Page images


known as the old breakwater, a timber and concrete structure 7,608 feet long. There is a light at the northerly end of the old breakwater, with a harbor entrance between it and the southerly light of the north breakwater. To the south of the old breakwater is the new structure now being considered. It consists of a stone breakwater 7,261 feet in length, which connects with a timber and concrete structure extending south for another 2,739 feet, with a light at its southerly extremity. Parallel with the previous structure, and slightly to the westward of it, is a timber crib breakwater, 2,803 feet long, which runs northerly from Stony Point. It has a light on its northern extremity, and the opening between this and the last named breakwater forms the south harbor entrance, the opening between the stone breakwater and the old breakwater being known as the middle harbor entrance. The 7,261-foot stretch of the new breakwater is of the rubble mound type, stone-topped, while the southerly end of it, 2,739 feet, is of timber crib construction, to enable vessels to moor alongside of it inside of

the harbor.

The new breakwater is built in the open waters of Lake Erie, parallel with the shore, 1,500 feet out from the pierhead line of the harbor, and in 30 feet of water. The first operation was to deposit two parallel ridges of small rubble on the lake bottom, one on the lake side and one on the shore side of the proposed breakwater, the intervening space being filled in with gravel. Another five feet of rubble ridges were added and again filled in with gravel, the mound thus formed being raised to within 10 feet of the surface of the water. The breakwater was then built up for the remaining 10 feet to the surface of the lake by dumping upon it large rubble stones. The slopes of the structure were covered with a revetment of large stones, lowered into place in close touch with each other, so as to completely cover the rubble stone, the object of these heavy quarried stones being to prevent displacement of the rubble by the action of the water. Then came the important work of covering the mound with large capping stones, quarried to prescribed dimensions, many of the stones measuring as much as six feet in thickness. These stones were carried out by five large floating derricks, each with a lifting power of 20 tons. The capping stones were laid snugly together, the finished top and side of the breakwater presenting a fairly even and true appearance. The illustration shows very clearly the way in which the top of the breakwater is finished, the heavy top angle stones serving by their weight and friction to prevent the heavy seas from taking hold of the rubble mound, loosening it and washing it away. A cross section of the breakwater as thus constructed shows it to be normally about 140 feet wide at the bottom and 14 feet wide at the top.

While the masonry breakwater was being constructed, the work of building the timbercrib structure was also going on apace. As compared with the rubble-mound type, the timber and concrete form has the advantage of being cheaper in construction. In building it the first step was to prepare a foundation and for this purpose a powerful clam-shell dredge built especially for the work was used to dredge a trench along the line of the breakwater in the

bottom of the lake 95 feet in width, and 50 feet in depth through the clay. Then through the centre of this trench another excavation was dredged out which was 50 feet in width and extended everywhere to solid rock. The next task was to fill in the trench thus formed with gravel which was brought to the spot in scows and dumped in, a bed of gravel 30 to 40 feet in depth being formed in this way. Upon this was placed an embankment of rubble stone eight feet high, which formed a foundation for the timber cribs. These cribs were built of sawn timber and were 36 feet wide, 22 feet high, and from 60 to 180 feet long. They were towed to position over the foundation and sunk by loading with stone. The superstructure was built in 3 benches, the first 6 feet, the second 10 feet, and the third 12 feet above the mean water level of the lake. Each bench was 12 feet wide. As shown in the illustrations, a certain portion of the crib breakwater, as finished, is of this construction; but the larger portion of it has been strengthen the structure, the heavy gales of 12 capped with concrete. This was done to Sept. and 21 Nov. 1900, in the latter of which the wind reached a velocity of 80 miles an hour, having loosened up and broken the above-water timber coping and finish. In repairing the rav ages of the storm, the damaged superstructure

was removed and the cribs cut down to an elevation of two feet below the mean lake level. Upon this, concrete blocks, forming longitudinal and cross walls, were placed, and the pockets thus formed filled in with rubble stone, and roofed in with heavy concrete work, which was carried up to the level of the original breakwater. In place of the three benches of the crib superstructure, the reconstructed portion shows a parapet and a banquette. The parapet which is exposed to the lake side covers a width of 27 feet and its crest is 12 feet above mean lake level. The banquette is 8 feet wide and is uniformly 4 feet above the lake level. The new breakwaters have taken some six or seven years to construct, and the cost has been $2,200,000. Consult: 'Reports of the Chief of Engineers U. S. A.'; Spon, 'Dict. of Engineering; Stevenson, The Construction of Harbors'; De Cordemoy, 'Les portes modernes.'

mis brama) of the carp family, common in Bream, a sluggish fresh-water fish (AbraEuropean lakes and rivers, and especially numerous in the English fens, where it finds all the conditions most favorable, and reaches. a weight of seven or eight pounds. It is edible, but too lethargic to afford sport. Another species (A. blicca), is smaller, silvery white, and a favorite with those who enjoy quiet angling. In the United States the term "bream" is given rather indefinitely to several minnows and sunfish; and to various marine fishes, better known as sea-breams (q.v.).

Brearley, William Henry, American journalist and author: b. Plymouth, Mich., 18 July 1846. He served in the Michigan infantry during the Civil War, was connected with several Detroit papers 1870-92; founded the Detroit Museum of Art 1883. He has published 'Recollec tions of the East Tennessee Campaign); 'Wanted, a Copyist'; 'Leading Events of the American Revolution.'


Breast, in female animals, a glandular structure, containing vessels for the secretion of milk, and excretory ducts, which open by small orifices in the nipple, and discharge the secreted fluid for the nourishment of the child. At the centre of each breast there is a small projection, the nipple, and this is surrounded by a dark ring termed the areola. The nipple is the part which the infant seizes in its mouth, and through the passage of which the milk flows into the mouth of the child in the act of suction. The glandular structure of the breast is covered by fat, except at the forepart of the nipple and the integument. The breast is liable to many diseases, from irritation during nursing, bruises of the part, undue pressure from tight clothes, and from constitutional causes. Inflammation of the breast is very common during nursing, or from a superabundant secretion of milk. After delivery, the nourishment of the infant being from the breast, there is an increased determination of blood to that part to enable it to perform the necessary function, and thus, when there is any cause of irritation, there is a tendency to increased action in that part, which frequently terminates in inflammation. Lacteal swelling is another troublesome disease of the breast. It is confined to the nipple, and consists of a large collection of milk in one of the lactiferous tubes, the orifice of which has been closed from inflammation. See MAMMARY GLANDS.

Breast-wheel. See WATER-WHEEL. Breasted, James Henry, American Egyptologist: b. Rockford, Ill., 27 Aug. 1865. He studied at Yale and Berlin, and has been a professor of Egyptology and Semitic languages at the University of Chicago from 1894. He has published An English Edition of Erman's Egyptian Grammar) (1898); 'De Hymnis in Solem sub Rege Amenophide IV. Conceptis (1894); A New Chapter in the Life of Thutmose III. (1900).

Breastplate, a piece of defensive armor covering the breast, originally made of thongs, cords, leather, etc. (hence lorica, cuirass), but afterward of brass, iron, or other metals. It may be considered as an improvement of the shield or buckler, which was borne on the left arm, and moved so as to protect successively all parts of the body. It being perceived that the free use of both hands in the employment of offensive weapons was important, the defensive armor was attached to the body, and received different names from its position, use, etc., as for instance, breastplate, cuisses, greaves. These different species of defensive armor are of little use against firearms, and have therefore generally fallen into disuse in modern (See CUIRASS.) Breastplate, in Jewish antiquity, was a folded piece of rich, embroidered stuff worn by the high-priest. It was set with 12 precious stones bearing the names of the tribes. It was also called the breastplate of judgment, because it contained the Urim and



Breastwork, in the military art, every elevation made for protection against the shot of the enemy. Wood and stone are not suitable for breastworks, on account of their liability to splinter. The best are made of earth; in some circumstances, of fascines, dung, gabions, bags of sand, and of wool. The thickness of the

work must be in proportion to the artillery of the enemy. In general it ought not to be less than 10, nor more than 18, or at most 24 feet thick. The rule of Cugnot is, that the breastwork should be so high that nothing but the sky and the tops of trees can be seen within cannon-shot from the interior of the intrenchments. If this rule cannot be followed on account of the height of neighboring mountains, the interior of the fortification ought to be secured by traverses.

ordinary breath has a slight odor, and contains Breath (A.S. braed, odor, breath). The nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, water, and organic impurities. In quiet breathing it probably never carries microbes. In diseases of the mouth, and teeth, nose, throat, lungs and stomach, in constipation, and in fevers the breath may become offensive. Should a simple antiseptic mouthwash or a laxative fail to rebe sought out and treated. A suitable_mouthmove the trouble an underlying disease must wash is Dobell's solution or listerine. Deodorizers, like coffee, cardamon, cloves, etc., may be resorted to for temporary sweetening of the breath, but they have little effect in permanently removing the condition.

Breathing and Health. Essential to continuance of physical being are food, water, and air, and the most important is air. The supply of food may be cut off for days or weeks and life remain in the body. The quality may be poor and amount reduced, and, while it affects health and perhaps reduces strength, life will not go out for a long time. Cut off the supply of air completely for 14 minutes and life becomes extinct. Change from purity of air to that which is only slightly contaminated and in an hour vitality lessens. Headache and nausea appear, and unless there is return to fresh and pure air, disintegration of tissue and physical break-down follow. These facts are patent to all, and are referred to as a starting point to consider how breathing may be used for the establishment and continuance of perfect health. The diseases most dreaded by the medical fraternity are those of a pulmonary nature. They are, in many cases, the result of insufficient_air supply and inefficient means of securing it. Diseases affecting digestion follow close upon those relating to the lungs, and these, too, can be regulated by and through breathing. Nervous disbreathing is properly ordered. orders, likewise, succumb very readily when

The act of breathing is, then, so important that it should have the attention of every individual. To use it to its best advantage every one must know something of its action and of the parts directly affected by it. There is instinctive breathing and mentally directed breathing. Every one breathes. Instinctive breathing begins at birth and continues through life. If to do we would need no more knowledge of the we could always be in fresh air and have little operation than has any animal. Even for great physical activity instinctive breathing would be sufficient, because every physical exertion would increase the rapidity and breadth of the instinctive act. But we are thinking animals, and we live in conditions requiring more than ordinary physical action. Excitement, nervous movements, high living, and attributes of mind cause us to throw off poisons and gases which the


breathing apparatus must take care of. To dispose of these we must go beyond instinctive breathing and adopt mentally directed action.

Breath is air taken through the nose and mouth into the lungs, which are elastic sacks made of microscopic vessels suspended on the bronchial tubes in the chest. They expand and collapse as they are acted upon by organs made of muscle. When they expand they draw air into the body; when they collapse they expel air. The muscles which operate them are those of the chest. The chief one is the floor of the chest, called the diaphragm. Those next in importance are the costal muscles, located in the ribs. The next, the dorsal muscles, located in the back. Last, the pectoral muscles in the upper chest in front. The muscles already noted are those which dilate the lungs and draw air into the body. Their action produces inspiration of breath, and that action expands the chest. Their return to normal position permits the collapse of the air-cells of the lungs. Such return is, however, insufficient to cause complete collapse of air-cells and the expulsion of all air. Return is assisted, and expulsion made complete, by calling into use the abdominal muscles and those in the ribs below the diaphragm. It becomes, then, very important to know the location of the diaphragm. This organ is attached in front to the end of the breast bone. One should find this location by pressing with his fingers. Men find it easily because the ribs spread quickly where they leave the breast bone. Women find it less easily as the ribs are close together. But follow up to the point where the very end of the breast bone is located. The diaphragm attaches at the sides to the ribs. One can tell where by placing the hand flat on the side and inhaling a deep breath; that which pushes first against the hand from within is the diaphragm, which is from one to two inches lower than the level of the end of the breast bone. It attaches to the sides all around and into the small of the back, where it is a little lower than at the sides. One should study the location of the diaphragm day after day, until it is definitely fixed in mind. Many who have supposed they knew how and where to take breath by using the diaphragm will find their conception has been that it is lower than it is. The real reason for having the correct location clearly in mind is to avoid desultory and, possibly, harmful practice. The reason for repeating the examination of location so many times is that the mind may go instantly to it in order to direct voluntary inspiration and expiration. Another common error is to suppose the lungs to be located in the upper chest. Ask one if his lungs are sound and he will pound high in front. The largest portion of the lungs is in the sides and back. He pounds over the space occupied by the heart. This common error leads many who practise voluntary breathing into misdirected effort, which is liable to be harmful.

Breathing divides into inspiration and expiration. Inspiration (breath taking) is instinctive and involuntary. The latter is like the former, but it is greatly amplified and extended. Our attention now goes to voluntary inspiration. Its primary physical act is expansion of the diaphragm. Evidence of that is discovered wherever that organ connects with outer parts of the chest, in the generous expansion of those parts, and by quite a little expansion of parts of the body

below the diaphragm. The latter action is caused by the pressure of the centre of the diaphragm (quite in the middle of the body) downward upon the abdominal viscera. Deep breathing, or taking large draughts of air, is always accompanied by generous spread of the body at the level of the diaphragm, and considerable spread of the portion just below that level. Few adults will do this upon the first attempt at mental direction of inhalation, because they have lost the natural habit. If they will study for a few minutes quiet instinctive (not directed) breathing, they will find they really do breathe as described above. But this is not enough for "breathing for health." It must be amplified through mental direction; on the line of instinctive breathing, only much more extensively.

The custom of taking deep breath can be developed into habit in a short time, and it should be used daily. Direct the thought during inhalation to generous expansion of the body in the neighborhood of the diaphragm, and after such expansion has begun, enlarge the sides and back above the diaphragm. Fill the lungs fully, retain the air a few seconds and exhale completely. Such complete exhalation implies that breath shall be forced out by drawing in the abdomen. After repeating the act of inspiration and expiration four or five times, which, by the way, should never be done violently, one can feel the more active rush of blood through the body. This demonstrates that the cleansing process of the circulatory system is accomplishing its work. When a good glow is established refrain from further exercise for the time, but resume it when quietness is again restored. Five or ten minutes given to this practice every morning and evening will, in a month, establish physical strength. Followed through a term of years it will rebuild the body and make it almost invulnerable against the attack of disease. Persons with weak lungs or sluggish circulation can, by this means, become rugged and very active. So far-reaching is the result that great physical strength is acquired. Even the usually expected elements of decay, as manifested in carious teeth and falling hair, are arrested or prevented. The success of all physical treatment lies in the regularity and persistence with which it is followed. In a few weeks or even in one week, the benefit will be observed, but the rebuilding of a body requires persistent practice for a year at least.

Practice of the above nature increases the lung space. Probably no new air-cells can be created, although some authorities claim that there are. The expanding power of existing air-cells is enlarged, and the muscles which cause the expansion greatly increase their power. Such expansion can be measured. It is well to take the bust measure, passing the tape-measure around the body just below the arm pits, and take measurement on the first day of each month thereafter. Comparison with previous measure will show constant increase for a full year. How great an increase to expect depends upon the person. From two to five inches in a year is usual. A more perfect measure of development is given by the spirometer which, as its name implies, is a breath-measure. It records the vital capacity of the lungs. Test measurements in over 500 students proved that every one gained in size of lungs, and many made marvelous changes in their physical condition. The spirometer records the cubic inches of air space

[blocks in formation]

in the lungs. Such capacity varies in accordance with the height, and is greater in men than in women. Tall people have largest lungs, ordinarily, and those who are slim, rather than stout, increase most through practice. Records show that the increase in air capacity in one year averages from 25 to 33 per cent. All this has direct bearing on health. In the lungs the air-cells are surrounded by minute blood vessels. All the blood, after its course through the body, passes to the lungs to discharge its gatherings and to receive the supply of oxygen necessary for life, It is evident that if the air supply is increased 25 per cent, cleansing and oxygenation take place more quickly and more thoroughly. It is recognized among physicians that the purity of the blood is the most important element in keeping well. Meeting the attack of bacilli is the triumph of medical science. The germ of disease is found in the blood, and in modern science inoculation for destroying such germ is the keynote. In the practice of breathing every individual has nature's method of doing what medical science does. It goes beyond that, in that breathing provides prevention as well as cure. The ounce of prevention is the most valuable. Disease germs can hardly find lodgment, and they certainly cannot propagate, in a body which is perfectly well. A feeling of lassitude and "run down" is the admonition which shows that germs are at work. Your doctor tells you to take long walks in the open air. He says in other words that oxygen must be supplied to the lungs. Much surer are we to respond to healthlaws if such training as all can have has made the taking of large draughts of air possible.

Above we have described inhalation and exhalation. While we have not sought to formulate a complete system of training, we have given enough to show what may be done. At first, daily practice should be gentle. This will bring into correct use all physical organs which govern breathing. When one realizes ease in action he should make the dual act of inspiration and expiration more generous. Expiration should now be made more complete. That is, make exhalation forceful by drawing in the abdominal muscles and lower ribs greatly. This will also cause broader inspiration. Thus the two sets of muscles will be powerfully increased, and the expanding power of the lungs will be enlarged.

When breath is imbibed in large quantities it should be retained a little time that it may purify the blood. Three or four seconds are long enough at first, but the time may be increased gradually until one can hold it 30 or more seconds. The physical act of holding the breath consists of arresting the inspiratory muscles when they have drawn breath in and refusing to allow them to return to their relaxed position. The very act of thus commanding adds to their strength. It is one of the contributing factors toward strengthening the whole body. The tendency of modern life to greater physical activity accentuates the need of symmetrical development of the lungs and their controlling forces. FRANK HERBERT TUBBS, Editor Music Life. Brébeuf, Jean de, zhon de bra-bef, Jesuit missionary: b. Bayeux, France, 25 March 1593; d. 16 March 1649. He set sail in 1625 with Champlain, arrived at Quebec when but a single house was seen there, and fixed his residence

among the Hurons. He learned their language, and gained their confidence. In 1649 they were suddenly attacked by the Iroquois, and Brébeuf fell into the hands of the latter, by whom he was put to death with frightful tortures. His 'Catechism Translated into the Language of the Hurons' was published at Paris in 1652.

Breccia, bre'cha, a conglomerate composed of angular pieces of the same or of different rocks, united by a cement or matrix, which, according to its nature, forms the several varieties of calcareous, silicious, etc. The conglomerate known by the name of pudding-stone differs from that of breccia only in having the composing fragments rounded. Calcareous breccia is often found in the form of fine marble, apparently composed of fragments produced by some disrupting force, and then united by the infiltration of carbonate of lime among them. The angular form of the fragments seems to indicate that they have never been exposed to much friction, and have therefore probably originated at no great distance from their present site. In some cases a kind of spurious breccia has been formed by the breaking up of calcareous beds, and their subsequent union by means of infiltration, without any change of their original position. Marble breccia thus formed is remarkable for the size of its fragments. In the calcareous districts of many countries caverns and extensive fissures are seen filled with a reddish mass, composed of lime, sand, and oxide of iron, enclosing angular fragments of different rocks, and a great number of bones more or less broken. To such masses the name of osseous breccia has been given. They are most frequently met with on the shores of the Mediterranean.

Brèche de Roland, brěsh de rō-län, "the breach of Roland," a defile in the Pyrenees, bewell-known legend, was opened up by Roland, tween France and Spain, which, according to a one of the paladins of Charlemagne, with one blow of his sword Durandal, in order to afford a passage to his army. It is an immense gap between the walls of a mountain barrier rising to the height of 9,500 feet above the level of the sea, and from 300 to 600 feet above the bottom of the defile. The defile itself varies in width from 200 to 300 feet. It lies about 43 miles north of Huesca, from which it can at times be


Brechin, breн'n, a parliamentary and municipal burgh of Scotland, in Forfarshire, is romantically situated on the left bank of the South Esk, 121⁄2 miles northeast of Forfar, and eight west of Montrose. It is a very ancient royal burgh, and was formerly walled. The chief industry is the manufacture of linens, and the neighborhood exports a considerable quantity of grain. In ancient times there was an abbey of Culdees in this place, and in 1150, when Brechin was constituted an episcopal see by David I., it is supposed that the site of this establishment was that chosen for the foundation of the cathedral. The cathedral church of St. Ninians, which now forms the parish church, is situated on the north edge of a precipitous ravine, which separates the burgh-lands from those of Brechin Castle. The ancient round tower, which is the leading architectural feature of the town, stands at the southwest angle of the church. Such towers are common


in Ireland, but are seldom seen in Scotland. The Mechanics' Institution is a handsome building, with a beautiful hall, and there is a valuable public library. Pop. (1901) 8,941.

Breck, James Lloyd, American clergyman: b. Philadelphia, 27 June 1818; d. Benicia, Cal., 30 March 1876. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1838, and at the General Theological Seminary, New York, in 1841. The same year he went to Wisconsin, and aided in the formation of the diocese there in 1847. He was one of the founders of the Nashotah Theological Seminary, remaining as instructor there until 1850, when he went to St. Paul, Minn., as a missionary. There he established an associate mission, and assisted in supplying mission stations for 80 miles around. From 1852 to 1857 he was engaged in missionary work among the Chippewa Indians. In 1858 he established church services at Faribault, Minn., and founded the Seabury Divinity School. He prepared the way for building church institutions there, and was the forerunner of Bishop Whipple. In 1867 Dr. Breck went to Benicia, Cal., where he established church enterprises similar to those at Nashotah and Faribault.

Breck, Samuel, American soldier: b. Middleborough, Mass., 25 Feb. 1834. He is descended from Edward Breck, who came to Dorchester, Mass., from Ashton, England, about 1630. He graduated at West Point 1855, and took part in the Seminole war of 1855-6. During the Civil War he was assistant adjutant general of McDowell's division, and afterward of the 1st Army Corps, being engaged in the occupation of Fredericksburg and in the Shenandoah Valley expedition, to intercept the retreat of the Confederate forces under Gen. Jackson in 1862. From July 1862 to 1870 he was assistant in the adjutant-general's office at Washington, in charge of rolls, returns, books, blanks and business pertaining to the enlisted men of the regular and volunteer forces, and engaged in the preparation and publication of the Volunteer Army Register. He became brigadier-general and adjutant-general in 1897, and was retired by operation of law, 25 Feb. 1898.


Breck'enridge, Hugh Henry, American artist: b. Leesbury, Pa., 1870. In 1892 he was awarded the European scholarship of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and studied in Paris under Bouguereau, Ferrier, and Doucet. Since 1894 he has been an instructor, and secretary of the faculty in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and in 1898 organized the Darby School of Painting. His work awarded a medal at Atlanta in 1895, and received honorable mention at the Paris Exposition of 1900.


Breckenridge, Minn., a village and countyseat of Wilkin County, on the Red River of the North, about 50 miles south of Fargo, North Dakota. It is reached by the Northern Pacific and Great Northern railroads and is the centre of a very fertile region. It contains flour mills, grain elevators, etc., and steamboats ply between it and the Red River towns in Manitoba. Pop. (1900) 1,282.

Breckinridge, Clifton R., American legislator and diplomatist: b. Lexington, Ky., 25 Nov. 1846. He is a son of John Cabell Breckinridge (q.v.), and received a public school edu

cation and served in the Confederate army and navy. After the war he attended Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) for three years, and engaged in mercantile business in Pine Bluff, Ark. He was elected to Congress in 1882 as representative-at-large, as a Democrat; was re-elected in 1884, 1886, 1889, 1890, 1892 and 1894, and served on the Committee on Ways and Means during the greater part of his congressional life. He was United States Minister to Russia 1894-7.

Breckinridge, or Breckenridge, John, American statesman: b. Augusta County, Va., 2 Dec. 1760; d. Lexington, Ky., 14 Dec. 1806. In 1795 he was made attorney-general of the new State of Kentucky, and he served in its legislature from 1797 to 1800. He entered the United States Senate in 1801, becoming four years later attorney-general in Jefferson's cabinet, in which office he died.

Breckinridge, John, American clergyman: b. Cabell's Dale, Ky., 1797; d. 1841. He entered the Presbyterian ministry, and was chaplain of the National House of Representatives, 1819-21. He was pastor at Lexington, Ky., 1823-6, and in Baltimore 1826-31. He was sub sequently professor of theology at Princeton Theological Seminary, and was chosen president of Oglethorpe University, Georgia, just He is remembered for a prior to his death. famous theological debate held with Rev. John published under the title 'Roman Catholic ConHughes, subsequently archbishop of New York, troversy) (1936).

Breckinridge, John Cabell, Vice-President of the United States, grandson of John Breckinridge (1760-1806, q.v.): b. near Lexington, Ky., 21 Jan. 1821; d. Lexington, Ky., 17 May 1875. He practised law in Lexington until 1847, when he was chosen major of a volunteer regiment for the Mexican war. He sat in Congress in 1851-5, and in 1856 was elected VicePresident, with James Buchanan as President. In 1860 he was the pro-slavery candidate for the presidency, but was defeated by Abraham Lincoln. A United States senator from March to December 1861, he then entered the Confederate army, was appointed a major-general in 1862, and held some important commands during the Civil War. He was secretary of war in Jefferson Davis' cabinet, at the close of the struggle, and escaped to Europe, whence he returned in 1868, and resumed his law practice.

Breckinridge, Joseph Cabell, American military officer, nephew of John Cabell Breckinridge (q.v.) b. Baltimore, Md., 14 Jan. 1842. He practised law in Danville, Ky., till the beginning of the Civil War, when he joined the Union army. He was made a first lieutenant in the regular army 1863, captain in 1874, brigadier and inspector-general in 1889, and majorgeneral of volunteers, 4 May 1898. He served in the Santiago campaign and had a horse shot from under him.

Breckinridge, Robert Jefferson, Presbyterian clergyman and theological writer, brother of John Breckinridge (1797-1841, q.v.): b. Cabell's Dale, Ky., 8 March 1800; d. 27 Dec. 1871. He was originally a lawyer. He was president of Jefferson College in 1845-47; from 1847 he was pastor at Lexington, Ky. He was an oldschool leader in the division of the Presbyterian

« PreviousContinue »