to which the year contains 365 days, and the new moons, after a period of 19 years, return on the same day as before. The inaccuracy of this combination of the Julian year and the lunar cycle must have soon discovered itself on a comparison with the true time of the commencement of the equinoxes, since the received length of 3654 days exceeds the true by about II minutes; so that for every such Julian year the equinox receded 11 minutes, or a day in about 130 years. In consequence of this, in the 16th century, the vernal equinox had changed its place in the calendar from the 21st to the 10th; that is, it really took place on the 10th instead of the 21st, on which it was placed in the calendar. Luigi Lilio Ghiraldi, frequently called Aloysius Lilius, a physician of Verona, projected a plan for amending the calendar, which, after his death, was presented by his brother to Pope Gregory XIII. To carry it into execution, the Pope assembled a number of prelates and learned men. In 1577 the proposed change was adopted by all the Catholic princes; and in 1582 Gregory issued a brief abolishing the Julian calendar in all Catholic countries, and introducing in its stead the one now in use, under the name of the Gregorian or reformed calendar, or the new style, as the other was now called the old style. The amendment ordered was this: 10 days were to be dropped after 4 Oct. 1582, and the 15th was reckoned immediately after the 4th. Every 100th year. which by the old style was a leap year, was now to be a common year, the fourth century divisible by 4 excepted; that is, 1600 was to remain a leap year, but 1700, 1800, 1000 of the common length, and 2,000 a leap year again. In this calendar the length of the solar year is taken to be 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 12 seconds, the difference between which and the true length is immaterial. In Spain, Portugal, and the greater part of Italy, the amendment was introduced according to the Pope's instructions. In France the 10 days were dropped in December, the Icth being called the 20th. In Catholic Switzerland, Germany, and the Netherlands the change was introduced in the following year, in Poland in 1586, in Hungary 1587. Protestant Germany, Holland, and Denmark accepted it in 1700, and Switzerland in 1701. In the German empire a difference still remained for a considerable time as to the period for observing Easter. In England the Gregorian calendar was adopted in 1752, in accordance with an act of Parliament passed the previous year, the day after 2d September becoming the 14th. Sweden followed in 1753.

The change adopted in the English calendar in 1752 embraced another point. There had been previous to this time various periods fixed for the commencement of the year in various countries of Europe. In France, from the time of Charles IX., the year was reckoned to begin from I January; this was also the popular reckoning in England, but the legal and ecclesiastical year began on 25 March. The Ist of January was now adopted as the beginning of the legal year, and it was customary for some time to give two dates for the period intervening between 1 January and 25 March, that of the old and that of the new year, as Russia alone retains the old January 1752-3. style, which now differs 12 days from the new; but has it in contemplation to adopt the Gregorian calendar at an early date.

In France, during the Revolutionary epoch; a new calendar was introduced by a decree of The the National Convention, 24 Nov. 1793. new reckoning was to begin with 22 Sept. 1792, the day on which the first decree of the new republic had been promulgated. The year was made to consist of 12 months of 30 days each, and, to complete the full number, five fête days (in leap year six) were added at the end of the year. Instead of weeks, each month was divided into three parts, called decades, consisting of 10 days each; the other divisions being also The accommodated to the decimal system. names of the months were so chosen as to indicate, by their etymology, the time of year to which they belonged. They were as follows:





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Calender, an apparatus or machine consisting of cylinders or rollers, often heated, by means of which different fabrics are subjected to great pressure, the object being to make them smooth and glossy, to glaze them, to water them, or give them a wavy appearance, and thus fit them for the market.

Calendar, French Revolutionary. CALENDAR.


Cal'enders, a sect of dervishes in Turkey, Persia, etc. They are not very strict in their morals, nor in very high esteem among the Mohammedans. They preach in the marketplaces and live upon alms. See DERVISH.

Calends, with the Romans, the name given to the first day of each month, used in fixing dates, as explained in the article Calendar (q.v.).

The Greeks did not make use of calends in
Roman proverbial
expression ad Græcas calendas (on the Greek
The calends of
calends), meaning "never."
January were more solemn than the others.

This calendar was abolished at the command of Napoleon, by a decree of the senate, 9 Sept. 1805, and the common or Gregorian 1 January of calendar was re-established on the following year. Of calendars projected since then we may mention that put forward by Auguste Comte in 1849, by which a separate name is given to every day in the year, while the months and weeks have also particular names, all arranged upon a principle of hercworship. Moses, Homer, Aristotle, Shakespeare, Descartes, Cæsar, St. Paul, etc., are honored with months, while minor individuals, such as Ulysses, Romulus, Socrates, and Plato, have days assigned to them. See also CHRONOLOGY; CYCLE; EPOCH.

Calendula, or Marigold, a plant (Calendula officinalis) of the daisy family (Compasitæ), whose florets are used in medicine as a tonic.

Cal'enture, a kind of feverish delirium, incident to persons in hot climates, and especially liable to attack them on board ships. It is said that the patient imagines the sea to be a green field, in which he is tempted to walk by the coolness and freshness of its appearance. But we seldom in these days hear of persons being afflicted in such a manner, although the term is sometimes used to designate the Cuban fever.


Calenzio, kä-lĕnts'ē-ō, or Calentius, Eliseo, He pubĕl-e-sa'ō, Neapolitan poet: d. 1503. lished numerous writings in prose and verse, elegies, epigrams, satires, fables, and epistles, which were issued under the title of 'Opuscula,' and also wrote upon penal legislation, and is said to have been the first to propose the restriction of capital punishment to the crime of murder.


Cal'gary, Canada, capital of the district of Alberta, on the Bow River, about 840 miles west of Winnipeg. It is on the Canadian P. Ry., at the junction of the line running north to Edmonton and south to Fort Macleod. There are various churches, a public and a convent school, a court-house, hospitals, etc., and various manufactures have been established. It is the centre of an important cattle- and Calgary has horse-ranching district. Good building stone is quarried in the neighborhood. grown up since 1880. Pop. (1902) 5,600.

Calhoun, kǎl-hoon', John Caldwell, American statesman: b. Abbeville District, S. C., 18 March 1782; d. Washington, D. C., 31 March 1850. He was graduated with distinction at Yale College in 1804, and was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1807. After serving for two sessions in the legislature of his native


State, he was elected to Congress in 1811. From that time until his death, a period of nearly 40 years, he was seldom absent from Washington, being nearly the whole time in the public service, either in Congress or in the Cabinet. When he first entered Congress the disputes with England were fast approaching actual hostilities, and he immediately took part with that portion of the dominant party whose object was to drive the still reluctant Administration into a declaration of war. They succeeded, and, as a member of the Committee on Foreign Relations, he reported a bill for declaring war, which was passed in June 1812. When Monroe formed his administration in 1817, Calhoun became secretary of war, a post which he filled with great ability for seven years, reducing the affairs of the department from a state of great confusion to simplicity and order.

In 1824 he was chosen Vice-President of the United States under John Q. Adams, and again in 1828 under Gen. Jackson.

In 1828, a protective tariff was enacted which bore very heavily on the agriculturists of the South and hence was known throughout that section as "The Tariff of Abominations." Mr. Calhoun prepared a paper declaring that the "United States is not a union of the people, but a league or compact between sovereign states, any of which has the right to judge when the compact is broken and to pronounce any law to be null and void which violates its conditions." This paper was issued by the legislature of South Carolina and was known as the "The South Carolina Exposition." This view of the United States Constitution as a compact between the States had been many years before strongly expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, the former being drawn up by James Madison, often styled the "Father of the Constitution," and the latter by Thomas Jefferson. The Kentucky resolutions had suggested nullification as a remedy. Alex

ander Hamilton in "The Federalist" frequently spoke of the United States as a "Confederate Republic" and a "Confederacy" and called the Constitution a "compact." Washington frequently referred to the Constitution as a "compact," and spoke of the Union as a "Confederated Republic." At the time of the Louisiana Purchase Hon. Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts advocated the right and advisability of secession and Hon. Josiah Quincy of the same State in 1811 expressed similar views. Hence John C. Calhoun propounded no new or strange doctrine, but one which had found advocates before, and in the North as well as in the South.

In 1828, the friendly relations between Mr. Calhoun and President Jackson were broken off, when the latter ascertained that Calhoun had sought to have him called to account for his acts in the Seminole War. This breach was still further enlarged when Calhoun refused to co-operate with President Jackson in the effort to reinstate Mrs. Eaton in Washington society.

When Mr. Calhoun found that the repeal of the tariff of 1828 could not be secured through President Jackson, he resigned the Vice-Presidency and entered the Senate from South Carolina. On 26 July 1831 he published a paper favoring free trade and declaring that the

"great conservative principle of Union is nullification." The tariff question was settled by a compromise in 1832.

Mr. Calhoun feared that the slavery quarrel would some day disrupt the Union and therefore endeavored to check all discussion of this issue. He opposed Jackson's removal of the funds from the National Bank and also assailed the "spoils system." He supported Van Buren's "sub-treasury system," favored his re-election and secured for him the electoral vote of South Carolina. He defended Tyler for vetoing the recharter of the United States Bank and as Secretary of State under that President was largely instrumental in bringing about the annexation of Texas. He regretted the division of the Union into sections, but, recognizing a fact which already existed, he advocated a dual executive, one from the North, the other from the South, each having the power to veto an act approved by the other; thus preventing the passage of any law offensive to either section. His motive in this was the preservation of the Union, which he dearly loved.

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Calico printing, the art of producing on calico or cotton cloth varigated patterns by the process of printing; the object, as a rule, being to have the colors composing the designs as fast as possible to washing and other influences. It is similar to the art of dyeing, but differs from it in so far that the coloring matters are fixed on certain parts of the fabric only, to form a pattern. Linen, wool, and silk fabrics. tensively. The origin of the art of printing is are printed in a similar manner, but less exprobably coeval with that of dyeing (q.v.). India is generally regarded as the birthplace of calico-printing, and the word calico is derived from the name of the Indian town Calicut, where it was at one time extensively manufactured and printed. Calico-printing, as an Egyptian art, was first described by Pliny in the Ist century. Indian printed chintz calicoes were introduced into Europe by the Dutch East India Company, and the first attempts at imitating them in Europe are said to have been made in Holland, but at what exact date is uncertain. The art, however, soon spread to Germany and England, where it is said to have been introduced about 1676, two of the earliest works being situated at Richmond, on the Thames, and at Bromley Hall, Essex. In 1738 calico print-works were established in Scotland in the neighborhood of Glasgow, and in 1764 at Bamber Bridge, near Preston, in Lancashire. At the present time the chief seats of the calico

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