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materials of scholarship within the reach of all. Harvard University is close at hand. Its Medical School is in Boston itself. Here also are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, with its School of Drawing and Painting, and the New England Conservatory of Music, supplemented by the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The courses of free lectures provided by the Lowell Institute, established in 1838, with an original endowment of $237,000, have made a constant contribution to the cause of general education. If the suggestion to co-ordinate these and the many other educational institutions of Boston into a general university is ever carried out, the place may well become one of the foremost centres of organized learning in the world.

In 1894 the Union Station at the North End of the city brought together the terminal facilities of all the railroads connecting Boston with northern New England, with Canada, and, through Fitchburg, with the West. On 1 Jan. 1899 the first train entered the South Station, the largest railway terminal in the world. Here the railroads connecting Boston with southern New England, New York, the South, and the West, by way of Albany, meet under one roof. The North and South Stations are connected both by surface and by elevated electric cars a part of the system of the Boston Elevated Railway. This company has succeeded to the rights of the several street railways formerly holding franchises, and by surface cars, elevated lines, and subways, upon which the underground systems of other cities have been modeled, gives the city, with the attractive and accessible suburbs for which Boston has always been noted, a rapid-transit service of unusual comfort and effectiveness. The subway system will be still further extended, first of all by the completion of the tunnel now building under the harbor

to connect Boston and East Boston.

In the Rivers and Harbors Bill passed by the United States Congress in June 1902 an appropriation of $3,600,000 was made for the improvement of Boston Harbor. Its expenditure in making a broader and deeper channel from Charlestown and Chelsea bridges to the sea is expected to forward the progress made in recent years by Boston as a seaport. Its ample harbor, well protected from the sea by islands, has always played an important part in the life of Boston. In foreign commerce for the government fiscal year ending 30 June 1902, Boston stood second in the United States only to New York, with imports and exports valued at $172,325,740. For peculiar temporary causes this was smaller by more than $40,000,000 than the volume of trade for the year before. Fourteen transatlantic steamship lines run from Boston. The coastwise commerce of the port is valued, in merchandise, in sums ranging annually between $85,000,000 and $131,000,000. As a wool market Boston stands second in the world only to London. In the single week of 1901, in which Boston made its greatest record in the sales of wool, it sold more than the total clip of any State in the Union, excepting Montana and Idaho, for that year. In the business of shoes, leather, and hides, Boston is the chief distributing centre of the United States. The trade in salt and fresh fish -as befits the capital of the State with a cod for its emblem —

is larger than in any other city of the country. The cotton industry of Massachusetts looks to Boston for much of its capital and control. Miscellaneous trades and manufactures, added to the branches of business enumerated, give Boston a high place among the commercial and industrial cities of the country.

In the growth from an ancient to a modern city many historic buildings have inevitably disappeared. But Boston is fortunate in a few of those that remain. Chief among these are Christ Church (1723), the Old South Meetinghouse (1729), Faneuil Hall (1742, enlarged in 1806), the Old State House (1748), King's Chapel (1749, built around the previous wooden church erected in 1688), the front portion of the present State House (1795-8), and Park Street Church (1809).

The Memorial History of Boston' (Boston 1881) in four volumes, edited by Justin Winsor, completely covers the local history from 1630 to 1880. Its chapters are written by persons with special knowledge of the themes assigned them. 'Boston,' by Henry Cabot Lodge in the series of "Historic Towns" (New York 1892) is an excellent shorter history. M. A. DEWOLFE HOWE, Author of 'Boston: The Place and the People.'


Boston Case, in the history of slavery, a case where a Georgia slave hid or was hidden on the ship Boston returning from Georgia to Maine, and on arrival escaped to Canada. The governor of Georgia issued a requisition the captain to the Georgia authorities, as to the governor of Maine for the surrender of slave-stealer and fugitive from justice; and on his refusal, the Georgia legislature demanded that Congress pass a law obligating the governor of Maine and all others in similar cases to comply with the requisitions. The resolution was warmly advocated by the Georgia senators, referred to the judiciary committee, and never reported on. In his next message, the governor of Georgia recommended that "all citizens of Maine who should thereafter come within the

jurisdiction of Georgia on vessels, either as owners, officers, or mariners, should be considered to have done so with intent to commit

the crime of seducing negro slaves from their owners, and be dealt with accordingly by the officers of justice."

Boston College, an educational institution in Boston, Mass.; founded in 1864; under the Proauspices of the Roman Catholic Church. fessors and instructors, 20; students in all departments, 477; scholarships, 15; volumes in the library, 34,109; value of grounds and buildings, $537,000; income, $17,000; and benefactions, $3.000. The course is four years leading to the usual academic degrees.

Boston Massacre, a riot in Boston, 5 March 1770, provoked by the presence of the British regiments quartered there since Oct. 1768. On Friday the 2d, some ropemakers started a war of insults with passing soldiers, and on being challenged to a boxing match, used sticks instead, to which the soldiers retorted with cutlasses; several persons were hurt when the fray was stopped by outsiders, but it was reported that it would be resumed Monday. Early Monday evening the soldiers passing to their posts from the main guard, at the head of King (State) Street, were met by a crowd

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