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Botargo, a relish made of the salted roe of the mullet or tunny, used on the Mediterranean




races, the savage has learned from necessity to
know the precise qualities of the plants about
him as foods, textiles, poisons, dyes, tans, fuels,
etc. In connection with the making of a single
aboriginal instrument, such as a bow or a fire-
drill and block, there is required on the part
of the savage a knowledge of the strength, elas-
ticity, texture, and other qualities of all the
kinds of wood occurring in the range of his
travels, such as is not possessed by one person in
a thousand among highly civilized races.
economic value of a correct and discriminating
record of the uses of plants among aboriginal
peoples is evident. The influence of a familiar
flora in attracting a savage race to a wider ge-
ographic range or that of a strange flora in lim-
iting migration in any direction is a natural
outcome of the savage's exact knowledge of the
plants of his native region. The practice of
some of the migratory races of prehistoric man
to transport their cultivated plants with them
has resulted in the wide extension of these plants
from the regions they naturally occupied. From
this association it turns out that a critical study
of the origin and distribution of the plants cul-
tivated by aboriginal races throws important
light on their prehistoric migrations. Some of
these botanical facts appear to be of very great
antiquity, perhaps even antedating those fur-
nished by aboriginal arts or by language. This
study of the relation of primitive man to his
plant environment is called ethnobotany, or
aboriginal botany. Some of the processes of
plant life are important to man as being funda-
The plant is an engine
mental to his existence.
which through the energy furnished by sunlight
is capable of transforming inorganic substances
into organic compounds, without which animal
life could not exist. The ordinary economic re-
lations of plants to civilized man are many, and
enter as important factors into such arts and in-
dustries as agriculture, horticulture, medicine,
manufacture, and commerce. The production
and elaboration of plant products and their trans-
portation from those parts of the world in
which they can be and are produced to other
parts in which they are needed occupies probably
the largest part of the energies of the human


Botetourt, Norborne Berkeley, a conspicuous actor in American colonial history: b. England, 1734 (?); d. Williamsburg, Va., 15 Oct. 1770. He was the descendant of John Berkeley, the cavalier, who was ennobled by Charles II. in He was sent to Virginia as royal gov1660. ernor in 1768, just eight years before the Declaration of Independence. He had full instructions from the Crown and directions to assume more dignity than had been the wont of colonial governors, and accordingly he paraded the streets of Williamsburg with guards, a coach, and other requisites of vice-regal pomp. Conflicting duties to the king and the people made his situation In 1769 the assembly took most unpleasant. into consideration the incipient troubles with England, and on 16 May passed firm but respectful resolutions remonstrating against parliamentary taxation and the right claimed to send them to England for trial. So firm were they that Lord Botetourt summoned the speaker and burgesses before him and dissolved them. The result was that a convention met in a private house and took the incipient steps for the revolution. The convention did not attempt to legislate, but simply remonstrated with Parliament, sending its resolutions to the other colonies and to England. Under the influence of these resolutions Lord Hillsborough wrote a letter to Lord Botetourt, assuring him that it was not the intention of government to tax the colonies, and that the obnoxious imposts would be withdrawn, which letter Lord Botetourt communicated to the assembly. All these anticipations, however, were destroyed by the policy of Lord North, who succeeded Charles Townsend, Botetourt was and the promise was not fulfilled in full, the tea being retained. duty on deeply mortified, and soon died of disease aggravated by mental suffering. He was deplored by men of all classes in the colony, and the legislature erected a marble statue to his memory, which is still standing in the college of William and Mary.

Bibliography.- Bailey, Cyclopedia of Horticulture'; Bailey, Lessons with Plants'; Baillon, 'Dictionnaire de Botanique'; Britton and Brown, Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada'; Engler and Prantl, 'Natürliche Pflanzenfamilien'; Figuier, Vegetable World'; Kerner and Oliver, Natural History of Plants'; Lindley and Moore, Treasury of Botany); Sachs, History of Botany); Sargent, Silva of North America.'

Both, John and Andrew, two Flemish painters, were born at Utrecht about the year 1610, Andrew being the younger. They were the sons of a glass painter, who instructed them in the rudiments of drawing. They afterward made further progress in the school of Abraham Bloemaart, and went at an early age together to France and Italy. John, attracted by the works of Claude Lorraine, chose him for his model; Andrew preferred the painting of the human figure, and imitated the style of Bamboccio. But although their inclinations led them in different directions, their fraternal affection often united their talents in the same works. Thus Andrew painted the figures in the landscapes of his brother; and their labors harmonized so well, that their pictures could not be suspected of coming from different hands. The ease and fine Andrew was them. coloring in the beautiful figures of John cannot be overlooked in spite of the excess of yellow sometimes found in for his loss, abandoned Italy, and returned to drowned at Venice in 1650. John, inconsolable

Utrecht, where he died shortly after.


Chief Botanist, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia, so called by Capt. Cook on account of the many strange plants found growing here. Cook landed in Botany Bay on his first voyage in 1770, and took possession of the country in the name of his sovereign. The penal settlement, founded in 1788, and popularly known by the name of Botany Bay, was established on Port Jackson, where the town of Sydney now stands.

Botany Bay Gum, a gum resin produced by the Xanthorrhea hastilis, or resinifera, of Australia.

Vol. 3-13

Botha, Christian, Boer commander: b. the Transvaal; d. Kokstad, Griqualand West, 8


Oct. 1902. At the opening of the Boer war in 1899 he led a commando into Natal and was active in the siege of Ladysmith and at the defense of the Tugela crossing. After the relief of Ladysmith, he retreated to Laing's Neck, where he was left by his brother, Louis Botha, in command of the Boer forces. By opening negotiations with Gen. Buller he delayed that general's advance for several days, and after the fall of Pretoria he was placed in command of all the Boer forces in the southeastern Transvaal. His frequent raids into Zululand effected the diversion that allowed Gens. Louis Botha and De Wet to continue the war.

Botha, Louis, Boer soldier: b. Greytown, Natal, about 1864. He began life as a farmer, and, as a young man, had a share in the establishment of the Transvaal Republic. Later he fought in the Kaffir campaign. He was elected to the Volksraad at Pretoria. Upon the outbreak of the Boer war with England in 1899 he was given a subordinate command, and upon the death of Gen. Joubert in March 1900 he became commander-in-chief of the Boer forces. He demonstrated great capacity by his victories at Spion Kop and Colenso.

Bothie (Gael. bothag, a cot), a house, usually of one room, for the accommodation of a number of work people engaged in the same employment; especially, a house of this kind in

parts of Scotland, in which a number of unmarried male or female farm servants or labor


are lodged in connection with a farm. Bothies are most common in the northeast of

Scotland, and are chiefly for the accommodation of unmarried male farm servants engaged on the larger farms, who as a rule have to do their cooking and keep the bothie in order for themselves. The bothie system has often been condemned.

Bothnia, the name formerly given to a country of northern Europe, extending along the east and west shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the east portion now being comprised in Finland, and the west in Sweden.

Bothnia, Gulf of, the northern part of the Baltic Sea, which separates Sweden from Finland. It commences at the island of Aland, lat. 60° N., and extends to 66°; its length is about 450 miles, its breadth from 90 to 130, and its depth usually from 20 to 50 fathoms. As its water contains little salt, it freezes over in the winter, so as to be passed by sledges and carriages. It abounds in salmon and other fish, and also in seals.


Bothriocephalus, a genus of cestoid worms which is found very abundantly in the intestines of predaceous fishes, and one species of which is sometimes found in the intestinal canal of It belongs to the same family as the tapeworm (Taenia solium), but it is distinguished from it by having its segments broader than they are long; by wanting the four disks which surround the head of the tapeworm, and having in their place two lateral longitudinal openings; and thirdly, by having the sexual organs on one of the flat surfaces of each segment instead of at the edges of the segments. The two longitudinal openings (whence the worm receives its name, from bothrion, a little pit, and kephale, the head) do not seem to be organs of nutrition, but merely a kind of suckers by which

the worm is enabled to attach itself to the intestines of the animal which it infests, while it is nourished by absorption throughout its whole length. Although, as already stated, this worm generally infests the bodies of predaceous fishes, it is capable of being transmitted to all vertebrate animals, and especially it is found in those birds which live upon fish. The only species which is found in the intestines of man is the Bothriocephalus latus, and it is rare to find even this species except among the inhabitants of two distinct parts of Europe, the north and the centre. It is found, on the one hand, in Russia, in Norway, and in Sweden, and on the other hand, in Switzerland, the north of Italy, some provinces of Germany, and some departments of France, but rarely elsewhere. It has been remarked that this worm is common where the Tania or true tapeworm is rare, and vice versa. It is rare in the United States, but with the increase of emigration from the regions of Europe, where it abounds, its appearance may be looked for.

Bothwell, James Hepburn, Earl of, is known in Scottish history by his marriage to Queen Mary. He was the only son of the third earl: b. about 1536; d. 1578. He succeeded his father in 1556, thus obtaining important offices and estates, and by 1566 he had attained to high ley lost his life in 1567 was of his contrivance, favor with the queen. The plot by which Darnand the queen was suspected of conniving at it. Bothwell was charged with the crime and underwent a mock trial, being of course acquitted. After the death of Darnley he seized the queen near Edinburgh, and carrying her a prisoner to Before this he had divorced his own wife, Jean Dunbar Castle, prevailed upon her to marry him. Gordon, sister of the Earl of Huntly. Though seemingly secure in the possession of power, and though created Duke of Orkney by the unfortunate queen, he soon found that his conduct had roused the indignation of the kingdom. A confederacy was formed against him by the barons, the queen was liberated from his power, and he escaped to the Orkneys, and afterward to Norway. The Danish authorities kept him imprisoned for some time at Malmö, latterly at Drangholm in Zeeland, where he died insane. See the various histories of Scotland, and the 'Life of Bothwell by Prof. Schiern (English translation 1880).

Bothwell, Scotland, a village of Lanarkshire, on the north bank of the Clyde. It is situated eight miles east of Glasgow, and about one mile beyond it stands Bothwell bridge, where a decisive battle was fought in 1679 between the Scottish Covenanters, commanded principally by their clergy, and the royal forces, commanded by the Duke of Monmouth, in which the former were totally routed. Near the village are the fine ruins of Bothwell Castle, once a stronghold of the Douglases.

Botocdos, or Aymores, a Brazilian race of Indians. They live 70 to 90 miles from the Atlantic, in the virgin forests of the coast range (Serra do Mar or Serra dos Aymores), on the borders of the forests of Minas-Geraes and Espirito-Santo, especially on the Rio Doce. They receive their name from the custom which they have of cutting a slit in their under lip and in the lobes of their ears, and inserting in these, by way of ornament, pieces of wood shaped like


the bung of a barrel (Portuguese botoque). They have oblique eyes and projecting cheekbones. Their color is a dirty brown. They go quite naked, and paint their bodies, and a Botocudo warrior with his lip and ear plugs, his body painted black and red, and his face bright red, strongly reminds one of a denizen of the infernal regions. They are very skilful with the bow and arrow, and live chiefly by hunting. They now number only a few thousands, and are decreasing.

Botrychium, a genus of fern (adder's tongue), of the sub-order Osmundea and tribe Ophioglossea, characterized by its distinct thecæ in a compound spike attached to a pinnate or bipinnate frond. The common American species are: B. lunaria, common moonwort, which grows on elevated lands and pastures

where other ferns are seldom found. It was

once supposed to possess great virtues, both magical and medicinal, and was carefully gathered by the light of the moon. B. virginicum, the largest of the species, is known by the name of rattlesnake fern, from growing in places frequented by that dangerous reptile.

Botrytis, a genus of fungi belonging to the section Hypomycetes, and familiar by name to cultivators from its connection with the potato disease. The genus contains a number of those minute plants known as molds and mildews, and of these some have the peculiar habit of growing in the tissues of living vegetables. The threads of which their growth consists creep among the loose cells of the under side of leaves, and send up their fertile shoots through the stomata. Many kinds of Botrytis are extremely destructive to various plants. Whole crops of onions are soon destroyed by one species; legumes suffer from another, but in a less degree; and a third species is sometimes injurious to turnips. The decay of the leaves and stem in the potato disease is now charged against Phytophththora infestens, but old writers attributed the trouble to B. infestens. Though extremely injurious to the farmer these molds are sometimes very serviceable by destroying weeds. Various agricultural pests may often be seen looking yellow and unhealthy, when an examination of the under side of the leaves will show that this is owing to the ravages of these minute parasites.

Botta, Anne Charlotte Lynch, American author: b. Bennington, Vt., 1820; d. 28 March 1891. She was educated in Albany, N. Y.; began her literary career in Providence, R. I., and, removing to New York, married Prof. Vincenzo Botta, in 1855. From the time of her marriage to her death, her house was a favorite centre of literary and art circles. Her publications included a collection of poems, many essays, reviews and criticisms, and A Handbook of Universal Literature.' She was a sculptor of much merit, and was influential in promoting the establishment of Barnard College for Women.

Botta, Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo, Italian statesman, historian, and poet: b. San Giorgio del Canavese in Piedmont, 6 Nov. 1766; d. Paris, 10 Aug. 1837. During the time of the French Revolution he was a student of medicine at Turin, and adopting revolutionary opinions with enthusiasm, he suffered for his zeal by two years' imprisonment (1792-4). After pass

ing as a physician he entered the French service, and accompanied the expedition which Napoleon sent to Corfu, and he was soon after elected as a member of the provisional government of Piedmont. When this territory was, in 1803, annexed to the French empire, Botta was elected a member of the Corps Législatif, where his behavior was characterized by a bold opposition to the emperor. During the "Hundred Days" he was rector of the academy at Nancy, and after the second return of the Bourbons he went in a like capacity to Rouen. The greater part of the remainder of his life was passed by him as a private gentleman at Paris. His chief works belong to the department of history. Among these are: 'Storia della Guerra dell' independenza degli Stati Uniti d'America'; Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814 (10 vols.). He also furnished a continuation to Guicciardini's Italian History from 1490-1534, bringing it down to 1789.

Botta, Paul Emile, French traveler and archæologist: b. about the beginning of the 19th century; d. Poissy, April 1870. He was a son of Carlo Giuseppe Botta (q.v.). While still very young he made a voyage round the world, traversed the western portion of America, and took part as physician to Mehemed Ali in an expedition which set out from Egypt to Sennaar, of which he took advantage to make a considerable zoological collection. At a later period he was appointed French consul at Alexandria, and from this place he undertook a journey to Arabia in 1837, the scientific results of which he communicated to the world in his 'Relation d'un Voyage dans l'Yemen.' His chief service to science consists in his having discovered the ruins of ancient Nineveh, a discovery made by him in 1843 in the course of excavations in the neighborhood of Mosul, which he conducted with great energy and ability while acting as consular agent for the French government at that town. As the result of investigations made upon the spot he published two important works, one on the cuneiform writing of the Assyrians, 'Mémoire de l'Ecriture Cunéiforme Assyrienne," and the other upon the monuments of Nineveh, (5 vols. folio, with Monuments de Ninive' drawings by Flandin, Paris). The latter is a work of great splendor, and marks an era in Assyrian antiquities. From 1847 to 1857 Botta and from 1857 to the end of his life in the same lived as French consul-general in Jerusalem, capacity at Tripoli.

Botta, Vincenzo, Italian scholar: b. in Piedmont, II Nov. 1818; d. 5 Oct. 1894. He was elected to the Sardinian parliament in 1849. In 1853 he settled in the United States and was appointed professor of the Italian language and literature in the University of New York. He published 'Dante, Modern Philosophy in Italy,' and other studies.

Bottari, Giovanni Gaetano, Roman Catholic prelate: b. Florence, 1689; d. 1775- After completing his studies he was admitted a member of the Academy della Crusca, and entrusted with the preparation of the celebrated dictionary of that body. He labored for six years on this work, which was published in 6 volumes folio. The ability which he displayed in it induced the Duke of Tuscany to give him the management of the grand-ducal printing office. He left Florence in 1730 and settled in Rome, where


Pope Clement XII. appointed him professor of ecclesiastical history and polemics in the Collegio della Sapienza; the same year he was appointed palatine prelate. Shortly after he was employed with the geometer Manfredi in examining the course of the Tiber from Perugia to the mouth of the Nova, with the view of rendering it navigable, and providing a remedy against its devastating inundations. The excellent report on the subject, though signed by Manfredi, is said to have been drawn up by Bottari. As a compensation for the performance of this task, the Pope appointed him keeper of the Vatican library. After living under several Popes, all of whom treated him with favor, he died at the age of 86. His works, in addition to those already mentioned, are partly original and partly corrected editions of celebrated writings previously published. Among the former are Lectures on Boccaccio, Livy, and Dante'; among the latter is a splendid edition of Virgil, with a learned preface and notes, and a corrected edition of Vasari's Lives of the Painters.'

Bottesini, Giovanni, Italian musician: b. Crema, Italy, 24 Dec. 1822; d. 7 July 1889. He was taught the double-bass in Milan, by Luigi Rossi, according to the method of Andreoli and Dragonetti, and soon became a first rate performer; meanwhile studying musical composition under several distinguished masters. When scarcely 23, he was engaged as contrabassist for the Italian opera in Havana, where in a few seasons he rose to the post of maestro and musical director of the company. Here he produced in 1846 his first opera, Cristoforo Colombo.' During the five years of his stay in Havana, he paid occasional visits to the United States, where he secured considerable fame by his wonderful performances in the concert room. His masterly handling of the huge instrument took everybody by surprise, while his style, at once elegant and impressive, won the admiration of all critics and amateurs. His success on his return to Europe in 1851 was not less complete; the concerts he gave in London and Paris established his reputation as the first living contrabassist. In 1853 he returned to the United States with M. Jullien, and afterward accompanied Madame Sontag to Mexico. Subsequently he became director of the orchestra at the Italian opera in Paris, where his opera 'L'Assedio di Firenza' was successfully performed during the spring of 1856. Other works are: Ali Baba' (1871); Ero e Leandro' (1879); Garden of Olivet) (1887), an oratorio. He also published numerous overtures, symphonies, and quartettes.

Böttger, or Böttcher, also written Böttiger, Johann Friedrich: b. Schleitz about 1681; d. Dresden 13 March 1719. He was a Saxon alchemist whose pretended discovery of the philosopher's stone resulted in the useful invention of Saxon porcelain. After various vicissitudes he handed over to King Augustus II. an account of his discovery, which is still preserved in the archives of Saxony. The king, however, not availing himself of his suggestions, they were put in application by Count Tschirnhausen, who established a manufactory at Weissen in 1705, employing Böttger, who succeeded in producing of the reddish-brown clay which abounds in the vicinity of Weissen a porcelain of remarkable beauty and solidity.

Botticelli, Alessandro Filipepi, ä-lès-sän'drō fil-i-pā'pē bōt-tẹ-chěl'lē, Italian painter of distinction commonly called Sandro Botticelli: b. Florence 1447; d. there, 17 May 1510 or 1515. His name is derived from that of Botticello, his first master, a goldsmith, from whom he acquired his knowledge of gold afterward made useful by his employment of it in foliage, hair, and embroidered tissues. He subsequently became one of the most distinguished pupils of Filippo Lippi, the Carmelite, and is reckoned the richest and most fanciful colorist of the Florentine school. He excelled both in devotional and mythological subjects and was an admirable painter of flowers. He was employed by the most influential art patrons of his time, including Lorenzo de Medici. About 1481 he was commissioned by Sixtus IV. to paint the walls of the Sistine Chapel; three of the frescoes there are his work: The Life of the Muses'; 'The Temptation of Christ'; The Punishment of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram,' and several of the portraits of the Popes. He became an ardent follower of Savonarola, and is said latterly to have neglected his art and suffered many privations. He is said to be one of the engravers

of a celebrated series of illustrations executed by Florentine artists toward the close of the 15th century, notably a set of designs for the 'Divina Commedia of Dante, of which 686 are in the Berlin Museum. His works are to be found in various European galleries, his Madonnas being especially characteristic of his style. In these the Virgin appears peculiarly slender and with a melancholy expression as if oppressed by forebodings. He was greatly esteemed by his contemporaries, but subsequently fell into disfavor. Although opinions as to his merits differ widely, Botticelli is to-day very popular and forms the theme of much art discussion. See Ulmann, (Sandro Botticelli' (1893); Pater, Studies in the History of the Renaissance (1873); Phillimore, 'Botticelli' (1894); Berenson, Florentine Painters of the Renaissance (1898); Supino, Sandro Botticelli) (1900); Steinman, Botticelli' (English translation 1901).

Böttiger, Karl August, German writer, particularly distinguished as an archæologist: b. Reichenbach, Saxony, 8 June 1760; d. Dresden, 17 Nov. 1835. After a philological course at Leipsic, he became in the first place a private tutor at Dresden, and then successively headmaster of a school at Guben, and another at Bautzen. In 1791, through the influence of Herder, he became director of the gymnasium at Weimar, and it was here that, while he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, and other distinguished men, he began his fruitIn 1804 he removed to Dres

ful literary career. den, where he devoted himself exclusively to archæology. Ten years later he was appointed chief inspector of the Museum of Antiquities in that city, where he continued to reside to the end of his life. In 1832 he became a member of the French Institute. Among his most important works are: Sabina, or Morning Scenes of a Wealthy Roman Lady); Griechische Vasengemälde (Paintings on Greek Vases'); Thoughts on the Archæology of Painting); Mythology of Art': Lectures and Essays on Archæology; Amalthea' (3 vols.).

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