« PreviousContinue »
and finishing. The fat exists in the form of small globules in the milk, in suspension. In the setting system the milk was placed in shallow pans about four inches high, or in deep ones of about 18 inches, and advantage was taken of the fact that the fat globules, being lighter than water and other constituents of the milk, would rise to the surface by the force of gravity. Large fat globules will rise more rapidly than small ones, and the size of the globules varies with different breeds of cattle. In the shallow-pan system the milk is set as soon as possible after it is drawn, and the cream is skimmed off in 24 or 36 hours. This system is wasteful in that the skim milk often contains 0.5 to 1.5 per cent of fat. The deep-setting system is less wasteful, the fat in the skim- milk being often reduced to 0.2 per cent. The newdrawn, warm milk is placed in cans surrounded or submerged in water at about 40° F., and the rapid reduction in temperature causes the globules to rise quickly. The cream is removed by dipping it off, or the skim-milk is drawn off from the bottom of the can. The fat left in the skim-milk consists of the small fat globules. The introduction of the separator and use of centrifugal force has resulted in a more perfect and rapid separation. This force exceeds that of gravity a thousand-fold. The system of separation is continuous, a constant, uniform flow of milk being conducted into a bowl or drum revolving at from 5,000 to 9,000 or more revolutions per minute. The inlet tube is in the centre of the bowl and reaches almost to the bottom; here the constituents in the milk separate, the heavier serum gravitating to the circumference of the bowl, the fat-the lightest portion remaining in the centre. These are forced upward by the incoming milk, and the separated milk escapes through a side tube, while the cream_passes through a small outlet in the centre. This last outlet can be closed or opened in some machines, thus regulating the percentage of fat in the cream. The machines are of various sizes, from those worked by hand power and doing 200 to 500 pounds of milk per hour, to power machines of 2,000 pounds and over per hour capacity. Some makes have appliances within the bowl to increase the efficiency. A good separator, well run, will not leave more than from 0.05 to 0.1 per cent of fat in the separated milk.
The cream may be churned at once if sweet cream butter is desired, or "ripened" or soured. The aim in ripening is to develop certain flavors in the butter, and a certain degree of acidity which aids in churning and influences the texture. In this latter case cream should be cooled as it leaves the separator; if it is to be churned next day the temperature of cooling should be 65° to 70° F. If the second day, 55° to 60° F.; and if four days or more, 40° F. It should then be held at such temperature that it will reach the desired degree of acidity by the time it is desired to churn. The degree of acidity may be determined by various tests. Ripening may be effected by adding to the cream a "starter" of sour cream, sour milk, buttermilk, or a commercial preparation of the desired organisms or bacteria. In any case only desirable organisms should be permitted in the ripening room, as undesirable ones rapidly affect flavor. In some cases it is considered advisable to pasteurize the milk or cream,
the milk being heated to kill all germs, then the sample may be inoculated with desirable ones. During ripening the cream is usually held constant at a temperature between 60° and 70° F. until ready to churn.
In churning, the fat globules receive such agitation that they unite into masses. This is usually done in a churn (q.v.) and at a temperature ranging from 50° to 65° F. It is wise to churn at as low a temperature as possible, the best results being obtained at such a degree that the particles of fat unite readily, and, when united, form firm granules of butter. Churning should stop when the particles are the size of wheat. The buttermilk may be drawn off and the butter washed; it is then worked, either by hand or by the butter-worker (q.v.), to remove buttermilk, water, etc., salted, and packed as required.
Scrupulous cleanliness and attention to detail, from the feeding of the cows to the placing of the product in the hands of the consumer, are imperative. See CREAMERIES; DAIRYING.
The composition of butter varies, but is approximately: Fat, 85 per cent; protein, I per cent; ash (salt), 3 per cent; water, II per cent. The percentage of fat should not fall below 80 per cent, nor the water rise above 15 per cent. The percentage of fat in butter of good quality often rises to 86 or 88 per cent. The water content is the most variable, running up to 25 per cent, and in some cases higher. The fats of butter are glycerides of fatty acids. About 15 per cent of the fats are volatile, and at least in some cases aid in giving flavor and odor. Oleine, palmitine, and myristine are the three leading fats present; the former, being fluid at ordinary temperatures and variable in amount, influences the hardness of the butter. The quality of butter is judged by its flavor, texture, color, amount of salt, and general appearance. Flavor counts about 45 per cent of the points, and varies with the market. Some markets require a mild, delicate butter; for the supply of such the cream is often pasteurized: others require a high flavor, almost verging on rancidity. Whatever is desired, that flavor should be pronounced, with an absence of rancidity or other flavors. Texture carries 25 per cent of the points and depends upon the granular condition of the fats. The more distinctly the granules show up when the butter is broken the better the texture. The right color depends upon the market requirements; usually a bright golden yellow, as naturally yielded when cows are on grass, is considered ideal. It should be uniform. To ensure this, it is sometimes necessary to use some butter-color: formerly the main one used was arnotto; now the coal-tar colors, aniline yellow, and butter yellow, are used, although turmeric, saffron, carrot-juice, or marigold leaves would do. The coloring matter is usually dissolved in some oil, and the preparations are of standard strengths. Some South American countries require the butter to be a deep orange or red color. A small quantity of salt is often added to improve the palatability; it has little influence on the keeping qualities. The amount varies with trade requirements. Unsalted or slightly salted butter is largely used in Europe and the United Kingdom. The finish and packing of the butter should be attractive and neat. The styles are numerous, but attempts are being made to stan
dardize. The American butter-tub is largely used here. It holds from 50 to 70 pounds. In Canada and Australia a box holding_56 pounds is used for the export trade. The Danes ship their butter in firkins containing 112 pounds. For local trade the standard rectangular pound print is 45% X 22 X 23% inches. These are wrapped in parchment paper and packed in specially made boxes.
Óleomargarine is the most common adulterant, and its detection, especially when present in only small amounts, is difficult. Cottonseed and other oils have been used. Glycogen has been added to increase the water-holding capacity of the butter, and in butters for South America glucose has been added as a preservative. The various preservatives, as borax, boracic acid, etc., sold under their own and other names, are now recognized as adulter
Renovated or process butter is generally low-grade butter which has been melted and put through a process to remove the disagree able odors and taste; sometimes it is then mixed with soured separated or whole milk or cream, and granulated. If the primary article is not too inferior, the resulting product can be sold as good creamery butter; generally its keeping qualities are impaired. In some States and in the United Kingdom all butter so treated must be distinctly branded "Renovated."
During the year 1850 the amount of butter made on farms in the United States was 313,345,306 pounds. In 1899 that made on farms and in factories was 1,491,871,673 pounds.
Over two thirds of the butter is made on the
farms, but the factory system is increasing. The average value of that made on farms was 16.7 cents per pound, and that made in creameries and factories 20 cents. The cost of transporting the milk to factories is about 1.5 cents per pound of butter. Denmark is at present the leading butter-exporting country of the world, with a record in 1898 of 160,143,255 pounds, valued at $34.575,634, the average price being the highest on the market.
The coefficient of digestibility of butter-fat is 98 per cent or over. It is well assimilated, and, like other fats, is a source of heat and energy. Its value as a food and methods of usage are well known. Butter containing 82.4 per cent butter-fat has a fuel value per pound of 3,475 calories, and in a number of dietary studies butter furnished 1.9 per cent of the total food, and 19.7 per cent of the total fat of the daily food. Further information is given in Prof. Atwater's reports on dietary studies. Fresh and salt butter are equally valuable. Clarified butter is used in cooking. It is ordinary butter freed from casein and water by heating. Bibliography.- Fleischmann, 'Book of the Dairy); Gurler, American Dairying'; Oliver, 'Milk, Cheese, and Butter'; United States Department of Agriculture, Butter Making on the Farm'; Farmers' Bulletin No. 57; Wing, Milk and Its Products'; Woll, Grotenfelt's Modern Dairy Practice.' S. FRASER, Instructor in Farm Practice, Cornell University. Butter, Artificial. See OLEOMARGARINE. Butter and Eggs, a troublesome weed. See TOADFLAX.
Butter-bur (Petasites vulgaris), a composite plant, with large rhubarb-like leaves and purplish flowers, growing by the side of streams, allied to colt's-foot. The flowers appear before the leaves.
Butter-color, a preparation employed to color butter and its imitations. Annatto was formerly largely used for this purpose, but is now superseded by coal-tar colors and other coloring substances. Owing to the small quantities used in coloring butter they are quite harmless.
Butter-fishes. The two best known butter-fishes in American waters are denizens of the Atlantic. One (Poronotus triacanthus) is the butter-fish or dollar-fish of the coast of Massachusetts and New York, the harvest-fish of New Jersey, the dollar-fish of Maine, the sheepshead of Cape Cod, the pumpkinseed of Connecticut, and the star-fish of Norfolk. It swims mostly in company with large jellyfish, whose streamers, while often protecting it from other depredators, are frequently the cause of its death from their stings. The body is ovate and flat, the dorsal and anal fins are each very pointed, and the tail is long and widely forked.
The harvest-fish (Peprilus paru) is another
of which (P. simillima) is the Californian "pom-
Butter Making. See BUTTER.
Butter Rock, an obsolete name for certain alums.
Butter-tree, various tropical or subtropical trees of different genera and even families. Their seeds yield fixed oils which resemble butter and are similarly used or are employed for lighting. The leading group is perhaps the genus Bassia of the natural order Sapotaceæ. Of this genus the best-known species are B. longifolia, the Indian oil-tree, whose wood resembles teak, and is in use in the East; B. butyracea, the Indian butter-tree, whose light wood is of no commercial importance: and B. latifolia, the East Indian Mahowa, Mahwa, or Madhuca. Beside the oil obtained from each of these trees, B. butyracea yields an edible fruit, and the corollas of B. latifolia are either eaten raw or are used for making a liquor or for distilling their essential oil. Butyrospermum Parkii, formerly referred to the genus Bassia, is the butter-tree of central Africa. It yields the galam or shea butter, obtained by boiling the seeds, which is locally an important article of commerce. The oil is obtained by boiling the kernels of the sun or kiln-dried seeds in water. It possesses long-keeping qualities. Various species of the genus Caryocar (q.v.), natives of South America, are known as butter-trees.
Butter-worker, a machine designed to unite the small particles of butter, remove the buttermilk and water, and incorporate the salt,
giving the product a uniform appearance. Hand and power machines are made, the large power workers being also used for blending butters to make them uniform. The makes are variable and numerous; some being combined with a churn, the butter not being removed until it is finished. The former method of working by the hands injured the texture of the product and was too slow. With the present machinery the butter is untouched by hand, can be held at a temperature of 45° to 55° F. during working, and is handled expeditiously. They are a necessity in all creameries and large dairies. See also BUTTER.
Butterball, a duck. See Buffelhead. Buttercup, the popular name of two or three species of the Ranunculus (q.v.).
But'terfield, Daniel, American soldier: b. Utica, N. Y., 18 Oct. 1831; d. Cold Spring, N. Y., 17 July 1901. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was colonel of the 12th New York Militia. He served in the Peninsular campaign, and under Pope and McClellan in 1862. At Fredericksburg he commanded the 5th Corps, and at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg was chief of staff. He served as chief of staff to Hooker at Lookout Mountain, and Ringgold, and Pea Vine Creek, and commanded a division at Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, and other battles. He was brevetted major-general in the regular army. He resigned in 1869, and became chief of the United States sub-treasury in New York. He was author of Camp and Outpost Duty' (1862). He is buried in the West Point military cemetery, an elaborate and costly marble tomb marking the spot.
Butterfield, William, English architect: b. 7 Sept. 1814; d. London, 25 Feb. 1900. He first attained distinction by the introduction of color into ecclesiastical buildings with the aid of bricks and mosaic. Among the notable structures designed by him are St. Augustine's College at Canterbury; Keble College, Oxford; All Saints' Church, Margaret Street, London; and the cathedral at Melbourne.
Butterfly, one of the day-flying or diurnal Lepidoptera (often called Rhopalocera). This group is at once distinguished from the moths by their knobbed antennæ, which are hairy or pectinated. The body is small, but there is a greater equality in the size of the three regions than in the moths, the abdomen being much shorter and smaller, as a general rule, than in the lower families of Lepidoptera. The ocelli are usually wanting; the spiral tongue or maxillæ are long and well developed; and the large, broad wings are carried erect when in repose, and are not held together during flight by a bristle and socket as in most of the
The larva or caterpillars vary greatly in shape and in their style of ornamentation, but they uniformly have, besides the thoracic legs, five pairs of abdominal legs. The pupa is called a "chrysalis" or "aurelian," from the bright golden hues which adorn those of many species. They disappear as the wet tissues beneath the pupa-skin harden, just before the fly appears. The pupa is usually angulated on the sides of the thorax and along the upper side of the abdomen. A few species, such as those of Vanessa,
hibernate, while several species, such as V. antiopa, are social as young larvæ. Butterflies also occasionally swarm while in the perfect state, such as species of Colias, Cynthia, and Danais, multitudes of which are sometimes seen passing overhead in long columns. They are truly tropical insects, since Wallace mentions that three times as many species (600) occur at a single point (Para, Brazil) as in all Germany, where scarcely 200 species live. There are about 13,000 species known; about 1,000 inhabit North America, and probably the number will be increased to 1,200, while about 130 species have been found in New England and its immediate border.
The butterflies are divided into six families, beginning with the more primitive and ending with the most specialized, they are: (1) Hesperiida; (2) Papilionida; (3) Pierida; (4) Lycanida; (5) Erycinide; and (6) Rymphalide. In the last three families, which comprise the majority of butterflies, the first pair of legs are more or less modified, differing from the two hinder pairs, especially in the male Nymphalidæ, in the more or less aborted tarsi, or toe-joints. Butterflies are especially liable to local variation, and to seasonal and dimorphic changes; all these varieties, subspecies, and temperature-forms are becoming better known from year to year. Sharp anticipates that eventually the number of species of butterflies may amount to from 30,000 to 40,000 forms. South America is the metropolis of butterflies, as it is of other groups of Lepidoptera, being the richest in species of any other continent.
Certain Nymphalidæ (Danais, etc.) have glands at the end of the body secreting a repulsive fluid (see MIMICRY); in others there are remarkable differences between the sexes (Ithomiides); in certain butterflies some of the scales are battledore shaped, and secrete a special odor (Androconia). The species of Ageronia, a South American genus, make a clicking noise when flying. While caterpillars are plant-eaters, those of several Lycanide are known to be carnivorous, feeding on plant-lice and scale insects.
Bibliography-Harris, A Treatise on Some of the Insects Injurious to Vegetation (3d ed. 1862); Scudder, 'Butterflies, Their Structure, Changes, and Life-histories (1881); Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada' (1887-9); French, 'The Butterflies of the Eastern United States' (1886); Edwards, 'Butterflies of North America (1868-88); Strecker, Butterflies and Moths of North America Diurnes) (1878); Kirby, A Synonomic Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera) (1871-7); Holland, The Butterfly Book' (1898); also the European works of Haebner, Herrick-Schaeffer, Boisduval, Doubleday and Hewitson, Staudinger, Eimer, Aurivillius, Moore, Niceville, Romanoff, Oberthür, Godman and Salvin, 'Biologia Centrali Americana.'
Butterfly-fish, or Coral-fish. These beautiful fish, representing the large family Chatodontide and its allies of the scaly-finned group (Squamipinnes) of marine fishes, obtain their English names from their oval form, brilliancy, and their quickness of movement, and the fact that their principal habitat is in and around the tropical coral-reefs. They are so compressed as to resemble the "pumpkin-seed" sunfishes of the ponds, and are aided in keeping their bal