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eral generations are often but not always necessary to thoroughly "fix" the desired type for all practical purposes.

The above applies to annuals or those plants generally reproduced by seed. The breeder of plants which can be reproduced by division has great advantage, for any individual variation can be multiplied to any extent desired without the extreme care necessary in fixing by lineal breeding the one which must be reproduced by seed. But even in breeding perennials the first deviations from the original form are often almost unappreciable to the perception, but by accumulating the most minute differences through many generations the deviation from the original form is often astounding. Thus, by careful and intelligent breeding any peculiarity may be made permanent, and valid new species are at times produced by the art of the breeder, and there is no known limit to the improvement of plants by education, breeding, and selection.

The plant breeder is an explorer into the infinite. He will have "no time to make money," and his castle,- the brain,- must be clear and alert in throwing aside fossil ideas and rapidly replacing them with living, throbbing thought, followed by action. Then, and not until then, shall he create marvels of beauty and value in new expressions of materialized force, for every

thing of value must be produced by the intelligent application of the forces of nature which are always awaiting our commands. The vast possibilities of plant breeding can hardly be estimated. It would not be difficult for one man to breed a new rye, wheat, barley, oats, or rice which would produce one grain more to each head, or a corn which would produce an extra kernel to each ear, another potato to each plant, or an apple, plum, orange, or nut to each tree. What would be the result! In five staples only in the United States alone the inexhaustible forces of nature would produce annually without effort and without cost:

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But these vast possibilities are not alone for one year, or for our own time or race, but are beneficent legacies for every man, woman, or child who shall ever inhabit the earth. And who can estimate the elevating and refining influences and moral value of flowers with all their graceful forms and bewitching shades and combinations for color and exquisitely varied perfumes? These silent influences are unconsciously felt even by those who do not appreciate them consciously, and thus with better and still better fruits, nuts, grains, and flowers will the earth be transformed and man's thoughts

turned from the base destructive forces into

the nobler productive ones, which will lift him to higher planes of action toward that happy day when man shall offer his brother man not bullets and bayonets, but richer grains, better fruits, and fairer flowers. Cultivation and care may help plants to do better work temporarily, but by breeding plants may be brought into existence which will do better work always, in all places and for all time. Plants are to be produced which will perform their appointed work better, quicker, and with the utmost precision. Science sees better grains, nuts, fruits,

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and vegetables all in new forms, sizes, colors, and flavors, with more nutrients and less waste, and with every injurious and poisonous quality eliminated, and with power to resist sun, wind, rain, frost, and destructive fungus, and insect pests; fruits without stones, seeds or spines; better fibre, coffee, tea, spices, rubber, oil, paper and timber trees, and sugar, starch, color, and perfume plants. Every one of these and ten thousand more are within the reach of the most ordinary skill in plant breeding. Man is slowly learning that he, too, may guide the same forces which have been through all the ages performing this beneficent work which he sees everywhere, above, beneath, and around him in the vast teeming animal and plant life of the world. LUTHER BURBANK, American Pomological Society.

Breed's Hill, Mass., a slight elevation in the Charlestown district of Boston, about 700 yards from Bunker Hill. Although the famous engagement of 17 June 1775 is known as the Battle of Bunker Hill, the fighting was done on Breed's Hill. Here was located the American redoubt, against which the British made their three historic charges, and here Warren fel!. Bunker Hill monument stands on Breed's Hill.

Breese, Kidder Randolph, American naval entered the navy in 1846 and served in the Civil officer b. Philadelphia, 14 April 1831. He

War. In 1861 he commanded the third division

of Porter's mortar flotilla in the attacks on New Orleans and Vicksburg; in 1863 and 1864 he was lieutenant commander on the Mississippi and took part in the most important engagements; in 1865 he was fleet-captain at the attack on Fort Fisher. He was made captain in 1874. Breeze-fly. See BOT-FLY.

Brefeld, Oskar, ōs'kär brā'felt, German botanist: b. Telgte, Westphalia, 19 Aug. 1839. He was educated at Halle, Munich, and Würzburg. In 1875 he was a lecturer at Berlin; in 1878 he became professor at Eberswald, in 1884 at Münster, and in 1898 at Breslau. His investigations have been chiefly in mycology and he introduced a number of new methods in the study of this science, particularly the use of "gelatine cultures." He has written 'Researches in the Field of Mycology.'

Bregenz, bra-gents' (Latin, Brigantium), a town of Austria-Hungary, in Vorarlberg, 77 miles west by north of Innsbruck. It occupies a beautiful site on a slope which rises from the Lake of Constance and terminates on Mount Gebbard, where the ruins of the ancient stronghold of the Counts of Montfort are still seen. It consists of an old town, very poorly built, and a modern, which is more attractive. Among its

edifices are three churches and two monasteries, a town hall, and a museum of Roman antiquities, found in the vicinity. Its chief manufacture is framework and other wooden fittings for houses,

and it trades in corn, fruit, wine, butter, and cattle. There are saltpetre works, blast furnaces, and coal mines in the vicinity. Pop. (1900) 7,600.

Bregma. In the infant, a little behind the forehead in the middle line of the skull there is a diamond-shaped opening where the bones have not yet closed together. This situation is known as "bregma," and is taken as a landmark in medical and anthropological measurements.


Bre'hon (Irish, breitheamh, a judge), an ancient magistrate among the Irish. These magistrates seem to have been hereditary, and before the introduction of Christianity probably combined the offices of judge and priest. They administered justice to their respective tribes each tribe had one brehon-seated in the open air upon some sods placed on a hill or eminence. The poet Spencer, in his View of the State of Ireland,' refers to the Brehon law as an unwritten code handed down by tradition. He was, however, mistaken in regarding it as an unwritten code. Patriarchal as was the administration of the Brehon law, its transmission was not left to tradition. In the earliest manuscripts extant it is said to have been revised by St. Patrick and other learned men, who expunged from it the traces of heathenism, and formed it into a code called the Senchus Mor, about 440, and it is implied that a previous written code existed. The Brehon law was exclusively in force in Ireland until 1170. Various ineffectual attempts were made by the English government to suppress it, and it was finally abolished by James I. in 1605. The Brehon laws, like other laws passed at the same period of European history, contained, with some rude principles of justice, many barbarous institutions. The state of society indicated in them seems to be a sort of transition from the communal ownership and periodical repartition of the land, found among several Teutonic nations, to a manorial organization. Several distinct social ranks are indicated, ranging from the nobles to the serfs. They had regular courts, with the right of appeal from lower to higher ones. Most offenses, even including murder, could be commuted by fines, which were fixed

with minute precision; but the fines were paid in kind, since coined money was unknown. The laws also carefully provide for and regulate the raising of the children of the upper classes by members of the subordinate classes. The marriage laws were of a very loose character,

and the law of inheritance is obscure and com

plicated. Until recently these laws have been involved in great obscurity. A commission was appointed in 1852 to superintend the publication and translation of the ancient laws of Ireland; and between 1865 and 1885 an edition of the Senchus Mor was published in five volumes. See Maine, 'Early History of Institutions' (1875).

Breisach, brī-zäн, or Alt Breisach, a town of Baden, on an isolated basalt hill (804 feet) on the right side of the Rhine, 14 miles west of Freiburg. The Mons Brisiacus of Cæsar, it was taken by Ariovistus when he invaded Gaul; being regarded as the key to western Germany, it figured prominently in the wars of the 17th and 18th centuries. The minster is a 13th century structure. It carries on an active trade in

lumber and cattle, and manufactures beer, wall paper, wine, etc. Pop. (1900) 3,500.

Breitbach, brit'bäн, Karl, German painter: b. Berlin, 14 May 1833. He was educated at the Berlin Academy and in Paris under Couture. He first devoted himself to landscape painting, but later became both a genre and a portrait painter. Among his works are: 'Mill of St. Ouen near Paris'; 'The Trianon Park'; 'Sunrise in the Bavarian Highlands'; 'Kirmess Joy'; 'Kirmess - Sorrow'; 'Village Children

Bathing'; 'At the Fortune Teller's'; and portraits of Weber and others. He has also painted interior decorations.

Breitenfeld, bri'ten-felt, a village of Saxony, four miles north of Leipsic. Here two battles were gained by the Swedes during the Thirty Years' War. In the first, fought on 7 Sept. 1631, Gustavus Adolphus, joined by the Saxons, defeated Tilly and Pappenheim; in the second, on 2 Nov. 1642, Torstenson, who had succeeded on the death of Baner to the command of the

Swedish army in Germany, again defeated the Imperialists under the Archduke Leopold and Piccolomini, who had advanced to the relief of Leipsic, invested by the Swedes. Leipsic surrendered after the battle. Breitenfeld was also the scene of a portion of the battle of Leipsic, 1813. won by the allies against Napoleon, 16–19 Oct.

Breitkopf, Johann Gottlob Immanuel, yo'hän got lob im-män'oo-el brit'köpf, German printer and publisher: b. Leipsic, 1719; d. 1794. He was educated in the university of his native city, and following out a scientific study of printing, he evolved improvements in musical notation and in German text. To him is probably due the present form of modern printed music. In 1764 he established in Leipsic the publishing house known as Breitkopf and Härtel from 1795. He was the author of 'Ueber die Geschichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst (1779); Ueber den Druck der Geographischen Karten' (1777-9).

Breitman, Hans, hänts brit'man. See LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY.

Brekelenkam, bra-kë-lěn'käm, Quirin, Dutch painter: b. Zwammerdam, near Leyden, about 1620; d. Leyden, 1668. He was to some extent an imitator of Dou, and perhaps his pupil. His subjects are from the life of the people, and his treatment marked by fidelity to nature and breadth of style. Among his most characteristic paintings are: The Fireside'; 'Monk Writing; Interior); The Sandwich'; 'Game of Cards'; and A Brazier.'

Bremen, bra'mën, Germany, a port and free city, and an independent member of the empire, one of the three Hanse towns, is situated on the Weser, about 50 miles from its mouth, in its own small territory of 98 square miles, besides which it possesses the town and port The town is divided into the old town (Altstadt), of Bremerhaven at the mouth of the river. on the right bank of the river; the new town (Neustadt), on the left bank of the river, and is separated from the suburban quarters adjointhe extensive suburbs (Vorstädte). The first ing by the ramparts of the city, now converted into walks and pleasure-grounds, and forms a sort of semicircle on the right bank of the river.

The new town lies on the left bank of the river opposite the old, with which it is connected by three bridges, two of them crossing the main stream, and the third crossing an arm of it called the Little Weser, besides a railway bridge. Extensive suburbs lie on this side also. The streets of the old town are generally narrow and crooked, and lined with antique houses in the style of the Middle Ages. This is the business quarter of the city, and contains the chief public buildings, including the cathedral, the old Gothic council-house, with the famous wine


cellar below it, the modern town-hall, the Schütting or merchants'-house, the old and the new exchange, etc. The new town has straight, wellbuilt streets, lined mostly with dwelling-houses and shops. The suburbs also consist chiefly of dwelling-houses, and as these often have gardens in front, the streets have a very pleasant aspect. The chief ecclesiastical building is the cathedral, a Romanesque edifice, founded in 1044, subsequently added to at various times, and in 1888-93 provided with two new western towers. There are several other old and interesting churches, as those of St. Ansgar, St. Stephen, and St. John. Among buildings of recent erection are the court-house, savings bank, and railway station. There are several squares and open spaces, and besides the pleasure-grounds formed from the ramparts, a large public park has been laid out on the north side of the town. Bremen is well supplied with schools and other educational institutions, and possesses a museum, a library (120,000 volumes), an observatory, etc. The manufacturing establishments include tobacco and cigar factories, sugar-refineries, ricemills, iron-foundries, and machine works, rope and sail works, and ship-building yards. It is from its commerce, however, that Bremen derives its importance. Its situation renders it the emporium of Hanover, Brunswick, Hesse, and other countries traversed by the Weser, and next to Hamburg it is the principal seat of the export and import trade of Germany. The Weser has been deepened so that sea-going ships drawing 17 feet of water can now ascend to the Bremen docks, but the great bulk of the shipping trade centres in Bremerhaven and Geestemünde. Bremerhaven is now a place of over 18,000 inhabitants, and is provided with excellent docks capable of receiving the largest vessels; it is connected by railway with Bremen, where the chief trading companies, merchants, and brokers have their offices. The greater portion of the German trade with the United States passes through Bremen, and it is the chief port of emigration on the Continent. The chief imports are tobacco, raw cotton, and cotton manufactures, wool and woolen manufactures, rice, coffee, grain, petroleum, etc., which are of course chiefly re-exported to other parts of Germany and the Continent. Next to Liverpool, Bremen is to-day the leading European cotton market. Before the organization of the cotton exchange in 1872, the German merchants had been getting their product chiefly from Havre and Liverpool, very little being imported direct. To become independent of British ports, it was necessary to get the patronage of the inland spinners. This proved no easy task. Not until a decade had passed did the Bremen exchange cease to be a local institution and acquire a standing of national importance; but ever since the development has been phenomenal. While the importation of cotton in the year 1870 amounted to only 157,689 bales, it ran up to 397,998 bales in the year 1880. Ten years later there were 812,538 bales and the year 1900 showed the enormous figure of 1,567,045 bales. The new cotton exchange opened in 1902 is said to be not only the most imposing structure of this nature in the world, but also the most complete in the appointments necessary for carrying on the business of buying and selling cotton and supplying the leading merchants and brokers with office and sample rooms.

Bremen first rose into note about 788, when it was made the seat of a bishopric by Charlemagne. It was afterward raised to the dignity of an archbishopric, and by the end of the 14th century it had become virtually a free imperial city. At the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 the archbishopric was secularized, and became a duchy under the supremacy of Sweden. In 1731, when the elector of Brunswick gained possession of the duchy, the privileges of Bremen as a free city were confirmed. From 1810 to 1813 it formed part of the French empire. The constitution is in most respects republican. The legislative authority is shared by the senate, a body of 18 (12 of whom must be lawyers, and 5 merchants) elected for life, and presided over by two of their own number alternately, who have the title of burgomaster; and by an assembly of 150 citizens elected for six years. The executive power is intrusted to the senate and senatorial committees. Pop. of the total territory (including Bremerhaven) (1902) 224,700.

Bremer, brä'mer, Fredrika, Swedish novelist: b. Tuorla, Finland, 17 Aug. 1801; d. Arsta, 31 Dec. 1865. At 17 she was taken on a tour through Germany, Switzerland, and France.. In 1828 appeared the first volume of her 'Sketches of Everyday Life,' but the second volume, The H. Family (1833; English translation, 1844), first revealed her power. From this time she devoted herself to writing stories that quickly became popular in translations far beyond the bounds of Sweden, and she varied her literary labor by long journeys in Italy, England, the United States, Greece, Palestine, which supplied the materials for her 'Homes of the New World' (1853), and Life in the Old World' (1862), full of fine descriptions of scenery and vivid pictures of social life, with sound views on political and moral questions. The admirable translations of Mary Howitt had preceded her in the United States as well as England, and insured her an equally warm welcome on both sides of the Atlantic. On her return to Sweden she gave herself up to philanthropy, but more particularly to the education and emancipation of women, and the consequent propagandist character of her later novels, 'Bertha, and Father and Daughter' (1859), was detrimental in no small degree to their literary value. Her religious views she set forth in her 'Morning Watches (1842). She has been called the Jane Austen of Sweden. Of her stories perhaps the most perfect is The Neighbors' (1837). The Diary,' 'The President's Daughters, Brothers and Sisters,' and 'Strife and Peace, or Scenes in Dalecarlia,' are only less popular.

Bremerhaven, brä'mèr-hä-fën, the port of Bremen, Germany, on the east shore of the Weser estuary, nearly 10 miles from the open sea, and 39 north-northwest of Bremen. It was founded by Bremen, in 1827, on ground acquired from Hanover, and rapidly became a thriving place. A second dock was opened in 1866, a third in 1874, and in 1888 a great port, with docks, was undertaken at Nordenham, on the opposite bank. Bremerhaven was the scene, in 1875, of a dynamite explosion on board a mail steamship, by which 60 persons were killed. The Geeste separated Bremerhaven from Geestemünde. Pop. (1900) 20,300.

Brend amour, brän-da-moor, Franz Robert, German engraver: b. Aix-la-Chapelle, 16 Oct.


1831. He was educated in his art at Cologne under Stephan. In 1856 he went to Düsseldorf and established a xylographic studio, which rapidly became well known and one of the leading institutions of its kind. He later set up similar studios in Berlin, Leipsic, Brunswick, Stuttgart, and Munich, to conducting which he devoted most of his time. Among his best works are a collection, 112 engravings, after drawings by Rudolf Elster; illustrations for several works, including Immermann's 'Der Oberhof, and Count Waldersee's 'Der Jäger'; 'The Odyssey,' after drawings by Preller, and eight frescoes in the Rathhaus at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Bren'dan, or Brenainn, Saint, of Clonfert: b. 484 at what is now Tralee in Kerry; d. 577. He was educated under his relative, Bishop Erc, and St. Jarlath of Tuam, and was ordained by the former. Shortly afterward he went on a seven years' voyage in search of "the mysterious land far from human ken"; but without suc

cess. Later he visited and lived in Brittany for a time, and after his return he again set out to seek the distant paradise, which he ultimately found. When he again reached Ireland he founded the monastery of Cluain Fearta (Clonfert), and he seems to have visited Scotland at this time. His two voyages form the basis of the celebrated medieval legend of the Navigation of St. Brendan'; but in the legend they are united into one and combined with other stories. Where Brendan's voyages really led him we do not know. The Book of Lismore contains a life of St. Brendan.

Another Irish saint of the same name was born about 490 and died in 573. He was a friend of Columba, and founded a monastery at Birr (Parsonstown) in King's County.

Brendel, Heinrich Albert, hin'riн äl'běrt brěn'děl, German painter: b. Berlin, 7 June 1827; d. 1895. He studied at the Berlin Art Academy under Krause, and in Paris as a pupil of Couture and Palizzi. After traveling in Italy and Sicily, he lived in Paris, 1854-64; he then returned to Germany and lived in Berlin and Weimar, becoming director of the Art School at the latter place. He devoted himself almost entirely to animal painting, and his pictures of sheep are considered especially fine. His works include: Peasant's Farm, Interior of Sheep Stable,' 'Sheep Leaving Stable.'

Bren'eman, Abram Adam, American chemist: b. Lancaster, Pa., 28 April 1847. He graduated at Pennsylvania State College in 1866, and after service as an instructor, was full professor of chemistry 1869-72. From 1875 to 1882 he was assistant, lecturer, and professor of industrial chemistry at Cornell. Since then he has resided in New York, engaged in professional work as a writer, analyst, and chemical expert. He is the inventor of the Breneman process of rendering iron non-corrosive, and has made a special study of water and its contaminations. He has written: Manual of Introductory Laboratory Practice (1875); Report on the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen) (1890); and numerous contributions to chemical and other journals.

Brenham, brěn'ăm, Texas, a city and county-seat of Washington County, on the Gulf, C. & S. F. and the Houston & T. C. R.R.'s, west of Houston. It is the centre of an agricultural

and cotton region, and has two cotton compresses, a cotton factory, and a cottonseed-oil mill, as well as other manufacturing interests. It is the seat of the Blim Memorial and Evangelical Lutheran colleges, has a library, two parks, and fair grounds. Pop. (1900) 5,968.

Bren'nan, Thomas Francis, Irish Catholic Allegheny College, Pa., at Rouen, and Innsprelate: b. Tipperary, 1853. He was educated at bruck. He was engaged in missionary work in Pennsylvania and was later made bishop of Dallas, Texas. In 1893 he went to Labrador, and in 1894-5 was auxiliary bishop of Newfoundland; since then he has been acting auxiliary bishop of Albano and Frascati, Italy.

situated between Innsbruck and Sterzing, and Bren'ner, Mount, a mountain in the Tyrol, between the rivers Inn, Aicha, and Adige, forming part of the Tyrolese Alps, 6,777 feet high. The road from Germany to Italy traverses this mountain. It reaches the elevation of 4,658 feet, and is about 12 miles long. This is one of the lowest roads practicable for carriages over the main chain of the Alps, and also the Romans. In 1867 a railway over the Brenone of the most ancient, having been used by ner Pass was opened, so that Italy and Germany were connected by an unbroken line of


Bren'nus, the name or title of several princes of the ancient Gauls, supposed to be derived from the Kymrian brenhin, a king. A leader of the Senones, a Gallic nation in the upper part of Italy, the most famous personage who is mentioned under this name, made an invasion into the Roman territory about the year 390 B.C. A battle was fought near the river Allia, the Romans were totally defeated, and Brennus took possession of the city, which had been previously abandoned by the inhabitants. The capitol only was provided with a garrison, but several aged citizens of rank, amounting in the whole to about 80, had resolved to remain in the city and devote themselves to the infernal deities. Attired in their sacerdotal, consular, and triumphal robes, they seated themselves in their chairs of office in the middle of the forum, awaiting death. When Brennus arrived at the forum, he was struck with astonishment at their venerable aspect. The Gauls looked upon them as so many statues of deities, and feared to go near them, but ultimately they were all massacred. Rome was sacked, and all the inhabitants who yet remained in their houses were slain. Brennus then assaulted the capitol, and being repelled with considerable loss, he set fire to the city and leveled it with the ground. While the garrison of the capitol was in great distress Brennus attempted a surprise by night, in which he would have succeeded had not the cackling of the geese, sacred to Juno, alarmed the garrison, in consequence of which the Gauls were repulsed. After six months Brennus offered to raise the siege and leave the Roman territory for 1,000 pounds of gold. When the gold was weighed, Brennus threw his sword into the scale beside the weights and cried out, "Woe to the vanquished!" According to Polybius the Gauls returned home in safety with their booty. According to the Roman legend followed by Livy, Brennus was defeated, and his army entirely destroyed by Camillus, a distinguished

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Roman exile who had retired to the city of Ardea, and who arrived with succor in time to save the capitol.

Another Brennus in 279 B.C. advanced into Greece with an enormous force, said to have amounted to 150,000 foot and 61,000 horse. After ravaging Macedonia he entered Thessaly and marched toward Thermopyla, where an army of 20,000 Greeks was assembled, supported by an Athenian fleet on the coast. The Gauls were repulsed in a sanguinary battle, but, in order to separate the Greeks, they dispersed themselves to plunder the country. Brennus himself attacked the temple of Delphi, which was defended by only 4,000 men, but was again repulsed, and carried out of the battle fainting with his wounds. Unwilling to survive his defeat, he put an end to his life by copious draughts of wine. The Greeks attributed their victory to the assistance of Apollo.

Brent, Charles Henry, American clergyman: b. Newcastle, Ontario, Canada, 1862. He was graduated at the University of Trinity College in 1884, ordained deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1886, priest in 1887, and consecrated the first bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church for the Philippine Islands in December 1901. He served in the ministry of St. Paul's Pro-Cathedral, Buffalo, 1887-8; removed to Boston in the latter year, where he had charge of the parish of St. John the Evangelist, and later of that of St. Stephen's Church, devoting himself entirely to the missionary work of the latter parish. He has performed considerable literary work; was on the editorial staff of the New York Churchman for some time, and is the author of With God in the World,' and other books.

Brent Goose. See BRANT Goose.

Bren'ta (ancient MEDOACUS MAJOR), a river in north Italy. Its source is Lake Caldonazzo in the Tyrol, eight miles southeast of Trent, whence it flows southeast, with a winding course of 112 miles, and falls into the Adriatic through the canal of Brenta-nova or Brentono, at Brondolo. Formerly its embouchure was at Fusina, opposite Venice. The old course has been formed into a canal, and is the chief means of communication between Padua and Venice, the new channel being comparatively little used.

Brentano, brěn-tä'nō, Clemens, German poet: b. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 8 Sept. 1778; d. Aschaffenburg, 28 July 1842. He studied at Jena, and resided by turns there and at Frankfort, Heidelberg, Vienna, and Berlin. In 1818 he retired to the convent of Dülmen, in Münster, and the latter years of his life were spent at Ratisbon, Munich, and Frankfort-on-theMain. These frequent changes were due to a restless disposition, combined with morbid and misanthropic views, which gave a peculiar character to his writings. With a powerful imagination, his genius was tinged with mysticism, eccentricity, and a strong tendency to sarcasm. He was the brother of Elizabeth von

Arnim, Goethe's "Bettina." Among his principal works are 'Satires and Poetical Fancies' (1800); 'The Mother's Statue' (1801), an ultra-romantic production, which he himself calls a very wild romance; The Joyous Musicians' (1803); Ponce de Leon' (1804); The Founding of Prague (1816), said to be his most successful drama; Gokel, Hinkel, und Gakeleia' (1838),


a satire on the times; 'History of the Brave Caspar and the Beautiful Annerl (2d ed. 1851), which is considered a masterpiece as a novelette.

Brentano, Franz, German philosopher: b. Marienberg, 16 Jan. 1838. He was professor of philosophy at Würzburg, but in 1873 resigned his position on account of the doctrine of the infallibility of the Pope; and was professor at Vienna, 1874-80. He has written Psychology of Aristotle, New Riddles,' and 'Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint' (in agreement with Lotze and the English empirical psychologists).

tician: b. Mannheim, 4 Nov. 1813; d. Chicago, Brentano, Lorenz, German American poli18 Sept. 1891. He studied law at Heidelberg, represented Mannheim in the Lower House of Baden, and was a member of the National Assembly in 1848. He withdrew from this body with the majority of the radical party in 1849. He was placed at the head of the revolutionary government of Baden, but suspected of treachery to his party, was forced to flee to Switzerland. In 1850 he came to the United States, lived for a time on a farm in Michigan, and then went to Chicago. Here he practised law and established the Illinois Staatszeitung, which he made one of the most influential papers in the northwest in the interest of the Federal government. He was a member of the Illinois legislature in 1862; United States consul at Dresden 1872-6, and member of Congress from Illinois in 1876.

economist: b. Aschaffenburg, Bavaria, 18 Dec. Brentano, Lujo, loo'yō, German political 1844. He studied at Dublin and at four German universities; and, after attaining a post in the Royal Statistical Seminary in Berlin, went to England to study the condition of the working classes, and especially trades' associations and unions. The outcome of this was his work, 'On the History and Development of English Guilds' (1870); Die Arbeitergilden der Gegenwart' (1871-2). He has been professor at Breslau (1873), Strasburg, Vienna, Leipsic, Munich (1891). He supports the "Socialists of the Chair" (Kathedersozialisten) against the German free-trade school, and has written works on Wages' (1877); Labor in Relation to Land' (1877), and Compulsory Insurance for Workmen (1881), on the English Chartists, on the Christian Socialist movement in England, and numerous polemical pamphlets.

Brent'ford, the county town of Middlesex, England, seven miles west of London. It has a Here weekly market and two annual fairs. Edmund Ironside defeated the Danes, under Canute, in 1016; and Prince Rupert a part of the parliamentary forces, under Col. Hollis, in 1642. Sion House, the magnificent edifice of the Duke of Somerset, where Lady Jane Grey resided, now belonging to the Duke of Northumberland, was built here on the site of a suppressed nunnery. Brentford has a considerable retail trade, a soap manufactory, and extensive sawing and planing mills. Pop. (1891) 13,738; (1901) 15,171.

Brenton, William, colonial governor: b. England, early in the 17th century: d. Newport, R. I., 1674. His family came to Rhode Island from Hammersmith, England, where they were of good social standing. Between 1635 and 1669 Brenton was the colony's representative at

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