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at London. In 1902 gold payments had been resumed; the paper money in circulation was reduced by 107,000 centos of reis; the rate of exchange was 12d.; the paper money in circulation, which formerly was worth only £23,500,000, had increased in value to £34,000,000; Brazilian bonds abroad were quoted 35 per cent higher; the rest of the 1897 loan had been paid; not a single treasury bill was in circulation. There were £2,000,000 in cash in London, besides 1,000,000 in consols, and 12,000 centos deposited in the Banco da Republica. "Finally, the era of deficits has been banished, and that of surpluses has been instituted." The enormous advantage of Brazil in her trade with the United States makes such results possible, and places much more ambitious financial achievements easily within her reach. The total debt of the republic, expressed in gold of the United States, was stated to be $440,701,893 in 1901.

Army and Navy.-The Brazilian navy in 1901 comprised: 2 battleships of the old style; 2 coast-defense vessels, comparatively modern; 2 old monitors; 7 small cruisers, of which number 3 were unarmored; 6 gunboats, armored, and 18 unarmored; 24 torpedo-boats of all classes; 4 torpedo-cruisers; 2 submarine boats. To man these vessels there were 4,000 seamen, 1,000 stokers, and 450 marine infantry. The army included 484 staff officers; 1,573 officers and 9,035 men in the infantry, and, in the cavalry and engineers, 606 officers and 3,179 men, and 1,400 cadets. The only serious war-cloud at the beginning of 1903 arose out of a dispute with Bolivia over Acré. See ACRE RIVER.

Climate. The rainy season begins for the hot lowlands of the north in December or January and continues until May or June, the remaining half of the year being dry. In the highlands of the southern and central regions the four seasons of the year are well defined. Throughout the Amazon basin the seasonal variation of temperature is small- from 75° to 90°; and the prevailing winds, the "trades" from the east, mitigate the equatorial conditions. In the high plains of the states of Rio Grande do Sul and San Paulo the mercury sometimes falls to the freezing point. Except in the neighborhood of swamps, marshy or undrained districts, etc., the climate is moderately healthful, and the mortality in the best of the towns does not compare unfavorably with that of cities in the United States.

of diamonds and carbons in the state of Bahia is of special interest. Prior to the discovery of the South African mines this was the greatest diamond-producing centre, and the Paranguacu district is the only place in the world where carbons are found of marketable size. An excellent statement is made by Señor Fontoura Xavier, consul-general of Brazil in New York, who enumerates the gems found in Goyaz, Matto Grosso, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and San Paulo, as well as in the states mentioned above. Black diamonds, emeralds, sapphires, rubies, beryls, amethysts, garnets, opals, chalcedonies, sapphirines, agates, and cornelians are found. some of them in great abundance. "One of the carboniferous basins of Brazil is in the state of Santa Catarina. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul there have been discovered four large outcrops of coal. Bitumen exists in nearly a!! of the states." Native sulphur, nitrate, salt, sulphate of magnesia are also mentioned. The average annual value of the gold and diamonds exported is said to be about $7,400,00. In Rio Grande do Sul are copper mines, in Paraná quicksilver mines; galena and lead mines in widely separated regions.

Finances. The revenues of Brazil for the fiscal year 1903 were estimated at 40,967,942 milreis, gold, and 248,018,000 milreis, paper.

The various sources of the receipts and their amounts in milreis were as follows:

Revenues from imports.
Internal revenue..
Consumption taxes..
Extraordinary revenues..
Paper-money redemption fund.
Paper-money guaranty fund....
Lease of Goverment railways..
Amortization of internal debt.
Port-improvement fund



Resources. In 1902 the exports of coffee to the United States amounted to 764,658,963 pounds, valued at $47,004,453. The total exports of rubber from the Amazon valley (lower, upper, and Iquitos districts) in 1901 were 46,992 tons. Tobacco, cotton, cacao, Brazil nuts, rice, sugar- these are some of the vegetable products. There is practically no limit to the Department of Finance number of agricultural enterprises that can be successfully carried on in the table-lands, the broad, open valleys, and the lowlands forming the basin of the Amazon. In the higher regions and mountains the mineral wealth of the republic is being developed. During the first seven months of 1901, 2,435,866 grams of gold, 37,915 tons of manganese, and precious stones to the value of 464 centos, were exported from the state of Minas Geraes. The iron-ore regions are situated within a zone of about 3,200 square miles, from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above the level of the sea, and about 310 miles from Rio de Janeiro, which is the nearest port The output

Department of Justice and In

ternal Affairs.....

Department of Foreign Relations)
Navy Department..
War Department
Department of Industry, Com-







Education.- See

The expenditures for the same period were estimated at 41,399,062 milreis, gold, and 244,462,545 milreis, paper, and distributed as follows:





40,967,942 248,018,000


122,722,000 36,743,000 32,660,000

6,755,000 2,150,000



16,424,481 631,920 26,700,664 47,569,437

3.783.315 36,710,247

68,030,477 85,105,565

41,399,062 244,462,845



Bibliography-Agassiz, A Journey in Brazil' (1868); Bureau of Am. Republics, Washington, D. C., Handbook of Brazil (geographical sketch); Burton, Explorations of Highlands of Brazil' (1869); Cardim, 'Narrativa epistolar de una viagem' (Lisboa 1847); Collecção das leis e decretos (1827); Debidour Le Brésil avant le XIX° siècle (Nontran 1878); Dundonald (Earl of) Narrative' (1859); 'Em

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pire of Brazil at Exhibition of 1876) (Rio de Janeiro 1876); Fletcher, 'Brazil and the Brazilians' (1868); Graham, Journal of a Voyage to Brazil) (1824); Handelmann, 'Geschichte von Brasilien (1860); Hartt, Thayer Expedition Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil (1870); Henderson, A History of Brazil (1821); Heriate, 'Descripcão do estado Maranhão, etc.) (Vienna 1874); Herndon and Gibbon, Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon' (Washington, Public print., 1853-54); U. S. 32 Cong.-Senate, Exec. doc. No. 36; Homem de Mello Integração da nacionaledade Brazilaira (Rio de Janeiro 1895); Kidder and Fletcher, Brazil and the Brazilians) (1857); Koster, Travels in Brazil' (1817); La Grasserie, Lois civiles du Brésil (1897); Lery, 'Reise in Brasilien) (Münster 1794); Lopes de Sousa, Diario da navegação' (Lisboa 1839); Magalhaes de Gandova Histoire de la Province de Sancta-Cruz.' In Ternaux-Compans' Voyages, etc. (1837-41); Moreira, Agricultural Instructions for Those Who May Emigrate to Brazil' (1876); Negociaciones entre la repub. orient. de Uruguay y el imp. de Brasil (Rio de Janeiro 1858); Southey, History of Brazil' (1810-19); Stade, Captivity Among the Wild Tribes of Eastern Brazil' (Hakluyt Soc. 1874);

'Statement submitted to the President of U. S. as arbitrator' (New York 1894); Todd, 'Report on Voyage of U. S. S. Wilmington up the Amazon River (Washington, Gov't Print., 1890); Varnhogen, 'Examen de quelques points de l'histoire geographique (1858); Historia geral do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro 1876); Historia das lutas com os Hollendezes' (Lisbon 1872); Warren, 'Para; or Scenes and Adventures on Banks of Amazon (1851); Wied-Neuwied (Prince), Travels in Brazil' (1820); Zeballos, Argument for the Argentine Rep. Upon the Question With Brazil in Regard to Territory of Misiones' (Washington_1894).


Authority on Latin-America.

Brazil', Ind., a city and county capital of Clay County, 16 miles northeast of Terre Haute. It is an important railroad centre and in its vicinity are rich mines of block coal. Inexhaustible deposits of clay and shales are also found here and the city contains manufactures of pumps, tiles, machinery, etc. Brazil was incorporated in 1873, is governed by a mayor, elected quadrennially, and a city council; has a public library and controls its own waterworks. Pop. (1900) 7.786.

Brazil-cabbage, or Chow Caraibe (Caladium sagittifolium or Xanthosoma sagittifolium), a West Indian plant of the natural order Arace@, widely cultivated in the tropics for its starchy edible tubers, which are used like potatoes, and its succulent leaves, which are cooked like spinach. The plant almost entirely lacks the acrid principle which characterizes other members of

the order.

Brazil-nut, Castanea, Cream Nut, Niggertoe, Para Nut, the seeds of two species of Brazilian trees, the only ones of their genus, of the natural order Myrtacea. The better known species, Bertholletia excelsa, is a tree which often attains a height of 150 feet and a diameter of four feet. It has bright green, leathery leaves, two feet long and six inches wide, and creamcolored flowers followed by very hard-shelled


fruits about six inches in diameter, containing about 20, three-sided, wrinkled seeds which are largely exported from Para and from ports of French Guiana. They are used for dessert and confectionery and for the manufacture of an expressed oil used in oil painting, lubricating, and lighting. Though of stately dimensions, the tree is of little decorative use. It covers extensive tracts in northern Brazil, and is especially abundant along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. The seeds of the monkey-pot tree, known as sapucaia nuts (q.v.), are considered superior to Brazil-nuts, but are not yet commercially important, owing to the distance they must be transported from the interior country.

Brazil Tea, a drink prepared from the leaves of Ilex paraguensis. See MATÉ.

Brazil-wood. A dark-red or brown dyewood exported from the West Indies, Brazil, and other South American countries. Various grades appear in the market under diverse names, such as Pernambuco wood (Casalpinia echinata), St. Martha wood, and All Saints' wood, which are most valued. Except in a few cases botanists have not definitely determined the species which furnish the different grades, but large quantities are derived from C. brasiliensis, a small tree, bipinnate leaves, and flowers in panicles. It is indigenous in rocky ground, especially in the West Indies. The valuable part is the heart-wood, of which there is but little when compared with the thick, valueless sap-wood. This useful part is at first light colored, but becomes dark when exposed to light, air, moisture, etc. Formerly it was largely used in dyeing, but coal-tar dyes and other manufactured dyes have generally supplanted it. It is still used in ink-making. The name is said to be derived from Braxilis, not Brazil, since sappan wood, which is believed to be identical, was used prior to the discovery of America.

Brazilian Grass, an incorrect name popularly applied to a substance used in the manufacture of a very cheap kind of hats, known as It Brazilian grass hats, and also as chip hats. consists of strips of the leaves of a palm. Cham@rops argentea, which are imported for this manufacture, and chiefly from Cuba.

Brazilian Pebble, a colorless and transparent variety of quartz, used for high-grade lenses.

Braz'ing, or Brass-soldering, the process of uniting two pieces of brass, two pieces of copper, or one of each by means of a hard solder,

that is, a solder which fuses at a comparatively high temperature. The solder is applied in the form of a coarse powder, and is always mixed with borax, to prevent the oxidation of the metals soldered together. It is usual to moisten this mixture with water before spreading it over the surfaces to be joined. When the solder has been applied in this state, the pieces of metal are slowly heated, by which the water is made to evaporate, leaving a crust of the solder on the parts where it is required. The pieces are then exposed to a stronger heat, until the borax melts and fluxes the solder, which suddenly flushes the joints of the pieces of metal, and thus unites the two surfaces, making them into one piece. The whole is now allowed to cool, and is afterward dressed with a file. Pieces of metal united in this way are held together as firmly as if they were only one piece.

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Brazos, brä'zōs, formerly called Brazosde-Dios, a large river in Texas, rising in the elevated region of northwestern Texas, once known as the Staked Plain, between the parallels of 33 and 34°. It flows southeastward between the Colorado and Trinity, and after a course of about 900 miles falls into the Gulf of Mexico, between Quintana and Velasco, 40 miles westsouthwest of Galveston. It is navigable by steamers during the wet season for about 300 miles. Among the towns on its banks the chief is Waco, about halfway from its mouth, now an important railway centre. The cotton plantations on the Brazos are highly productive.

Brazos de Santiago, da sän-te-ä'go, Texas, a village 30 miles east of Brownsville, on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, in Cameron County. The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, in 1846, were fought about half way between Brazos and Matamoras. It carries on much coasting and foreign trade, although a shifting sand bar is a serious obstacle to its


Brazza, brät'są (ancient BRACHIA), an island of Austria, in the Adriatic Sea, belonging to Dalmatia, of which it constitutes a separate administrative district; lat. 43° 16' N.; lon. 16° 37 E. It is 24 miles long, and from five to seven broad; contains 20 villages, and is separated from the mainland by a channel 12 miles broad, which affords excellent anchorage for shipping. The island is mountainous and well wooded; and in the valleys vines are grown, from which are made the best wines in Dalmatia. It produces also good oil, almonds, and saffron, and grain in small quantity. Much attention is paid to the cultivation of bees and silk-worms. The chief town, St. Pietro di Brazza, has a small port, defended by a mole. At Milna there is a considerable shipbuilding yard. Pop. (1900) 24,465.

Brazza-Savorgnan, Pierre Paul François Camille, pē-ar pōl fran-swä kä-měl brät-sasä-vôr-nyan, French explorer: b. on board ship, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 26 Jan. 1852. He entered the French navy in 1875, after becoming a naturalized French citizen, and during 1876-8 explored the Ogowe and Congo regions of Africa, and made treaties between France and the natives, founding Franceville and several other villages. In 1886 he was made governor of the French Congo and Gaboon colonies, which he had thus secured. Brazzaville on the Congo River is named after him. After a sojourn in France, he returned to Africa in 1890 as commissioner-general of the whole of French Congo. The next six years were spent in explorations and securing of French authority in central Africa, after which, in 1897, he returned to France.

Brazzaville, brät'sa-vēl, a town on the French side of the Congo at the lower end of Stanley Pool. It stands nearly opposite Leopoldville, in the Congo Free State. See BRAZZASAVORGNAN.

Breach, the aperture or passage made in the wall of any fortified place, by the ordnance of the besiegers, for the purpose of entering the fortress. They should be made where there is the least defense, that is, in the front or face of the bastions. In order to divide the resistance of the besieged, breaches are commonly

Vol. 3-18


made at once in the faces of the attacked bastions and in the ravelin. This is effected by battering, and at such places as the cannon do not reach, by the aid of mines. The breach is called practicable if it is large enough to afford some hope of success in case of an assault. This is generally considered to be the case if it allows a passage to 14 men abreast. Frequently, however, a breach of much less extent, even of half that width, may be entered.

Breach, any violation of law or obligation. A continuing breach is one where the condition

of things constituting a breach continues during a period of time, or where the acts constituting a breach are repeated at brief intervals. In pleading, a breach is that part of the complaint in which the violation of the defendant's contract is stated. It is usual in assumpsit, where the common-law rules of pleading are still in force, to introduce the statement of the particular breach, with the allegation that the defendant, contriving and fraudulently intending craftily and subtilely to deceive and defraud the plaintiff, neglected and refused to perform, or performed the particular act, contrary to the previous stipulation. In debt, the breach or cause of action complained of must proceed only for the nonpayment of money previously alleged to be payable; and such breach is very similar whether the action be in debt on simple contract, specialty, record, or statute.

Breach of Promise of Marriage. An action lies for this on the part of either man or woman, though, as a rule, only the latter is believed to be substantially injured or deserve damages. There must be a legal and valid consideration, but as there are always mutual promises they are a sufficient consideration for each other. The minds of the parties must meet; that is, there must be a request or proposition on the one side and an assent on the other. If the com

munications between the parties are verbal, the dence and proof. The exact words or time or only questions which usually arise relate to evimanner of the promise need not be proved, but it may be inferred from the conduct of the parties and from the circumstances which usually attend When the parties are at a distance from each a promise to marry. (15 Mass. 1; 2 Penn. St. 80.) other, and the offer is made by letter, it will be presumed to continue for a reasonable time for the consideration of the party addressed, and if accepted within a reasonable time, and before it is expressly revoked, the contract is then complete.

third clause of the fourth section of the statute A promise of marriage is not within the of frauds, relating to agreements made upon consideration of marriage; but if not to be performed within one year it is within the fifth clause, and must therefore be in writing in order to be binding. If no time be fixed and agreed upon for the performance of the contract, it is in contemplation of law a contract to marry within a reasonable period after request, and either party may call upon the other to fulfill the engagement, and in case of default may bring an action for damages. If both parties lie by for an unreasonable period, and do not treat the contract as continuing, it will be deemed to be abandoned by mutual consent. The defenses which may be made to an action for breach of promise of marriage are, of course, various; but


it is only necessary to notice in this place such as are in some degree peculiar. Thus, if either party has been convicted of an infamous crime, or has sustained a bad character generally, and the other was ignorant of it at the time of the engagement; or if the woman has committed fornication, and this was unknown at the time to the man who promised to marry her; or if the woman is deeply involved in debt at the time of the engagement, and the fact is kept secret from her intended husband; or if false representations are made by the woman, or by her friends in collusion with her, as to her circumstances and situation in life and the amount of her fortune and marriage portion,- any of these facts, if properly pleaded, will constitute a good defense. If after the engagement either party is guilty of gross misconduct, inconsistent with the character which he or she was fairly presumed to possess, the other party will be released. If the woman insists upon having her property settled to her own personal use, it is said that this will justify the man in breaking off the engagement. So, if the situation and position of either of the parties as regards his or her fitness for the marriage relation is materially and permanently altered for the worse (whether with or without the fault of such party) after the engagement, this will release the other party.

Breach of Warranty.- In sales of personal property an express warranty is one by which the warrantor covenants or undertakes to insure that the thing which is the subject of the contract is, or is not, as there mentioned; as that a horse is sound, that he is not five years old, etc.

An implied warranty is one which, not being expressly made, the law implies by the fact of the sale. For example, the seller is understood to warrant the title of goods he sells, when they are in his possession at the time of the sale. (1 Ld. Raym. 593.) In general there is no implied warranty of the quality of the goods sold. The rule of the civil law was that a fair price implied a warranty of quality. This rule has been adopted in Louisiana and South Carolina. There may be an implied warranty as to character, and even as to quality, from statements of the seller, or a purchase for a specified purpose. Any substantial failure, in the article supplied to the buyer in pursuance of the contract of sale, to come up to the quality warranted, amounts to a breach of the warranty, and proof of it establishes the buyer's right to an action therefor. This rule applies to all cases where the remedy sought is by an action on the warranty for damages, or by way of set-off in a suit for the purchase-money; in such cases the buyer is bound to prove the breach and the damages suffered by him in consequence of it, and can recover only to the extent of the damage so proved. A warranty of soundness does not extend to a visible defect. A vendor of personal property is not liable for latent defects, known to him, but unknown to the purchaser, unless he has used some artifice to deceive the purchaser in regard to such defects or has warranted the article. Where an article is warranted as fit for a certain purpose, the seller is liable for an injury sustained by the vendee in consequence of its unfitness. Under an executory contract to sell goods in transitu, the vendor is obliged to tender a merchantable article. On a sale of an article known to be intended for food there is an implied warranty that it is sound, wholesome,

and fit to be used as an article of food. (15 Hun, 504.) The authority of an agent to warrant goods sold will be implied where it is usual in the market to give a warranty on the sale of such goods; such authority, however, will be implied only as to goods sold at the time of the warranty, which will not extend to subsequent sales in the absence of express warranty.

Breach of Duty.-The non-performance of a duty, or the performance of it in such a manner that injury is done to one's employer, through want of integrity or due diligence and skill. It is assumed that there is an implied contract between an employer and the person that he employs, according to which the latter agrees to perform the duties entrusted to him in such a manner that the interests of his employer shall not suffer. In case of breach of duty, what is called an action of assumpsit - that is, an action for the recovery of damages for the nonperformance of a promise, which, though not under seal, is yet founded on proper consideration-may be brought by the one who has sustained an injury, against the persons by whom the breach has been committed.

Breach of Peace.- The taking part in any riot, affray, or tumult, which is destructive to the public tranquillity, or the causing others to do anything to injure the public tranquillity. The former are actual, the latter constructive breaches. In both cases the breach of the peace may be either felonious or not felonious. The felonious breaches of the peace are three in number: (1) The riotous assembling of 12 or more persons, and not dispersing upon proclamation; (2) the riotous demolishing of churches, houses, buildings, or machinery; (3) maliciously sending, delivering, or uttering, or directly or indirectly causing to be received, knowing the contents thereof, any letter or writing threatening to kill or murder any person. The remaining offenses are not felonious, and include: (1) affrays; (2) riots, routs, and unlawful assemblies, which must have at least three persons to constitute them; (3) tumultuously petitioning; (4) forcible entry or detainer, which is committed by violently taking or keeping possession of lands or tenements with menaces, force, and arms, and without the authority of the law; (5) riding, or going armed, with dangerous or unusual weapons, terrifying the good people of the land; (6) spreading false news; (7) false and pretended prophecies, with intent to disturb the peace. Finally, there are two constructive breaches of the peace, namely, challenging another to fight, or bearing such a challenge, and the making public by either printing, writing, signs, or pictures, malicious defamations of any person, especially a magistrate, in order to provoke him to wrath or expose him to public hatred, contempt, and ridicule.

Breach of Trust.- A violation of duty by a trustee, executor, or any other person in a fiduciary position. A trustee is not permitted to manage an estate entrusted to him, in such a manner as to derive any advantage to himself, and at the same time he is bound to manage it in such a manner that the person for whom he has it in trust shall reap from it the greatest possible advantage. Accordingly money held in trust by a trustee must be invested by him in government stock, or in certain other special securities, for the behoof of him for whom he has the money in trust; and if he has not done


so he is, as a general rule, liable for interest on the trust funds. Formerly it was the duty of the trustee to invest money in government securities alone, but under certain acts (unless the trust deed expressly forbids) a number of other sound investments are allowed. A trustee who has grossly mismanaged his trust may have to repay money lost, with interest, and sometimes compound interest. (See TRUSTEE.) The court of chancery has adopted two rules to guide the decisions with respect to the liability consequent upon a breach of trust. The purport of the first is, that with a view not to strike terror into persons acting for the benefit of others, the court will deal leniently with trustees who have endeavored fairly to discharge their duty, and in case of any misapplication of the trust money the court will not hold the trustees liable on slight grounds. The second rule is, that care must be had to guard against any abuse of their trust on the part of the trustees. A fraudulent misuse of trust funds is punishable as a misdemeanor with fine and imprisonment.

Bread and Bread Making. Bread is the product_obtained by baking a mixture made of wheat flour or the meal from any cereal and water alone, milk, or milk and water, shortening and yeast, or baking powder. Unleavened bread is that made without yeast or other leavening agent. Ordinarily, the term bread is applied to the product made from wheat flour, but

ing about the chemical changes that take place in bread making. Pasteur in his work on fermentation states: "In introducing a quantity of yeast into a saccharine wort, it must be borne in mind that we are sowing a multitude of minute living cells, representing so many centres of life, capable of vegetating with extraordinary rapidity in a medium adapted to their nutrition. This phenomenon can occur at any temperature between zero and 55° C. (131° F.), although a temperature between 15° C. and 30° C. (59° F. and 86° F.) is the most favorable to its occurrence." The individuality of the yeast plant, the nature and amount of its food supply and the conditions under which it develops determine the value of the yeast. When compelled to work in the presence of or to contend with other ferment bodies, the yeast is contaminated and is of lessened value for bread-making purposes. Yeast, like plants of higher orders, is often poorly nourished. Yeast used for brewing purposes is developed from healthy, vigorous, wellnourished yeast plants, and is called high yeast. See BREWING.

Yeast is a unicellular plant which readily reproduces itself by the process of "budding" when added to a batter containing small amounts of saccharine, mineral, and nitrogenous matter. Flour contains all of the food required for the propagation of the yeast plant, which secretes a number of chemical compounds called enzymes which are active agents in bring

The different forms in which yeast is used, as dry cakes, sour dough, compressed soft cakes, brewers' yeast, etc., are simply different ways for preserving and introducing the yeast into the dough so as to leaven the entire mass. The different kinds of yeast vary with the individuality and character of the yeast plants.

Air takes an important part in bread making; its action upon yeast is briefly summarized by Pasteur as follows: "Fermentation by means of yeast appears, therefore, to be essentially connected with the property possessed by this minute cellular plant of performing its respirafunctions, somehow or other, with oxygen Its fermentative existing combined in sugar. power varies considerably between two limits, fixed by the greatest and least possible access to free oxygen which the plant has in the process of nutrition. If we supply it with a sufficient quantity of free oxygen for the necessities of life, nutrition, and respiratory combustions; in other words, if we cause it to live after the manner of a mold, properly so called, it ceases to be a ferment; that is, the ratio between the weight of the plant developed and that of the sugar decomposed, which forms its principal food, is similar in amount to that in the case of fungi. On the other hand, if we deprive the yeast of air entirely, or cause it to develop in a saccharine medium deprived of free oxygen, it will multiply just as if air were present, although with less activity, and under these cir

cumstances its fermentative character will be most marked; under these circumstances, moreover, we shall find the greatest disproportion, all other conditions being the same, between the weight of yeast formed and the weight of sugar decomposed. Lastly, if free oxygen occur in varying quantities, the ferment power of the yeast may pass through all the degrees comprehended between the two extreme limits of which we have spoken."

other cereals either alone or mixed with wheat

are used for bread-making purposes, as rye, corn, and, to a limited extent, barley. Wheat and rye, however, are the only cereals which yield a gluten specially adapted to retaining gas and producing a light, porous dough and bread.

Bread making is an ancient art. In prehistory toric times there is abundant evidence of the baking and use of cereals as food. The earliest historians speak of bread and bread making. Bread is frequently mentioned in the Bible, particularly unleavened bread, suggesting that leavened bread was known at that time. It was in Egypt that bread making first reached any degree of perfection. The art of bread making has kept pace with the advance of civilization; the more perfect the system of bread making, the higher the grade of civilization. From Egypt, bread making was introduced into Greece and from there into Italy, and later it followed with the advance of Roman civilization. Among the more civilized American Indian nations, particularly the Aztecs and cliff-dwellers, bread making reached a comparatively high grade.

Methods of bread making vary considerably among different nations, although the underlying principles with all are essentially the same. The main differences are in the way in which the yeast or ferment material is employed, and the method of manipulation. During recent years, study of the yeast plant has resulted in improved methods of bread making. The purity of the yeast and the quality of the flour are the two most essential features for the production of bread of good quality.


According to Brown, "yeast cells can oxygen in the manner of ordinary aerobic fungi, and probably require it for the full completion of their life-history; but the exhibition of their fermentative functions is independent of their environment with regard to free oxygen."

From the investigations of Pasteur, Brown, and others, it would appear that during knead

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