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BREWING INDUSTRY IN AMERICA
Brewing Industry in America. Before the use of written words the lips of our Aryan ancestors articulated a sound which expressed for them food and drink, and the source from which these things came. This source was the bearded barley of the Himalayas. The porridge and the bread of the Aryans, made from the first grain used for common food, were the crudest forms from which has sprung the brewing industry. It was not until the Sanskrit writers, in their earliest record of the living language, drew the distinction, that separate words were used to express barley, bread, and beer; and even now a sensitive ear will catch the similarity in these three words, which, though much changed from their Aryan prototypes, still have a musical resemblance which tells us of the
kinship of the three. The story of beer is therefore as old as the story of humanity.
In the most remote antiquity the Egyptians brewed, as did the Assyrians, and later the Greeks and Romans; and from time immemorial the Teutonic races have been famous for their skill in the production of the beverage for which they praise to-day, in poem, prose, and story, in song, and eulogy, the name of the very modern but acknowledged patron saint of brewing, Gambrinus. The word for beer has been preserved, as the art of brewing has been developed, by the Teutons. The Egyptians called beer aythum, and the Greeks and Romans, cerevisia; but the word "beer" in some form has always been used to express to the Teutonic mind the ancestral beverage.
While the written history of brewing begins with Egypt, and the development of the art of brewing should properly be accredited to the Teutons, to America must be credited the attainment of scientific perfection in the craft, which, like mathematics, has become in the United States practically a finished science. When the Pilgrim Fathers landed on Plymouth Rock they brought with them from England, in addition to the fiery potables they were wont to drink, and not a man afraid," some of the sturdy brew of "merrie England," and also a knowledge of the brewer's craft, which they soon turned to practical use in the land of their adoption.
The Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam, with their long clay pipes puffing clouds of blue smoke, were wont to sip from generous tankards the beer of the Netherlands, and crack their jokes around the tavern table, the while they grew fat, sleek, and jolly under the gentle influence of their beneficent national beverage. Good William Penn found solace in the brew made under his direction for his young, peaceful, but aspiring colony; and farther south, in old Virginia, many were the happy gatherings where harmony prevailed, and memories of their old home far across the sea rose through their companionable chat, like the foam upon the treasured musty ale.
In New England, where the stronger spirits most prevailed, our good forefathers passed a law granting immunity from taxes and a prize in money to that energetic brewer who should brew in a single year more than 500 barrels of honest beer; for, said they, not only does this peaceful beverage add to the prosperity of the farmer by giving him a market for his grain, but, by supplying to our worthy citizens a bev
erage of much milder form, adds much to the temperance and good order of Massachusetts Colony. So peacefully, with full approval, and yet with growth most unfortunately slow, an infant industry was formed, which in 1795 produced upward of 2,000,000 gallons.
Legislative enactment, in the varying application of intelligence and ignorance, liberality and fanaticism, has, since the days of the Egyptians, hampered or caused the expansion of the brewing industry. While, prior to 1795, it does not appear that legislation adverse to the brewing industry was enacted, legislation favorable to the cheaper distribution of distilled liquors brought the more potent beverages to the front, and held in check the brewing industry, which would otherwise have proved itself more powerlegislative effort. During the administration of ful in promoting temperance than any organized first federal revenue law, was impelled by conWashington, Congress, in considering the very sideration of public morality to take cognizance of the importance of fostering the brewing industry. But opposition from various quarters arose. In 1789 Madison expressed the hope that the brewing industry would strike deep root in every State in the Union, and Thomas Jefferson gave expression to the opinion that "no nation is sober where the dearness of fermented drinks substitutes ardent spirits as a common beverage."
In 1810 the domestic production of malt liquors amounted to 5,754,735 gallons. There were only 129 breweries in this country, most of them producing ale and porter exclusively. In 1847 the increasing German immigration brought into America not only a demand for their favorite beverage, lager-beer, which gave a new impetus to the trade, but also a practical knowledge of the craft; and lager-beer breweries began to spring into existence wherever a sufficient number of Germans had settled to make these little local establishments possible. Americans sniffed suspiciously at this form of beer, which was new to them, and allowed difference in race to prejudice them against what was destined to be their national beverage. Owing to the greater popularity of lager-beer, the production of ale and porter at the present time does not exceed 1,000,000 barrels. Long before German immigration had assumed any noteworthy proportions the wisest and most patriotic statesmen of our country were so alarmed at the increased use of fiery intoxicants that they would have resorted to any legitimate means to force breweries into existence.
Civil War to bring forth such excise measures It remained for the exigencies of the great as should put the lighter beverages prominently to the front. Heroic measures were taken to raise the revenue and save the government from impending disruption. The internal revenue laws came into existence. These threw the burden of taxation heavily upon ardent spirits. The passage of these laws in July 1862 was practically the beginning of the development of the present vast brewing industry. It was like the breath of new life, and the extraordinary advancement of brewing from that day to this has been a surprise and wonder to all who have watched its history.
It was in 1862 that the Brewers' Association was formed. A moving cause in its organization was a desire for self-protection, and yet the fundamental principle which brought the Ameri
can brewers together was patriotic, for they associated for the purpose of jointly aiding the government in perfecting the revenue laws relating to malt liquors, enforcing by their moral influence the collection of the revenue without discrimination, and of securing themselves by organization against unjust treatment. To its credit be it said that the Brewers' Association has never lost sight of its fundamental purpose. Born in the throes of the great struggle for national unity, it has served the government faithfully and well, and, instead of criticism and opposition, it has evinced sympathy and cooperation in the efforts of the government to establish proper internal revenue laws, and has willingly acquiesced in the payment of this species of taxation.
The War of the Rebellion also brought about a remarkable revulsion of feeling in regard to our foreign population and their customs, especially as to the Germans and beer drinking. When the war put the patriotism of the people to a crucial test, the Germans were found among the first to rush to arms in defense of our country. Old prejudices vanished before the bond of sympathy soon warmly established, like mist before the sun. This brotherhood established by the Rebellion has never died out, but has constantly grower stronger, and has cemented us together as one race. We have contributed to one another many of our habits and peculiarities, many of our customs.
The production of beer from the year 1863, expressed in barrels, is as follows:
BREWING INDUSTRY IN AMERICA
1879. 1880.. 1881.
Only 40 years ago the principles governing the production of beer were, as we see, essentially unchanged. The interval of 70 years from 1795 had brought no noticeably valuable advances in the art. While it is true that chemistry, physiology, and botany, and, above all, the science of mechanics, passed through great development during the first half century, it apparently meant nothing for the art of brewing save a thorough and necessary preparation of the various factors which were to be the foundation on which should rest the subsequent extraordinary progress- -a progress destined to make brewing one of the most delicately scientific arts of manufacture. During the last quarter of a century, however, the brewing industry, taking advantage of every development of modern ana27,561,944 lytical investigation and mechanical advance, has been subject to radical improvements in all directions. It is especially indebted to Pasteur, Naegeli, Hansen, Lintner, and Delbrueck, who have contributed immeasurably to the creation of the higher art of brewing.
of the United States government, in internal revenue taxes alone, over $33,000,000. The local taxes paid by it aggregate over $3,000,000 more. The development of the bottling of beer from nothing to a business, which in one brewery alone amounts to over 42,000,000 bottles annually-mostly quarts is a remarkable evidence of growth. Over 50,000 men are directly engaged in the brewing of beer in the United States.
These material manifestations of progress by the mere aggregation of figures are based upon a deeper and broader advance in the application of science to the art of brewing. The establishment of brewers' schools, where theory and practice could be brought into constant association, where experiments could be conducted, and where a thorough training could be given to brewers' sons, who, with an inherited tendency to skill in the art of their forefathers, desired to equip themselves with a higher knowledge of the craft, has brought into the field of competition a skill in the manipulation of the various processes of the brewing industry which has made possible a greater advance in the art of brewing since the year 1870 than had occurred from the time of Queen Elizabeth and the days of Shakespeare's Falstaff.
These statistics, showing a development in the last century from 2,000,000 gallons in 1795 to 1,258,587,168 gallons in the year 1900, speak more eloquently of the marvelous advance than glowing language. There are now 2,200 brewing establishments, by far the greater number making the lager-beer of the Germans. They range in magnitude from the little home brewery of some German garden to the gigantic business enterprise with an annual output exceeding 1,000,000 barrels. In the earlier years brewing was carried on exclusively for local markets. Within the last 30 years, however, the shipment of beer in barrels from one point to another began, and now train-loads of the delectable, foam-capped beverage leave the great shipping cities daily. The capital invested in brewing in the United States is about $415,284,468 (1900). The value of the annual output of the industry is $237.269,713. It contributes to the support
The dawn of an unsuspected and unparalleled line of improvement in the science of brewing, considered especially with reference to the physiology of fermentation, appeared with the labors of Pasteur, published to the world in his 'Etudes sur la Biere' in 1876, in Paris, and later with those of Hansen at Copenhagen, concerning the physiology of the organisms of fermentation. From time immemorial beer had been known as a perishable product, but the causes leading to its spoiling were shrouded in deep mystery. Pasteur proved that the diseases of beer might be traced to the growth of injurious organisms, especially bacteria, and indicated the ways and means of preventing these diseases through the application of a rational process of wort cooling and fermentation. Hansen advanced an important step farther by proving that the brewer's yeast might become, by contact, under given circumstances, with similar organisms closely resembling it, more injurious than bacteria. He crowned his labors by developing and introducing a process of cultivating yeast, in absolute purity and in large quanti
ties, from a single germ, thereby also preventing the introduction of wild yeast into the beer. These improvements were soon applied upon a large scale in the leading breweries of the United States, and brought about material changes in their practical operation. After the principle of preventing infection had once been proclaimed, the old-fashioned open cooler was replaced by a suitable closed apparatus, often ingeniously constructed, which came up to the highest requirements of the new science. Closely connected with this was the use of filtered air, rendered germ-free, and of sterilized water, so that to-day the product of the brewer's art, in its highest and ideal perfection, is absolutely protected against infection. From the moment it leaves the brew-kettle, passes over the coolers, and through the process of fermenting and lagering, and up to the moment when it is served as a refreshing and perfect beverage, perhaps thousands of miles from the place of its production, it is protected by constant, accurate, and effective scientific safeguards. See BREWING and MALTING.
Physiology and theoretical chemistry, hand in hand, have made brilliant progress in the science of brewing. The most complicated processes in the malting of barley, in mashing, and also in fermentation, have been thoroughly explored and have come to be perfectly understood during the last few decades, and have laid solid foundations for the activity of the maltster and the brewer. An important place in this connection must be assigned to an invention which has brought about more radical changes in the brewery than any other, and which alone had made possible the introduction of numerous other improvements and innovations. This invention is the ice-machine and the application of artificial refrigeration upon a large scale. Hardly 30 years ago the imperfect ice-machine of Carré, a Frenchman, was considered a curiosity, while to-day the model machines of Linde and De la Vergne are common property of all the brewers.
Americans may now justly claim to produce in the United States, not only the best beer, but, as is acknowledged by European authorities, the most durable beer, in the world. It is a peculiar, although incontrovertible fact, that the latest scientific theories of brewing, credit of which belongs to European investigators, have always found the most rapid and complete application and introduction in practice in this country. Prof. Delbrueck, of Berlin, and Prof. Schwackhoefer, of Vienna, who were sent to America in 1893 by their respective governments as authorities upon brewing, for the purpose of studying American breweries, were agreed in acknowledging this fact, and in their official reports did honor to the American brewing industry as they had found it. We have particular reason to be proud of the fact that a special process of fermentation which has been in use in this country for years has recently been proved by Prof. Delbrueck to be the most rational process, judged from a scientific standpoint. This shows clearly to what an extent the theories of European investigators have been practically applied in this country before they were ever practically adopted abroad.
It would be going too far to recount all the different improvements to which the science of brewing has led us within the last few years. But there is one innovation that deserves to be mentioned, which has attracted attention of late,
and which had its origin in our own country. This is the collection and utilization in its purity of the carbonic-acid gas formed during the process of fermentation. This process makes it possible to abandon the former "kraeusen" process, the old-fashioned method of carbonating. The finished product may now be charged with the finest natural carbonic-acid gas. This collection of the by-product of fermentation produces such a superabundance of carbonicacid gas that it may readily be liquefied, and is destined to crowd out of the market all other products of its kind. Americans have reason to be proud of this achievement, because the solution of the problem had been attempted in vain by European authorities for many years.
Careful investigation of the methods of foreign brewers, taking the American method of perfect brewing as a standard, has forced the writer to certain conclusions which, as an American, he is proud to hold: First, that while the deep, analytical, concentrated, and tireless mind of foreign, and especially German, scientists may, by more painstaking and patent application, have attained for the world a better knowledge of the fundamental theories on which success in the art of brewing should rest, it took the broader grasp, the more nimble and daring intelligence of the American mind, and the tremendous energy of American enterprise, to put these theories into practical operation; second, there is an overwhelming difference in advanced methods to the credit of the American; third, the American schools of brewing are now in the very van of scientific progress, and even if equaled, are certainly not surpassed in the higher technical instruction which they give. FRED PABST, President, Pabst Brewing Co.
Brew'ster, Benjamin Harris, American lawyer: b. Salem County, N. J., 13 Oct. 1816; d. Philadelphia, 4 April 1888. He graduated at Princeton in 1834, was admitted to the Philadelphia bar (1838), and for nearly half a century practised with ardor and success the profession he loved. In 1846 he was one of a commission to adjudicate the claims of the Cherokee Indians against the United States; in 1867 he became attorney-general of Pennsylvania, and in December 1881 President Arthur made him attorney-general of the United States. Shortly after the death of President Garfield, Attorney-General Wayne MacVeagh retained Brewster to assist in the prosecution of the "Star Route" conspirators. In boyhood he was severely injured by burns received while bravely attempting to rescue his sister from a fire into which she had fallen. He was an impressive orator, and possessed scholarly attainments of a high order. Both Princeton and Dickinson colleges conferred the degree of LL.D. upon him.
Brewster, Chauncey Bunce, American bishop: b. Windham, Conn., 5 Sept. 1848. He is a direct descendant of Elder Brewster of Plymouth Colony fame. He graduated at Yale in 1868, Berkeley Divinity School, 1872, and was ordained priest, 1873. He was rector of Christ Church, Rye, N. Y., 1873-81; Christ Church, Detroit, 1881-5; Grace Church, Baltimore, 1885-8; Grace Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1888-97. On 8 June 1897 he elected coadjutor-bishop of Connecticut, and crated in New Haven, 28 Oct. 1897. Upon the death of Bishop Williams, in 1899, Bishop Brewster became diocesan of Connecticut. Beside sermons and pastoral charges, he has written The Key of Life (1885); 'Good Friday Addresses (1894); Aspects of Revelation (1901), being the Baldwin lectures before the University of Michigan. Yale and Trinity colleges, have conferred the degree of D.D. upon
Brewster, Sir David, Scottish natural philosopher: b. Jedburgh, 11 Dec. 1781; d. Allerly, near Melrose, 10 Feb. 1868. He entered the University of Edinburgh, where the lectures of Robison and Playfair attracted him to scientific pursuits. His first investigations were on the subject of the polarization of light, upon which he communicated some important observations to the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In 1808 he became editor of the Edinburgh Encyclopedia,' to which he contributed a number of valuable articles. In 1816,
while repeating the experiments of Biot on the action of fluids on light, he made those observations which resulted in the invention of the kaleidoscope. In 1819, in conjunction with Jameson, he founded the Edinburgh 'Philosophical Journal, of which he was sole editor (1824-32). Brewster was one of the founders of the British Association, whose first meeting was held at York in 1831, and he presided over it on the occasion of its 20th meeting, held at Edinburgh in 1850. In 1832 he received the honor of knighthood along with a pension from the government. Both before and after this time his services to science obtained from many quarters the most honorable recognition. The French Institute, of which he had been a corresponding member since 1825, appointed him one of its eight foreign associates, 4 Jan. 1849,
and he was also among the members of the academies of St. Petersburg, Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm, and Copenhagen. From Prussia he received the Order of Merit in 1847, and in 1855 the cross of an officer of the Legion of Honor was bestowed on him by Napoleon III. From 1838 to 1859 he was principal of the united colleges of St. Leonard's and St. Salvador at St. Andrews, and in the latter year he was unanimously chosen principal of the University of Edinburgh an office which he continued to hold till his death. His chief works are: Treatise on the Kaleidoscope); Letters and Life of Euler'; Letters on Natural Magic'; Treatise on Optics'; 'Martyrs of Science); 'More Worlds than One'; Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton' (1855); besides numerous communications to the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, contributions to the Encyclopedia Britannica,' the Edinburgh and North British 'Reviews, and other periodicals.
Brewster, Frederick Carroll, American lawyer: b. Philadelphia, Pa., 15 May 1825; d. Charlotte, N. C., 30 Dec. 1898. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, read law with his father, and was admitted to the Philadelphia bar, 1844, of which he became a leader and one of its brightest ornaments. He was elected city solicitor (1862); judge of the court of common pleas (1866-9); attorney-general of the State (1869-70). He was successful as counsel in the famous Stephen Girard will case, and secured the decision in the Chestnut Street bridge case, wherein a decree was entered in the United States supreme court allowing the city of Philadelphia to cross the Schuylkill River by bridge. He published Reports of Equity, Election, and other Cases in the Courts of the County of Philadelphia' (1869); 'Digest of Pennsylvania Supreme Court Cases (1869); Decisions on the Rule in Shelly's Case (1887); 'Brewster's Blackstone, with Annotations of A Treatise on Practise in the Pennsylvania Courts' (1887-8).
Brewster, William, elder of the Plymouth pilgrims: b. Scrooby, England, 1560; d. Plymouth, Mass., 16 April 1644. He was educated at Cambridge, and entered the service of William Davison, ambassador in Holland, but presently retired to Scrooby manor house in Nottinghamshire, where his attention was chiefly occupied by the interests of religion. He was ford attempted to find an escape to Holland, and one of the company who with William Bradwere thrown into prison at Boston. Having obtained his liberty, he first assisted the poor of the society in their embarkation, and then followed them to Holland. Here he opened a school at Leyden, for instruction in English, and also set up a printing press. He was chosen a ruling elder in the Church at Leyden, and came to New England in 1620 with the first company of the Pilgrims. Until 1629 the principal care of the Church at Plymouth devolved ister, he could never be persuaded to adminisupon him, though, as he was not a regular minter the sacraments. See Steele, 'Chief of the Pilgrims'; 'Life of William Brewster' (1857).
Brewster's Law. See LIGHT.
Brialmont, Henri Alexis, on-rē ä-lěk-sē bre-al-môn, Belgian military writer: b. Venlo, 25 May 1821. He entered the army in 1843 as