Page images

He was educated at Heidelberg and Bonn, and from his student days till he settled in England in 1852 he was continually engaged in agitating or in heading risings in the cause of German freedom and union, being frequently imprisoned. The democratic propaganda has since been supported by his pen; and he has written political and biographical works: Fire-burial Among Our Germanic Forefathers'; Teutonic_Cremation'; Yggdrasil, or The Teutonic Tree of Existence; biographies of Freiligrath, Ledru Rollin, and Francis Deák.

Blind, Mathilde, German-English poet: b. Mannheim, 21 March 1847; d. London, 26 Nov. 1896. She went to England in 1849, and won fame by her writings: The Prophecy of St. Oran, and Other Poems (Lond. 1881); Life of George Eliot' (1883); Madame Roland' (1886); The Heather on Fire,' a tale (1886); Ascent of Man' (1889); Dramas in Miniature (1892); Songs and Sonnets (1893); and 'Birds of Passage' (1895).

Blind. The loss of the sense by means of which man receives an idea of the world that surrounds him, clothed in light and color, is an event as melancholy as it is frequent. Blindness is different: (1) In its degrees, some persons being partially blind, retaining a slight perception of light, with the power of distinguishing very brilliant colors, and the general outlines of bodies; others being entirely deprived of the faculty of seeing. (2) In its causes: some men are blind from their birth; others have become blind by local diseases of the eyes,- for instance, - by inflammation, suppuration, cancer of the eye-ball, spots, films, tumors on the cornea (by which its transparency is destroyed), also by closure of the pupil, by a turbid state of the humors, by a debility of the optic nerve, or by general diseases of the body, violent fevers, nervous fevers, plethora, and tendency of the blood to the head, erysipelas in the face, smallpox, scarlet-fever, etc., or by excessive exertion of the eyes, by which the optic nerve is enfeebled; for which reason, some classes of mechanics and artists, as blacksmiths, laborers in glass and smelting houses, watch-makers, etc., not unfrequently lose their sight, and in northern countries, which are covered with snow for a long time, and which dazzle the eyes by the reflection of the sunbeams, as well as in the sandy deserts of Africa, blindness is a frequent complaint. Old age is sometimes accompanied with blindness, occasioned by the drying up of the humors of the eye, or by the opacity of the cornea, the crystalline lens, etc. There are several causes which may produce blindness from birth. Sometimes the eyelids adhere to each other, or to the eye-ball itself, or a membrane covers the eyes; sometimes the pupil of the eye is closed, or adheres to the cornea, or is not situated in the right place, so that the rays of light do not fall in the middle of the eye; besides other defects. Those who are born blind have no idea of vision, and are entirely destitute of all the ideas derived from the sense of sight. They cannot, therefore, be sensible of their misfortune in the same degree as those who have lost their sight at a later period. Experience has shown that those who acquire the power of seeing after being born blind, or having lost their sight in their childhood, form very different ideas of visible objects from other

persons. A young man, whom Cheselden couched for a cataract, at the moment he received sight imagined that all the objects which he saw were in contact with his eyes; he could not distinguish objects, although of very different forms. Those with which he was already familiar by the touch he examined with great attention, in order to recognize them another time; but having too many things to notice at once, he soon forgot all that he had observed. He wondered that those persons whom he loved most were not handsomer than others. Before he received his sight he had expressed a great desire to obtain this sense. The other senses of persons, who have been blind for a long time, become more exquisite, perhaps, because they the sight of so many objects. The blind, thereare not subject to the distraction produced by mental activity, and a wonderful development fore, are often distinguished for a remarkable hearing, particularly, become very acute. of the intellectual powers. Their touch and Thus it is related of a blind man, who lived at Puiseaux, in France, and was a chemist and musician, that he could accurately estimate the proportions of objects, could judge of the distance of fire by the degree of heat, determine the quantity of fluid in vessels by the sound it produced while running from one vessel into another, and the proximity of objects by the effect of the air upon his face. He determined very accurately the weights of bodies and the capacities of vessels. The celebrated Saunderson, professor of mathematics at Cambridge, lost his sight in his early youth. He invented several processes to facilitate his studies in arithmetic and geometry. His sense of touch was so acute that he distinguished spurious coins merely by letting them pass through his fingers, though they were so well executed that even skilful judges were deceived by them.

When it is a case of imparting instruction to persons destitute of sight, it is necessary to have recourse to the other senses to supply the want of the eye. If, for instance, we wish to teach them the arts of reading and writing, letters must be prepared which will be palpable to the touch, and the hand guided until they are able to copy them. If we wish to communicate to them a knowledge of the surface of the earth, globes and maps must be prepared with the divisions, etc., in relief. Knowledge obtained in this way must, of course, be acquired much more slowly than that received by the sight. The senses of touch and of sight differ in this respect, that the former ascends by degrees from the perception of parts to the perception of the whole, while the latter views the whole at a single glance. It is therefore evident that the blind cannot be instructed in the common schools destined for those who see: in the first place, because the means of instruction by the touch are wanting; and secondly, because the progress of the other children would be retarded by the slow apprehension of the blind pupils. (See BLIND, EDUCATION OF THE.)

The occupations in which the blind are found capable of engaging are such as the making of baskets and other kinds of wicker-work, brushmaking, rope and twine-making, the making of mats and matting, knitting, netting, fancy work of various kinds, cutting fire-wood, the sewing of sacks and bags, the carving of articles in wood, etc. Piano-tuning is also successfully car

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]


ried on by some, the typewriter is used by others and the cleaning of clocks and watches has also been occasionally practised by them. Skilled musicians are sometimes found among the blind. Reading Room for the Blind.— By an act of Congress passed in 1879, entitled an Act to Promote the Education of the Blind, $250,000 was set apart to be permanently invested in securities of the United States, the proceeds of which were to be applied, through the American Printing House for the Blind at Louisville, to the making of books and apparatus used in the education of the blind, to be annually distributed to the schools for the blind in the several States in proportion to attendance. For almost a quarter of a century this benefaction has been available for the youthful blind of the country in the schools, and the books in embossed characters have multiplied amazingly. The catalogue now embraces nearly or quite every title in popular literature and technical subjects, and as only the best books are printed in raised letters, the entire catalogue constitutes the finest and best library of equal numbers in the world. There is a steady increase in the number of visitors in the reading room for the blind in the library of Congress. To Helen Marr Campbell is given by many the credit of having taken the initial steps to procure this reading room. She was a frequent visitor to the crowded rooms of the old Congressional Library, and often found the experiences there far from agreeable. The few books for the blind were often difficult to obtain and equally difficult to read in cramped rooms, and too often under the scrutiny of curious and annoying strangers. Going to John Russell Young, then librarian, she made a request for a special reading room in behalf of the blind readers of Washington. He was quick to see the justice of the request, and at once placed the fitting up of Pavilion No. 7 in the new library in charge of the second assistant librarian, David Hutcheson. This is in the extreme northwestern corner of the ground floor of the great building and is a large and well-appointed room, with square bay windows and a groined ceiling resting upon massive pillars. The alcoves along the eastern wall are filled with the specially prepared books for the blind; the Bible, making so many large volumes that it completely fills one of the alcove shelves.

Dictionary for the Blind-The first general dictionary ever issued in any country or language was published in 1903 by the Maryland School for the Blind. It contains 40,000 words, with complete diacritical marks and definitions and fills 18 volumes. In the last 10 years more books have been printed for the blind than in all previous time. This is due largely to the rapid spread of the New York point system of printing for the blind. The new dictionary, as well as all the books from the Maryland School printing house, is printed in New York point. The American Printing House for the Blind at Louisville expends its annual subsidy of $10,000 entirely in New York point printing. The annual appropriation of $1,000 by the State of New York for the publication of general literature for the blind department of the State Library at Albany goes into New York point. The International Sunday-School Lessons go out weekly over the United States in New York point. Three periodicals are published in it. There is an excellent musical library in it, including a

dictionary of 6,000 musical terms. The Society of St. Francis Xavier uses the system in its publishing house for the blind.

Photophonic Books for the Blind.- A sheet of transparent paper contains, printed upon a black background, a number of small white squares, separated from each other by intervals one, two, or more lengths of a square in size. These squares, together with the intervals, represent the letters of the alphabet, exactly as do the dots and dashes of Morse. In order to enable the blind to read these letters, the printed sheet is placed in a frame between two thin plates of glass fully exposed to the light, and an opaque piece of cardboard, or some other material, with a square-shaped opening in the centre, is moved by the reader along the printed lines from left to right. Whenever the opening passes over one of the white transparent squares, the rays of light illuminating the printed sheet pass through this opening, and, by means of a photophonic apparatus, are changed into sound. In this way, the blind reader receives the letters in the form of sounds separated by longer or shorter intervals of silence, and his ear fulfills the functions of the eye.

Blind, Education of the. When it is stated that prior to 1830 the blind of America were to be found "moping in hidden corners or degraded by the wayside, or vegetating in almshouses," it is the adult blind that is meant. Still blind children were occasionally found in these places, though it could scarcely be said that they were vegetating, as could be said of the untrained deaf children.

The British census of 1851 first showed the world that over 80 per cent of the blind are adults. Our schools for the blind were started, first, because of the wide-spread interest in the results of educating the young deaf and dumb, which furnished inspiration for new fields of educational endeavor; secondly, because the country was coming to the conviction that all the children of the state should receive education both as a matter of public policy and as a private right; and thirdly, because reports of what had been accomplished abroad in schools for the blind were being promulgated in our land. By 1830 the more progressive states of the east were ready to give their blind children school training. In that year the government first included in the national census the deaf and dumb and the blind. The work of the blind was to begin with scientific foreknowledge as to their number. In 1829 certain gentlemen in Boston obtained the incorporation of the "New England Asylum for the Blind." By a most fortunate circumstance, the interest and services were obtained of a graduate of Brown University, Dr. Samuel G. Howe, who after finishing his medical studies had chivalrously gone to the aid of the Greeks. Dr. Howe went at once to Europe to study methods of instruction. Upon his return, in 1832, the In New school was opened with six pupils. York the act of incorporation of the New York Institution for the Blind was passed in 1831; but funds were needed and no one went abroad to study methods. This school opened in March, 1832, antedating by a few months the school at Boston. In the very same year a German teacher of the blind, a Mr. Friedlander, most


opportunely came to Philadelphia, in the hope of starting a school for the blind there. Having trained certain blind children he exhibited their accomplishments, first, to a few influential people, secondly, before a large audience among whom he distributed a leaflet, "Observations on the instruction of blind persons." A meeting of public-spirited citizens followed, funds were liberally contributed, fairs held, and the success of the cause was assured. The Pennsylvania institution for the instruction of the blind was opened in 1833, fully ten months before an act of incorporation was obtained. The three schools at Boston, New York, and Philadelphia are called the pioneer schools. All sprang from private effort and private funds. All were incorporated as private institutions, and remain so to this day. Two similar institutions for the blind have arisen in this country, that at Baltimore and that at Pittsburg. The origin of the State schools differs from that of the type above given only in that classes of trained pupils from the earlier schools were exhibited before the state legislatures, as well as before the people. State appropriations followed and the institutions were inaugurated as state institutions. The new schools sprang into being with astonishing rapidity. There were in 1899 forty schools for the blind in the United States, and every State in the union makes provision for its blind of school age either in its own school or in that of a neighboring state. In our sparsely-settled country, especially west of the Alleghenies and south of Maryland, great efforts had to be made to find the children and still greater efforts to persuade the parents to send them to school. In certain states where the amount of the public fund seemed to preclude a special grant for the blind, pupils of this class were brought together in connection with a school for the deaf and dumb, forming "dual schools," as they are called. These institutions could not help being unfair to their blind contingent; for in nearly every such case the blind came to a school already established as a school for the deaf, and under the superintendence of a man especially interested in the education of the deaf; moreover, the number of the deaf pupils usually far exceeded that of the blind. There are still a few of these dual schools, but wherever possible they have been divided into two distinct institutions. In northern schools the colored blind are educated with the white; in southern schools it is best for the colored to have schools of their own. Both the whites and they prefer this arrangement. The first school for the colored blind was opened in North Carolina in 1869.

All the institutions for the blind were in their very inception schools. The pioneer schools imported literary teachers from Paris and handicraft teachers from Edinburgh. At first only the brighter class of pupils came under instruction. Teaching them was easy. They progressed with amazing strides; all was enthusiasm; exhibitions were called for and widely given (Dr. Howe's pupils gave exhibitions in 17 states); large editions of the various annual reports were exhausted. Soon, however, less bright pupils came to be admitted; then the curriculum of studies began to sober down to the practical and comprehensive one prevailing to-day. Whatever occupation the boy

or girl expects to follow after leaving school, it is assumed he will follow it better and thus live more happily and worthily if he has a general education. When, as was formerly the case, the period or term of schooling allowed pupils was shorter than it is now, they were not admitted before the age of eight or nine. Now that kindergarten departments have been universally added to the schools, the pupils are urged to enter at an early age; because experience has shown that at home these little blind folks are coddled rather than trained, so much so in fact that by the time many of them come to school their natural growth of body and mind has been so interfered with by inaction, that all the efforts of the schools cannot make up for lost time and opportunity. The principle of periodicity of growth has now come to be understood and the importance of applying the proper stimulus at the period most sensitive to it, comprehended. Children with good sight and hearing have got along without kindergarten training, and so have blind children, but of all the useful means of reaching and developing the average blind child none is so effective as the properly-conducted kindergarten. The practical knowledge of things comes to the blind through the hand, their fingers being veritable projections of their brains. Thus must their hands not only be trained to sensitiveness of touch but to be strong and supple, so that they may, indeed, be dexterous; for as their hands are so are their brains. The kindergarten cultivates ear and heart and hand and brain as nothing else does. Even color is not wholly omitted in kindergartens for the blind. Many see colors, and those who do not love to talk about them and certainly derive some indirect value for considering them.

Blind children with kindergarten training are more susceptible to instruction than those without it. Above this department the course of studies in American schools requires from seven to eight years, which means a primary, a grammar and a high school education, or instruction in object lessons, reading, writing, spelling. grammar, composition, arithmetic, history, physiology, botany, zoology, geology, physics, algebra, geometry, civics, English literature, typewriting and sometimes Latin and modern languages. Not a few pupils have fitted for college where they took the regular course with the seeing students, and from which they were graduated usually with distinction. Formerly much of the teaching was oral, which, in many cases, was apt to be more pleasant than profitable to the pupil. Since the general introduction of the embossed text book and tangible writing, the pupil has been forced to depend more and more upon himself, obviously with better results. In fact, the work has been growing more and more practical. The methods of teaching the blind correspond in general to those of teaching other hearing children. The common appliances have but to be raised and enlarged as in maps and diagrams, or simply made tangible, which may be done, for example, by notching an ordinary ruler so that the graduations can be felt.

Industrial training has been an integral part of the school course from the beginning. Recently educational manual training has been generally introduced as preliminary to the

[ocr errors]


trades. Sloyd has been found especially adapted to the blind. The handicrafts-chair-caning, hammock-making, broom-making, carpet-weaying, and a few others, alone remain of all the many trades taught at one time or another in our schools. Manual occupations of some kind will always be taught, even were it evident that none of them would be followed by the blind as trades; for it is by doing and making that the blind especially learn best. Then, it is essential that they be kept occupied. In the past, before the introduction of such varieties of labor-saving machinery as the last half century has seen, many of the discharged pupils followed some manual trade and succeeded in subsisting by it. To-day this is less and less possible. The mind itself of the blind is least trammeled by the lack of sight; hence some pursuit where intelligence is the chief factor would seem to be best adapted to his condition. Music, of course, opens up his most delightful field. It is said that all the force of the superintendents of the early schools was required to prevent the institutions from becoming mere conservatories of music. To-day only those pupils pursue music in regular course who have talent for it; but even those are not allowed to neglect other studies for it. It is the experience of the American schools, as of the European, that the profession of music offers to the educated and trained musician who is blind, a field in .which he can work his way with least hindrance from his lack of sight, and many are they who have found in it a means of livelihood for themselves and their families. A few in nearly every school fit themselves to be tuners of pianos. The American schools for the blind were founded upon embossed books. Dr. Howe states somewhere that the simple reading from embossed print did more to establish the schools in the country than any other one thing. Extraordinary pains were taken by Dr. Howe and his assistants to perfect a system which should be at once readily tangible to the fingers of the blind and legible to the eyes of their friends. The result was the small lower-case letter of Dr. Howe, the Boston line print, as it is often called. To this the jury gave preference before all other embossed systems exhibited at the great exhibition of the industry of all nations, in London, in 1851. Backed by such indorsement and all the authority of Dr. Howe the system was rapidly adopted into the American schools. It was then the theory that the blind would be further isolated from their friends if their alphabets were dissimilar. The blind of themselves had devised a writable system -arbitrary and composed of dots or points - one which they could both read and write. But the early superintendents would not countenance it. However, many of the blind failed to read the line-letter system; because to read it requires extreme nicety of touch, which all the blind by no means have. Characters composed of points, not of lines, are scientifically adapted to touch reading. In the 33d report of the New York institution, Supt. William B. Wait wrote: "Now, which is the more important, that all the young blind should be able to read, thus being made, in fact, like the seeing, or that they should be taught an alphabet which in some sort resembles that used by the seeing, but by doing which only 34 per cent of them

will ever be able to read with any pleasure or profit?" This attitude of the New York school was the outcome of statistics gathered from seven institutions, in which 664 pupils were involved, and of experiments made by Mr. Wait with his own pupils, using a system scientifically devised by him, composed of points in arbitrary combination. This was in 1868. At the next convention of the American instructors of the blind, it was resolved "That the New York horizontal point alphabet as arranged by Mr. Wait should be taught in all institutions for the education of the blind." Europe was a long time accepting a writable point system. That of Louis Braille, devised in 1829, though much used by individuals, was not officially adopted into the Paris school where it originated until 1854. In contrast, America devised, printed, spread, and resolved to accept its writable system in less than one-half the time. The benefits of a tangible writable system are vast. It puts the blind more nearly on a par with the seeing, particularly as pupils in school. Its adoption here, next to that of tangible printing, makes obtainable the ideal of American schools for the blind. Every tangible system has its defects. French "braille" as adopted into England has antiquated abbreviations and contractions for the use of adults; and is involved with rules allowing much bad use, like the omission of all capitals. The New York point as printed also laid itself open to much criticism as to "good use." The American braille, the latest system, combining the best features of French braille and of New York point, was devised by a blind teacher of the Perkins institution. It takes full account of "good use," and those who use the system deem it very satisfactory. In 1892, when the American braille system was adopted into several schools, a typewriter for writing braille was invented, and this was followed by the invention of another machine for embossing braille directly on plates of thin brass from which any number of duplicates could be struck off on paper. Here was a means of creating a new library at once. But the chief value of the invention lay in the fact that as the machine was simple and inexpensive and could be operated if necessary by a blind man, any institution could have a printing office of its own. And several schools immediately established such offices, from which they issued at once whatever their school classes demanded. By co-operating in the selection of the books to be embossed these schools have created in the space of seven years a library of books in American braille than which there is no superior in any system in any country, and they have added an immense amount of music in the braille music notation, which is the same all over the world. A typewriter, and a machine for embossing brass plates in the New York point system, have also appeared.

The Association of American instructors was formed in 1871, has met biennially ever since, usually as the guest of one or another of the institutions. The proceedings of each convention have been published. The principles underlying the scheme for educating the blind being to make them as little as possible a class apart from the rest of the community, it has not been deemed wise to attempt to establish a national college for the higher education of


those capable of taking it, but efforts are making towards enabling the brighter and worthier pupils to attend one of the colleges for the seeing, at the expense of the states or the schools from which they come. The school instruction of the blind is comparatively an easy matter. The work is less of a science than the more difficult task of instructing the deaf.

When an exhaustive census of the graduates from all over the country was compiled, it revealed the following encouraging facts: 16 became superintendents of other institutions; 214 became teachers or were otherwise employed in institutions; 34 became ministers of the gospel; 84 authors, publishers, or lecturers; 310 were engaged as teachers of music or were vocalists outside of institutions; 69 had been organists in churches; 125 piano tuners; 937 had been engaged as teachers, employees, and workers in handicraft; 277 were storekeepers, etc.; 45 bcame owners and managers of real estate; 760 (mostly women) were employed at housework at home or in families, or at sewing with machines, or by hand, and 78 were in homes of employment. Further, according to the 11th census of the United States (1890) when there were 50,568 blind in the land, but 2,560 were found in almshouses. What proportion of these ever attended our schools, will never be known, but it must be remembered that blindness is an affliction of old age.

Bibliography.-Cary, T. G., Memoir of Thomas Handasyd Perkins' (1856); Diderot, 'An Essay on Blindness' (1895); Hauy, V., 'An Essay on the Education of the Blind' (1894); Howe, J. W., 'Memoir of Dr. S. G. Howe (1877); Howe, S. G., Forty-three Annual Reports of the Perkins Institution (1833-1875); Kitto, J., The Lost Senses (1852); Mell, A., Encyclopädisches Handbuch des Blinden-wesens' (1899); Prescott, W. H., 'The Blind,' in 'Biographical and Critical Essays' (1846); Robinson, E. B. F., The True Sphere of the Blind (1896) Rutherford, J., William Moon and his Work for the Blind (1898); Sizeranne, M. de la, Les Aveugles par un Aveugle (1891); Sturgis, D., The Kindergarten for the Blind (New England Magazine, Dec., 1895, p. 433); The Mentor) (1891-94); Wickersham, J. P., History of Education in Pennsylvania) (1886).

EDWARD ELLIS ALLEN, Principal Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind. Blind Fishes. See CAVE ANIMALS.

Blind Spot. The place of entry of the optic nerve in each retina is insensitive to light. Mariotte in 1668 first demonstrated the existence of the blind spot. Its existence may be easily shown as follows: Pin a large sheet of paper against the wall so that a cross marked thereon may be at the level of the eyes; fix the position of the head by means of a headrest (a ruler about 50 centimeters in length, held by the teeth at one end, the other end resting against the paper, is a convenient headrest); with one eye closed or covered, look steadily at the cross with the other eye; move a pencil, that has been covered with paper so that the point only shows black, from the cross toward the temporal side of the field of vision; mark on the paper the position at which the pencil point disappears; move the pencil farther and mark the

position at which the point re-appears. By moving the point in various directions near this place on the paper, and marking the positions where the pencil point disappears, and re-appears, a series of marks may be made which furnish an outline figure of the form of the blind spot. The diameter of the blind spot (1.5 mm.) corresponds to a visual angle varying from 3° 39' to 9° 47'. The average is about 6°. An image of light sufficiently small thrown upon the optic nerve by means of the ophthalmoscope, gives rise to no sensations. These experiments show that at the blind spot we see nothing, yet, as we look at this page with one eye only the surface appears to be covered with letters in the regular forms; there is no blank space corresponding to the blind spot. In binocular vision the blind spot of one retina is covered with a sensitive portion of the other retina. Why we should not be aware of our inability to see a continuous field with one eye, is a problem for which there are two proposed explanations. The blind spot may be filled out by association, whose nature is determined by the character of the surrounding field, or, by eye movements which serve as retinal local signs for the insensitive region. Propably the two processes are necessary and aid each other in presenting to the mind the continuous visual field. Consult: Ladd, Elements of Physiological Psychology); Helmholtz, 'Physiologische Optik' (1901); Sandford, 'Course in Experimental Psychology' ex. 113, 114; Wundt, 'Physiologische Psychologie' (1893); Titchener, Experimental Psychology.'

Blind Tom (BETHUNE, THOMAS), a musical freak: b. about the middle of the 19th century. He was a negro slave in Georgia, and was born blind and with very weak mental development. He showed remarkable aptitude for music and after hearing a piece played once could reproduce it accurately on the piano. He also performed other musical wonders, and for several years was exhibited in various cities. His lack of intellect developed into almost brutal idiocy, and he disappeared from the public eye.

Blindage, in operations against fortresses, the name of all preparations which tend to intercept the view of the enemy. There are several species: (1) A fascine placed across the embrasures, to prevent the enemy from observing what passes near the cannon. (2) Blinds before port-holes are shutters made of strong planks, placed before the port-holes, as soon as the guns are discharged, to obstruct the enemy's view. (3) Single and double blinds. The former consists of three strong perpendicular posts, five feet in height, between which are planks covered with iron plates on the outside, and thus made shot-proof. This screen is furnished with rollers, to enable the laborers in the trenches to push it before them. The latter consists of large wooden chests, on four block wheels, filled with earth, or bags of sand, and serve likewise in the trenches, etc., to cover the soldiers from the fire of the enemy. (4) Chandeliers used to protect the workmen in the trenches. Two square beams of timber are placed parallel, and at a distance of six feet, on the ground, and fastened by two cross beams. Upon the ends perpendicular posts are erected, and the interval is filled up with fascines, at least to a height of five feet. (5) Coverings placed over the most exposed parts in the saps or the fortress.

« PreviousContinue »