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sion." Dr. Jones, Jackson's distinguished biographer, records that "the retreat became every moment more disordered," that Bee's quick eye "now told him that all was lost," and that "he could not reform his line."

At that hour a Union victory seemed assured. Johnston and Beauregard reached the position together. The troops on the line of Bull Run that had been held there by the demonstrations of two Union brigades designed to mask McDowell's turning movement, were ordered in haste to the new line which was at right angles to the first. Jackson soon arrived with five regiments and two batteries. Hampton's Legion joined him, and the Union advance was checked. Other arrivals strengthened the line. Kirby Smith's brigade of Johnston's army appeared about three o'clock, having just arrived on the field from Manassas, and pushed its three regiments toward the right of the Union line. Early's brigade of Beauregard's force, from the extreme right of his line, hastened beyond Smith's brigade, now commanded by Col. Elzey, and supported by Stuart's cavalry, appeared directly on the Union right flank. Two regiments from Bonham, and two from Cocke, also arrived upon the Union right. These also were of Beauregard's army. This turned the check which that portion of the Union line had received, first into retreat, and then into a disorganized withdrawal, except that the rear guards maintained fair order till the columns were well off the field, the right retracing its long detour by Sudley Spring. At Cub Run, half-way to Centreville, the batteries of a pursuing column broke up the wagons and batteries on the bridge, compelling the abandonment of 13 guns. From this point the movement to the rear was still farther disorganized, to which condition the vehicles of many visitors, congressmen, correspondents and officials largely contributed. The attempt to rally the troops at Centreville failed, though Gen. Johnston reported that the "apparent firmness" of the Union reserves at that point checked the pursuit. The army, in great part disorganized, streamed on to Washington. After the severe stress in which the Confederate leaders found themselves from II o'clock until about 3, the sudden change on the Union side, first from assaulting to cessation of fighting; next, to a general retreat, and, later, to widespread panic, was as much a surprise to the enemy as to the Union commanders. It was not until the second day after the battle that the Confederates ascertained the full extent of the Union stampede. Upon this point President Davis wrote Gen. Beauregard: "You will not fail to remember that, so far from knowing that the enemy was routed, a large part of our forces was moved by you in the night of the 21st to repel a supposed attack upon our right, and the next day's operations did not fully reveal what has since been reported of the enemy's panic."

McDowell's strength at Centreville appears to have been about 28,000 men and 49 guns. His report says he crossed Bull Run with 18.000 men. A very careful estimate made from official records in 1884, by Gen. James B. Fry, McDowell's adjutant-general at the battle, gives the number actually engaged as 17,676.

Gen. Beauregard reported his strength on the field when the battle opened at 27,833 and 49 guns; and after Johnston's delayed troops and Holmes' brigade had arrived in the afternoon as

31,972 and 57 guns. A very careful estimate by Gen. Thomas Jordan, his adjutant-general, fixed the number actually engaged at 18,053, thus showing the two sides to have been about equal on the firing line.

The Union loss as reported was: Killed, 460; wounded, 1,124; missing, 1,312; total, 2,896. Union guns captured or abandoned, 29.

The Confederate loss reported was: Killed, 387; wounded, 1,582; missing, 13; total, 1,982. H. V. BOYNTON. Bull Run, Second Battle of, 30 Aug. 1862. When McClellan on the peninsula had reached the vicinity of Richmond, Lee, to prevent McDowell's corps at Fredericksburg from re-inforcing McClellan, ordered Jackson in the Shenandoah to make a demonstration that should detain all available troops for the defense of Washington. Jackson advanced, and in a brilliant campaign drove Banks out of the valley, and forced him across the Potomac. By a masterly retreat, he regained the upper valley in spite of McDowell and Fremont, and soon after appeared on McClellan's flank at Mechanicsville and participated in the seven days' battles.

On 27 June the Union authorities united the three corps of McDowell, Fremont, and Banks into the Army of Virginia under the command of Maj.-Gen. John Pope. He had concentrated his forces between Sperryville and Warrenton, and began to operate with his cavalry against Lee's railroad lines about Gordonsville. His mission also was to prevent Lee from concentrating upon McClellan, when he should withdraw from the peninsula. Lee promptly sent Jackson's Division, followed by Ewell's and A. P. Hill's, to Gordonsville. On 7 August these moved from Gordonsville toward Pope's position at Culpeper, and 9 August encountered Banks at Cedar or Slaughter Mountain. Banks attacked, instead of holding his position as Pope's plan contemplated, and while at first brilliantly successful, he was at last defeated. Jackson, however, retreated on the 11th across the Rapidan.

On the 13th Lee ordered Longstreet, with his own and Hood's divisions, to Gordonsville. R. H. Anderson's division was ordered to follow. Upon their arrival Pope was largely outnumbered. Lee planned a move for the 18th against Pope's left, but this officer learned of the plan through the capture of Stuart's adjutant-general, re-crossed the Rappahannock, and took position behind it on the 20th. Lee next arranged to cross at Sulphur Springs, turn Pope's right, and move upon his communications. This failed. Pope, at the same time, had planned to cross the river and attack Lee's right and rear, but a sudden flood prevented the movement. Lee then sent Jackson's corps far beyond Pope's right by way of Salem and Thoroughfare Gap to cut Pope's railroad line at Manassas. Jackson succeeded, passing around Pope's right, capturing Bristoe Station and Manassas with its immense supplies on the night of 26 August. Pope moved to attack him at Manassas. On the night of the 27th and early on the 28th, Jackson's three divisions withdrew by different roads, and soon after noon of the 28th assembled on the battlefield of the first Bull Run.

On the night of the 25th Pope's headquarters were at Warrenton Junction. Reynolds' Division had joined him on the 23d. On the 25th the

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Jackson was just north of it on the first Bull Run field. The Union approach led Jackson to attack, thus revealing his position, which Pope had been vainly seeking. This was the battle of Gainesville, being a very bitter fight between Taliaferro's Division and two brigades of Ewell, and King of McDowell's advance.

After the close of the fight, in the absence of McDowell, his two divisions retreated, Rickett's to Bristoe Station, and King's to Manassas. At daylight of the 29th the Union forces were again put in motion to pursue Jackson. His line was

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of the charges under which he was subsequently court-martialed and cashiered. Rickett's Division, the rear of McDowell's corps, upon the information from the cavalry that Longstreet's forces were entering Thoroughfare Gap, moved to the gap and held Longstreet back during the day, and into the evening of the 28th. In the afternoon of the 28th Pope, supposing Jackson east of Bull Run, ordered his army to Centreville, Heintzelman and Reno by the fords of Bull Run, McDowell, Sigel, and Reynolds by the Warrenton turnpike. The advance along the turnpike was begun without the knowledge that


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mainly along an unfinished railroad, the left near Sudley Spring, and his right on high ground north of the Warrenton road overlooking Groveton. The Union forces attacked throughout the day, with brief intermissions. The contest was desperate, and Jackson's line, though hard pressed at various points, maintained its organization. Porter's failure to here attack the Confederate right was another of the charges under which he was tried. Subsequently, however, he was exonerated by the findings of an army board, and restored to his rank by act of Congress. McDowell arrived late, with King's Division.


As it moved into action it encountered the head of Longstreet's column, which had achieved its junction with Jackson. In less than an hour, in a bloody contest, Hood's Division of Longstreet's force had ended the battle of Groveton. Such were the preliminaries of the Second Bull Run.

The battle of Manassas, the Second Bull Run, was fought 30 August, the day following the action at Groveton. The movement covered the ground of McDowell's and Johnston's battle of the year before. Jackson's line occupied the position from Sudley Spring to the heights overlooking Groveton. Lee, whose forces were now all up, formed Longstreet's line across the Warrenton turnpike on high ground about a mile west of Groveton. On this ridge he established a number of batteries under Stephen D. Lee and Walton. The line then turned east south of the turnpike, and extended toward the Sudley Spring road. The Confederate position south of the Warrenton road seemed not to be suspected by Pope. The fact that after the action of the afternoon before Jackson's troops had retired to their morning position Lee had withdrawn Longstreet's advance to form on better ground, misled Pope and caused him to insist that the enemy was retreating. At noon, after reconnoissances north of the road, he therefore ordered vigorous pursuit. Porter was to push west on the Warrenton pike followed by King's Division on his right and Reynolds' on his left. Ricketts' Division, followed by Heintzelman's corps, was to pursue on the Haymarket road. Sigel's and Reno's corps were the reserves.

About four o'clock Porter advanced with his own corps and King's Division pushed in on Jackson's line with great vigor, and assault followed assault, each made with great pertinacity. Lee seemed willing to let them continue in order to exhaust his opponents. At length Jackson sent for help, and Longstreet was ordered to his assistance. This officer had, however, posted his batteries so as to enfilade Jackson's front, and instead of sending troops, opened with a terrific flanking fire of artillery. The Union lines were repulsed with great loss. Nearly all of Pope's forces had been put in north of the turnpike and had been seriously repulsed. All Union support was now directed to defend the position against Longstreet's forces south of the Warrenton pike. The whole of Longstreet's line went forward toward the road with a rush. There were five divisions - Wilcox on the left, then Evans (Hood), Anderson, Kemper, and Jones. As soon as Jackson, north of the road, saw the advance of Longstreet he ordered his own line forward. The corps of Heintzelman and Reno resisted this attack, but were gradually forced back. The supreme struggle of the Union forces was to hold two elevated_positions near the Henry and Chinn houses. The latter, known as Bald Hill, was carried by the Confederates, after persistent and sanguinary fighting. The Henry house hill was held against repeated assaults. The Union army was in retreat across Bull Run, and the possession of the hill was necessary to maintain an orderly retreat.

The Union troops remained in possession until eight o'clock, when the last of Pope's army moved unmolested toward the Stone Bridge, crossing Bull Run about midnight. The bridge was then destroyed and the Union army concentrated at Centreville. It was a Union defeat,

but not a rout. While there was much straggling, the main army had retreated in good order, and Lee did not pursue. In the management of the battle Lee had displayed his eminent general ship in a striking manner. Pope's chief error had been in persisting, before his attack was delivered, that the enemy was in retreat.

Pope was re-inforced at Centreville by the strong corps of Sumner and Franklin from the Army of the Potomac. Here also he found supplies. His army had fought for two days almost entirely without food or forage. Lee began pursuit the afternoon of the day after the battle, Jackson leading from Sudley Ford, and marching by a circuitous route toward Fairfax Court House, seven miles in rear of Centreville. Passing Chantilly, he turned toward the Warrenton turnpike and formed in front of Ox Hill, his right extending toward the pike. He was far in advance of Longstreet, and wholly without support. He was attacked by the two divisions of Reno under Stevens, and later by Kearny. Stevens and Kearny were killed, and Jackson was repulsed.

Longstreet came up at night, and at noon the next day (2 September) Pope's army was ordered by the authorities at Washington to withdraw within the defenses of the city. Pope's losses throughout the campaign from 16 August to 2 September were: Army of Virginia, killed and wounded 5,318, missing 2,787; Army of the Potomac, killed and wounded 3,613, missing 1,115; 9th Army Corps, killed and wounded 1,204, missing 319; Kanawha division, killed and wounded 64, missing 42; total killed and wounded 10,199; captured or missing 4,263. The Confederate losses are not fully reported, but the best estimates placed them at about 8,500. There are no official returns which enable a presentation of the exact strength of either army during the campaign up to 30 August, but the best estimate places the Union forces at about 65,000 to 70,000, and the Confederate at 54,000.

References: Official Record of the War of the Rebellion,' Vol. II.; George H. Gordon, History of the Campaign of the Army of Virginia'; John G. Nicolay, 'Outbreak of the Rebellion; John C. Ropes, The Army Under Pope'; The Century Co., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War'; A. L. Long, 'Memoirs of Robert E. Lee'; J. E. Cooke, Stonewall Jackson'; Fitzhugh Lee, 'Life of Gen. Robert E. Lee'; Joseph E. Johnston, Johnston's Narrative'; William Allen, The Army of Northern Virginia in 1862'; G. F. R. Henderson, Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War'; Alfred Roman, The Military Operations of General Beauregard in the War Between the States'; the Count of Paris, 'History of the Civil War in America.' H. V. BOYNTON.

Bull-snake. See PINE SNAKE.

Bull-terrier. See TERRIER.

Bull-trout. (1) A salmon-like trout of North America. See SALMON-TROUT. (2) The Dolly Varden trout (q.v.)

Bulla, a genus of mollusks called, from the thinness of their shells, bubble-shells. The shell is oval, ventricose, convoluted externally, or only partially invested by the animal. The animal has a large cephalic disk bilobed behind; the lateral lobe is much developed. It occurs in


temperate and tropical seas from 25 to 30 fathoms. Over 50 recent species are known and 70 fossil, the latter from the Oölite onward.

Bullace, a small tree or shrub allied to the prunes. It is akin to the variety Spinosa (the sloe), but differs in having the peduncles and under side of the leaves pubescent and the branches slightly spinous, whereas the Spinosa has the peduncles glabrous, the leaves ultimately so also, and the branches decidedly spinous. It stands midway between the plum and the sloe. In England its fruit is used for making jam. The tree is seldom found in America.

Bullæ, miniature blisters, or blebs. They are larger than vesicles, with a large portion of cuticle detached from the skin and a watery transparent fluid between. The skin beneath is

red and inflamed.

Bullant, Jean, zhon bu-län, French architect: b. probably in Ecouen about 1515; d. Paris, 10 Oct. 1578. He studied at Rome and after his return to France became supervisor of the royal buildings. He was connected with the erection of the Tuileries and built the pavilion named for him. He was also the architect of the Hôtel de Soissons for Catherine de Medici. In 1570 he succeeded Primaticcio at Fontainbleau.

Bullbat, a name in the Southern States for the nighthawk (q.v.), a bird which flies in the dusk like a bat, and makes a booming sound.

Bulle, bul-lė, Konstantin, German historian: b. Minden, 30 March 1844. He studied philosophy and history at Jena and Bonn, taught in the high school at Bonn and became director of the gymnasium there in 1879. In 1887-90 he was a member of the Reichstag. After some philosophical studies he devoted himself to historical work and wrote: History of Recent Times 1815-71'; 'History of the Years 1871-7 and History of the Second Empire and the Italian Kingdom.' The first two were combined and published as 'History of Recent Times' in 1886.

Bullen, búl'len, Frank Thomas, English author and lecturer: b. Paddington, London, 5 April 1857. He received but scanty schooling, and after a few years' experience as errand boy, etc., went to sea as ordinary seaman in 1869, becoming chief mate after several years. He left the sea in 1883 and was junior clerk in the English meteorological office, 1883-99. His contributions to nautical literature have attracted widespread attention. The earliest of these, 'The Cruise of the Cachelot' (1898) being the most noted. His other books include: 'Idylls of the Sea; The Log of a Sea Waif) (1899); The Men of the Merchant Service); With Christ at Sea'; 'A Sack of Shakings' (1901); The Apostles of the Southeast'; 'Deep Sea Plunderings (1901); A Whaleman's Wife' (1902).

Buller, bul'ler, Sir Redvers Henry, English general: b. Devonshire, 1839. He joined the 60th Rifles as ensign in 1858; in 1862 was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and eight years later to that of captain. He was a major in 1874, lieutenant-colonel in 1878, colonel in 1879, and major-general in 1884. He served with his regiment in the Chinese campaign of 1860, and on the Red River expedition in 1870. During the Ashantee war he acted as quartermaster

general and head of the intelligence department, and gained special mention for his behavior in several engagements. He also served with distinction during the Kaffir war of 1878, and the Victoria Cross was conferred on him in 1879 for his gallant conduct in saving the lives of two officers and a trooper of the Frontier Light Horse during the retreat at Inhlobane in the Zulu campaign. He was chief of the staff to Sir Evelyn Wood in the war against the Boers in 1881, and in Egypt in the following year, gaining special distinction for his services at Kassassin, Tel-el-Kebir, and elsewhere. In the staff to Lord Wolseley, and was in command at Sudan campaign of 1884-5 he was chief of the the battle of Abu-klea when Sir Herbert Stewhe held the post of quartermaster-general of the art had been wounded. From 1887 till 1890 army, and from 1890 till 1897 he acted as adjutant-general to the forces. In 1886-7 he was under-secretary to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and in 1891 was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1882, K.C.B. in 1885, and G.C.B. in 1894. In 1899 he went to Natal as commander in the war with the Boer republics, and succeeded in relieving Ladysmith after it had been besieged 118 days. His various reverses prior to this event caused him to be superseded by Gen. Roberts, and on his return to England he was placed on the retired list in consequence of an unwise speech of his. The publication of official documents, still later, practically destroyed his reputation as a commander, it being shown by these he had advised Gen. White, the defender of Ladysmith, to give up the defense and surrender to the Boers.

Bullers of Buchan, a large oval cavity in the rocks on the east coast of Aberdeenshire, about six miles to the south of Peterhead, forming a sort of pot or caldron about 150 feet deep, open to the sky above and communicating with the sea below by a natural arch or horizontal passage, into which the waves often rush with a tremendous noise.

Bullet, the projectile used for small-arms, either spherical or of an elongated form. The elongated bullet is now in general use for rifles, and there has also been introduced some means of dilating the bullet at the moment of explosion, so that it is forced into the grooves of the rifle and exactly fits the barrel. In some cases there is merely a cavity left at the base of the bullet into which the gases formed on the explosion of the gunpowder are forced, so that these have the effect of dilating the bullet in the manner required. In other cases a plug is inserted in the cavity, which is driven forward by the explosion of the gunpowder, and has the same effect. Spherical bullets remained in use long after the invention of the rifle, though several kinds of elongated bullets were suggested by various inventors of the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1837 the French adopted an elongated bullet invented by Delvigne, but this was superseded by the Minié bullet about 1846. A similar form, but with a wooden plug instead of an iron cup to cause the expansion, was introduced into the English army with the Enfield rifles of 1855. Previous to this, in 1841, the Prussians had adopted the celebrated needle breech-loading rifle, with an egg-shaped bullet resting on a thick wad which alone took the


grooves of the rifle. In 1864 the three-grooved Enfield barrel was combined with the Snider breech-action in the rifles of the English army. The bullet supplied with this arm had a plug of baked clay and a hollow head, the lubrication being effected by bees'-wax placed in four cannelures running round its base. In 1866 the Chassepôt rifle was adopted by the French authorities, the bullet having shoulders serving the same end as the wad in the needle-gun bullet. The temporarily introduced Snider-Enfield rifles were replaced in 1874 by the much better Martini-Henry type, whose bullet, though longer and of smaller diameter, has the cylindrical form with domed end found in the French Chassepôt. The lubrication in this case was effected by a covering of wax-paper and a bees'wax wad. The diminution in the diameter of the bullet was carried still further in the EnfieldMartini rifle of 1886, the bullets then supplied measuring only about two fifths of an inch in diameter; and in several subsequent types of rifle they are of still smaller diameter. This decrease in calibre has been accompanied by an increase in length in order to preserve the weight of the bullet, and it has also been found necessary to cover the lead of the bullet with a thin coating of some such metal as steel, copper, nickel, or German silver. These changes are all embodied in the bullets of the Lee-Metford magazine rifle, and the necessity for lubricators is thus done away with. The Lee-Metford bullet has a length of 305 inches, and the diameter of 312 inch. There is considerable variation in the weight of bullets. The old Brunswick bullets weighed 557, the Minié, 680 grains. The Enfield bullet had a weight of 535 grains; the Snider and Martini-Henry, 480; the EnfieldMartini, 384, while the Lee-Metford bullet weighs only 216 grains. The French Lebel magazine rifle has a bullet with a weight of 215 grains, and in a later French form, the Berthier, the weight is 205 grains. The Lebel bullet is flattened at the point in order to lessen the risk of explosion in the magazine. The German Mauser and Mannlicher magazine rifles have bullets of the same weight as the Lee

Metford. The slenderness of modern rifle bullets has necessitated the construction of rifles of very small bore, and this in turn has compelled the substitution of pellets of compressed powder for the older loose powder. In recent years a peculiar kind of bullet known as the Dum-Dum has been employed by English troops in warfare with uncivilized races, as the frontier tribes of India. In this the lead core is inserted from the top, not from the base, as in other bullets, and the lead being unprotected at the point, has to sustain the shock of the impact. The consequence is that it expands in the wound, and thus, even though it should pass right through a person's body, its effects are very severe, and likely to stop the onrush of the foe.

Bullet-tree, or Bully-tree (Mimusops Balata or Sapota Mulleri), a forest tree of Guiana and neighboring regions, order Sapotacea, yielding an excellent gum known as balata, having properties giving it in some respects an intermediate position between gutta-percha and indiarubber, and making it for certain industrial purposes more useful than either. The timber of the tree also is valuable.

Vol. 3-30

Bullfinch, an European finch (Pyrrhula curopaa), frequently kept as a cage bird, mainly because of its ability to learn to whistle tunes, the most capable birds, trained in Germany, acquiring as many as six. The training of "piping bullfinches" is a special art, and various domestic varieties are bred, some of which bring high prices. Its natural song is not remarkable. The bullfinch is a large bird of its kind, with a big inflated beak, and soft dense plumage. It is pearl-gray above and dull red on the under parts; the crown of the head, the beak, and the tail and wing quills are black, the latter crossed by a broad white bar. The colors of the female are duller than those of the male. Several similar species are known elsewhere, one (P. cassini) inhabiting Alaska. See CAGE BIRDS.

Bullheads, or "horned-pouts," are small, dark-colored catfish, abundant everywhere east of the plains, and, by introduction, in California and Oregon. They are mud-loving fishes, remaining on the bottom and feeling for food with the barbels, one on each side of the mouth and two under the chin. The "common bullhead" (Ameiurus nebulosis) varies in length, at full age, from 18 to 24 inches, and occasionally weighs 5 pounds. It is brownishblack in color, with a fine, scaleless, rubber-like skin, a big head, and a long upper jaw. It is a gluttonous biter, gorging the bait, so that the hook must often be cut out of its interior. A smaller species, the black bullhead (A. melas) may be distinguished by the smaller anal fin and its nearly white rays. The southern "flatheaded cat" (A. platycephalus) has an eel-like form and a greenish brown hue, and is almost entirely herbivorous. Several of the large "catfish" (q.v.) of the western lakes belong to this


botanist: b. Aubepierre en Barrois, about 1742; Bulliard, Pierre, pē-ãr bül-yär, French d. Paris 1793. He was educated at the College of Langres, where he showed a decided taste for natural history, proceeded to Paris to pursue his medical studies, and employed his leiParisiensis, which he afterward published in sure in collecting the materials of a Flora other works are a 'Herbier de la France, and six volumes, with colored plates. Among his


'Dictionnaire Élémentaire de Botanique,' which has been repeatedly printed.

Bullinger, Heinrich, hin'riн bùl'ling-er, Swiss reformer: b. Bremgarten, 18 Aug. 1504; d. Zürich, 17 Sept. 1575. He studied first at Emmerich, in the duchy of Cleves, and afterward at Cologne. His intention was to become a Carthusian monk, but after perusing the writings of Melanchthon and other reformers he changed his views, formed a close connection with Zuinglius, became one of the most strenuous supporters of his views, and ultimately succeeded him in his charge of Zürich. He was one of the authors of the first Helvetic Confession, drew up in concert with Calvin the formulary of 1549, by which the differences between the churches of Zürich and Geneva on the subject of the Lord's Supper were happily terminated, and kept up a close correspondence with the lately published by the Parker Society, conprincipal English reformers. The Zürich Letters, tains part of this correspondence, and among others, letters addressed to him by Lady Jane Grey. The most important of his many writ

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