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The name is given to various other birds, prevailingly licki.plumage, as, for example, to the bobolink (qv) which is called "skunk blackbird," because of the resemblance in its black and white markings to those of a skunk; and to the ani of Florida and the West Indies, which is commonly termed "savanna blackbird."

See Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, North American Birds' (Boston 1874); Ingersoll, 'Wild Life of Orchard and Field' (1902).

Blackbreast, a local name among American sportsmen for (1) the black-bellied plover (Charadrius squatarola); (2) the dunlin (Tringa alpina), also called "blackheart."

Blackbuck, the common small antelope (Antilope cervicapra), of the plains of India and Assam. This is the typical antelope, with horns from 16 to 20 inches long, rising in an elegant spiral from the top of the head. The body is blackish brown above, sharply contrasted with white on the under parts, and with a conspicuous white ring around each eye. These handsome little antelopes go about ordinarily in family parties, but sometimes gather in large herds, and are a favorite object of sport in India, where they are usually chased on horseback with greyhounds sometimes also with the cheeta (q.v.), or by the aid of falcons. They are so swift that the best of dogs are required to catch them. They continue numerous because they are never hunted by the native Hindus, on account of religious prejudices. Consult: Baker, Wild Beasts and Their Ways, and other writers upon the sport and natural history of India.

Blackburn, Henry, English journalist and art critic: b. Portsea, 15 Feb. 1830. He was educated at King's College, London. Beside contributions to newspapers and magazines, he has written Life in Algeria' (1864); Art in the Mountains: the Story of the Passion Play in Bavaria (1870); 'Breton Folk' (1879); etc.

Blackburn, Joseph Clay Styles, American lawyer: b. Woodford County, Ky., 1 Oct. 1838; was graduated at Centre College, Danville, Ky., in 1857; admitted to the bar in 1859, and practised in Chicago. During the Civil War he served in the Confederate army, and after the war resumed practice in Kentucky. In 1871 he was elected to the Kentucky legislature, and in 1874 to Congress; and was a United States Senator in 1885-97 and again elected for the term 1901-7. During the presidential campaign of 1896 he was a leader in the free coinage sil

ver movement.

Blackburn, Luke Pryor, American physician: b. Fayette County, Ky., 16 June 1816; d. 14 Sept. 1887; was graduated at Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky., in 1834, and began practising in that city. When cholera broke out in the town of Versailles he went there and gave his services free during the epidemic. In 1846 he went to Natchez, Miss., and in 1848, when yellow fever appeared in New Orleans, as health officer of Natchez, he originated the first quarantine against New Orleans that had ever been known in the Mississippi valley. During the Civil War he was a surgeon on the staff of Gen. Price. In 1875, when yellow fever broke out in Memphis, he hastened to the city and organized a corps of physicians and nurses, and in 1878 gave his services to the yellow fever

sufferers at Hickman, Ky. He was elected governor of Kentucky in 1879. He founded the Blackburn Sanitarium for Nervous and Mental Diseases in 1884.

Blackburn, William Maxwell, American Presbyterian clergyman and educator: b. Carlisle, Ind., 31 Dec. 1828; d. 1900. He became president of the University of North Dakota in 1884 and of Pierre University, South Dakota, in 1885, and president-emeritus of the last (now Huron College) in 1898. He wrote St. Patrick and the Early Irish Church'; 'Admiral Coligny and the Rise of the Huguenots'; 'History of the Christian Church,' etc.; and the Uncle

Alick' series of juvenile stories.

Blackburn, England, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough in Lancashire, 21 miles north-northwest from Manchester. There is a free grammar school, founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1557; a free school for girls, founded by William Leyland in 1765; a technical school, and a free library. The town-hall, infirmary, exchange, municipal offices, county court, county police station, opera house, library and museum, and union workhouse are all modern and handsome buildings. There are two public parks, one beautifully situated on the declivity of Revidge Hill. The railways all converge, and pass through one large railway_station belonging to the Lancashire & Y. Ry. Company. The corporation owns all the public utilities. Blackburn is one of the chief seats of the cotton manufacture, there being upward of 140 mills, as well as works for making cotton machinery and cottons steam-engines. The value. of made in the town and vicinity have an annual about $25,000,000. Pop. (1901)


Blackcock, or Heathcock, a large European grouse (Tetrao tetrix), so called because of the glossy black color of the cock. The female is grayish, mottled in darker colors, and is called "grayhen," or "heathhen." See CAPER


Blackfeet Indians, a tribe of Indians inhabiting the United States and Canada from the Yellowstone to Hudson Bay. They received this name from the fact that the first ones seen wore leggings blackened by by white men traveling over the burnt prairie. They call themselves "plainsmen." At the end of the first quarter of the 19th century they numbered nearly 50,000. In 1903, less than 6,000 mained, of whom nearly half were on the reser


vation in Montana.

Blackfin. See BLUEFIN.

Blackfish, any one of a variety of darkcolored fishes, both of America and Europe. For the American "blackfish," see TAUTOG; SEABASS, and MINNOW. The English "blackfish" is a kind of mackerel (Centrolophus niger), about two feet long. It occurs rather abundantly off the south coast of Europe, and is much esteemed as a food fish.

The name is also given to a small "killer" whale of the genus Globiocephalus, which goes. about in herds that often enter harbors. They are sought by fishermen for the sake of a small amount of oil, resembling sperm-oil, to be obtained from their fat, and also for the sake of their beef-like flesh. The common blackfish of the Atlantic is G. brachypterus, and that of the


North Pacific G. scammoni. Sailors give the name "blackfish" to the "caaing," or "pilot" whale (q.v.), and to various other small cetaceans. Consult: Bullen, Cruise of the Cachalot'; Scammon, Marine Mammals of North America. See also KILLER.

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Blackheath, England, an elevated heath in the county of Kent. It borders on Greenwich Park, and is about five miles from St. Paul's, London. It contains 267 acres, and is a place of popular resort, much used for cricketplaying. In 1831 Wat Tyler and John Ball mustered their followers here. Jack Cade occupied the same position twice in 1450. In 1497 the Cornish insurgents, under Lord Audley, were routed there by the king's forces. Blackheath has been the scene of many historical pageants and processions, as it was formerly the custom for the mayor and corporation of the city of London, and even the king and court, to repair thither to meet illustrious foreigners from the Continent. Henry IV. met there (1400) the Byzantine emperor, Michael Palæologus; the corporation of London there met Henry V., on his return from Agincourt, and the year afterward, the Emperor Sigismund. The most splendid, and one of the last of all, was the reception of Anne of Cleves, by Henry VIII., January 1541; she was conducted through Greenwich Park to the palace at Greenwich, followed by prodigious numbers of nobility and gentry, and 1,200 privileged citizens, clad in velvet and chains of gold.

Blackhorse, a fish, one of the suckers of the Mississippi valley (Cycleptus elongatus); also known as the Missouri or gourdseed sucker. It is about two feet long, with a small head, suggesting, in profile, that of a horse, and becomes almost jet-black in spring. See


Blackie, John Stuart, Scottish poet, litterateur, and professor: b. Glasgow, 1809; d. 2 March 1895. He was educated at the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh; subsequently went to Göttingen, Berlin, and Rome, where he continued his studies, which were chiefly connected with philology. In 1834 he published a translation of Goethe's 'Faust,' and the same year became an advocate at the Scottish bar; in 1841 he accepted the chair of humanity in Marischal College, Aberdeen. This position he held until, in 1852, he was appointed to the professorship of Greek in the University of Edinburgh, a chair which he resigned in 1882. By his unwearied efforts to preserve the Gaelic language, he succeeded in raising $60,000, with which sum a Celtic chair was endowed in Edinburgh University. Among his more important writings are: Lyric Poems'; 'Homer and the

Iliad'; Musa Burschicosa'; 'Hora Hellenicæ'; 'Self-culture'; 'Songs of Religion and Life'; 'Lays of the Highlands and Islands'; 'Lay Sermons'; 'Altavona'; 'Wisdom of Goethe'; 'Life of Burns'; 'Scottish Song'; and 'Song of Heroes.' His biography has been published (2 vols.) by Anna M. Stoddart.

Blacking, the article employed in blacking boots and shoes, usually contains for its principal ingredients oil, vinegar, ivory, or bone black, sugar or molasses, and strong sulphuric acid, though every manufacturer has his own recipe, and endeavors to turn it to best account by con

cealing its composition and puffing its merits. Blacking is used either liquid or in the form of a paste, but both are obtained from the same

ingredients, the only difference being that in making the paste a portion of the liquid is withheld. A celebrated old English blacking consists of 18 ounces of caoutchouc dissolved in 9 pounds of hot rape-oil, 60 pounds ivory-black, 45 pounds molasses, and 20 gallons vinegar, of strength No. 24, in which I pound finely ground gum-arabic has been dissolved. The whole mixture, after being carefully triturated in a grind ing mill, receives 12 pounds sulphuric acid, in small successive quantities, stirring strongly for half an hour. The stirring is continued for half an hour daily during a fortnight, and then 3 pounds of gum-arabic are added, after which the stirring is resumed, and continued as before for another fortnight. This gives fine liquid blacking; the paste is obtained within a week by withholding 8 of the 20 gallons in which the gum-arabic is dissolved.

Blackleg, a cattle disease. See BLACK QUAR


Blackmail, originally a certain rate of money, corn, cattle, or the like, anciently paid, in the north of England and in Scotland, to certain men who were allied to robbers, to be protected by them from pillage. It was carried to such an extent as to become the subject of legislation. Blackmail was levied in the districts bordering the Highlands of Scotland till the middle of the 18th century. In the United States, in common

language, and in general acceptation, it is equivalent to, and synonymous with, extortion - the exaction of money, either for the performance of a duty, the prevention of an injury, or the exercise of an influence. It supposes the service to be unlawful and the payment involuntary. Not unfrequently it is extorted by threats, or by operating upon the fears or the credulity or by promises to conceal, or offers to expose, the weaknesses, the follies, or the crimes of the victim. There is moral compulsion, which neither necessity nor fear, nor credulity can resist. The New York statutes upon the subject have been adopted in substance by many other States of the Union. These statutes provide, substantially, that a person who knowing the contents thereof, and with intent, by means thereof, to extort or gain any money or other property, or to do, abet, or procure any illegal or wrongful act, sends, delivers, or in any manner causes to be forwarded or received, or makes and parts with for the purpose that there may be sent or delivered, any letter or writing, threatening to accuse any person of a crime, or to do any injury to any person or to any property, or to publish or connive at publishing any libel, or to expose or impute to any person any deformity or dis


grace is punishable by imprisonment for a term, usually, not exceeding five years. In New York and in various other States it is also a misdemeanor for any person who, under circumstances not amounting to robbery, or an attempt at robbery, with intent to extort or gain any money or other property, verbally makes such a threat as would be criminal under the statute mentioned above, and it is immaterial whether a threat made as specified in the statute, is of things to be done or omitted by the offender, or by any other person.

Blackmar, Frank Wilson, economist: b. Springfield, Pa., 3 Nov. 1854. He graduated at the University of the Pacific 1881, and took his Ph.D. degree at Johns Hopkins 1889. Since 1889 he has been professor of sociology and economics in the University of Kansas. He has been a frequent contributor of articles and reviews to the journals devoted to history and economics. Publications: Federal and State Aid to Higher Education in the United States' (1890); Spanish Colonization in the Southwest' (1890); Spanish Institutions in the Southwest (1891); The Story of Human Progress (1896); History of Higher Education in Kansas' (1900); Charles Robinson: The Free State Governor of Kansas' (1900).

Blackmore, Sir Richard, English physician and poet: b. probably about 1650; d. 1729. In 1668 he entered the University of Oxford, and in 1674 took the degree of B.A. Having traveled abroad he took the degree of M.D. at Padua, and was admitted Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1687. In 1697 he had risen to so much eminence as a physician as to be appointed physician to King William, who knighted him. In the preceding year he had made himself known as a poet by the publication of his heroic poem of Prince Arthur, which was soon followed by 'King Arthur.' In 1700 he published a poem entitled a Satire on Wit, in which he assailed his literary contemporaries on the score of irreligion and grossness. The worthy man became the common butt of his day, being attacked by Dryden, Pope, and Swift, not to mention others. The work which produced him the greatest reputation was The Creation, a poem in seven books, which went through several editions, and was greatly applauded, but is, generally speaking, very tamely


Blackmore, Richard Doddridge, novelist: b. Longworth, Berkshire, 9 June 1825; d. 20 Jan. 1900. He was educated at Tiverton School and Exeter College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1847. In 1852 he was called to the bar at the Middle Temple, and afterward practised as a conveyancer. His greatest literary success was 'Lorna Doone, a Romance of Exmoor (1869), one of the best of modern romances. Other novels by him are: 'Clara Vaughan'; 'Cradock Nowell, a Tale of the New Forest'; The Maid of Sker'; 'Alice Lorraine, a Tale of the South Downs'; Cripps the Carrier'; 'Erema'; Mary Anerley); Christowell' : 'Sir Thomas Upmore'; 'Springhaven'; Perlycross; 'Dariel' etc. He has also published a translation of Virgil's Georgics) (1862 and 1871). Among his volumes of original poetry are Poems by Melanter) (1854); The Bugle of the Black Sea' (1855); and The Fate of

Franklin' (1860). Mr. Blackmore's work is characterized by vivid and accurate descriptions of nature and of rural life. His male characters are well drawn, and, though not the products of subtle analysis, they are boldly marked and consistent; with his women, however, he is less successful. He is at his best in historical novels, such as Lorna Doone,' his greatest work, and Alice Lorraine.'

Blackpool, England, a town on the coast of Lancashire, between the estuaries of the Ribble and Wyre, 27 miles south-southwest of Lancaster, which has of late years attracted many visitors by its advantages as a wateringplace. It affords excellent accommodation for visitors in the numerous hotels, hydropathic establishments, and lodging-houses, and consists of ranges of lofty houses about three miles long facing the sea, in front of which an excellent promenade and carriage drive extends along the whole distance. The town is abundantly supplied with the means of amusement and recreation, including theatres, concert rooms, fine winter gardens, aquarium, extensive pleasure-grounds, park of 60 acres, a great steel tower (Eiffel Tower), over 500 feet high, a gigantic wheel, and other common summer-resort attractions. There are also a court-house and three markets, several churches, and chapels of various denominations, libraries and newsrooms and free library. Blackpool was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1876. Pop. (1903) 48,000.

Blacksnake, or Blue Racer, a common colubrine serpent (Zamenis constrictor) found throughout the United States, and the adjacent parts of Canada. The typical eastern blacksnake is uniform lustrous black above, and slatecolor beneath, the lower jaw, chin, and sometimes upper edges of the lip-plates white, the tongue black. Western specimens are bright under surface olive-green, with the entire greenish-white, varying to bright yellow, which accounts for the name, "blue" or "green racer," often heard in the Mississippi valley. The young, under 18 inches in length, are variegated with dark blotches upon olive, and light margins to the scales, especially on the sides. The female is larger than the male, but rarely if ever exceeds six feet in length. This is one of the most numerous and vigorous of American snakes, making its home in hollow stumps and underground dens. At the approach of winter, many are likely to gather together in similar retreats, and remain there in a torpid condition until spring, entangled into a ball, for the sake of mutual warmth. Its motions are of the swiftest, it being capable of running with great rapidity and of scaling trees, sometimes to a height of 100 feet above the ground, where it searches from branch to branch for birds' eggs, young squirrels, etc. It will even leap from tree to tree, often a distance of more than its own length; and it is also fond of water, where it swims proficiently. It seeks much of its food in swamps and along streams, mainly frogs, toads, eggs and young of birds, insects, and other snakes. Cope says: "The constricting power of blacksnakes is not sufficient to cause inconvenience to a man, but might seriously oppress a child. . . It is easy to unwind the snake with the free hand and arm." The blacksnake is harmless, and its bite is no worse than


that of a mouse. It is readily tamed, and shows some intelligence. It is courageous and will sometimes attack an enemy, moving forward with the head raised a foot or two above the ground, and waving about with a most terrifying aspect. Its principal enemies are the badger and skunk, and it seems to hold a special animosity toward the copperhead and rattlesnakes, whose trail it follows, at night, by its power of scent; and having overtaken the object of its pursuit, it leaps upon it, avoiding its stroke by its swiftness, wraps itself about it, and slowly crushes its victim to death, after which it swallows it whole. The blacksnake breeds during the summer, the female laying 15 or 20 eggs at a time in the hollow of a sunny bank, or in the midst of a decayed stump, around which she stays, guarding her young until they reach a considerable age.

Several other species of the genus belong to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and the West Indies, and the Texan whipsnake (q.v.) is a near relative. The "chainsnake" is sometimes called "mountain blacksnake." Other blackish serpents known as black snakes include a colubrine of Jamaica (Ocyophis ater); the death adders (q.v.) of Australia and Tasmania, and some others notable for dark hues. One of the most widespread of the native names of the East Indian Cobra de Capello has the meaning "blacksnake." Consult: Cope, 'Snakes of North America.

Blackstock Hill, South Carolina, a locality where, on 20 Nov. 1780, the patriots of the State, under Gen. Sumter defeated Tarleton's cavalry after a sharp encounter.

Blackstone, William, the first inhabitant of Boston, was an Episcopal minister, who settled there as early as 1625 or 1626, and died 26 May 1675, on Blackstone River, a few miles north of Providence. On the arrival of Gov.

Winthrop at Charlestown, in the summer of 1630, it is stated in the records of that place that "Mr. Blackstone, dwelling on the other side_of Charles River, alone, at a place by the Indians called Shawmut, where he only had a cottage, at or not far off from the place, called Blackstone's Point, he came and acquainted the governor of an excellent spring there, withal inviting him and soliciting him thither; whereupon, after the death of Mr. Johnson and divers others, the governor, with Mr. Wilson, and the greatest part of the Church, removed thither." At a court held in April 1633, 50 acres of land near his house in Boston were granted to him forever. In 1634 he sold his land and became the first white settler within the present limits of Rhode Island.

Blackstone, Sir William, English lawyer, and the most popular writer on the laws and constitution of his country: b. London, 10 July 1723; d. 14 Feb. 1780. He was educated on the foundation of the Charter House, whence in 1738 he was removed to Pembroke College, Oxford. He was much distinguished, both at school and at the university, and at an early age compiled a work for his own use, entitled the Elements of Architecture,' which has been much praised. Having chosen the profession of the law, he was in due time entered at the Middle Temple, and on this occasion published the admired verses called the 'Lawyer's Farewell to His Muse,' which appeared in 'Dodsley's Mis

cellany. In 1743 he was elected Fellow of AllSouls College, Oxford, and in 1746 was called to the bar, and commenced the practice of law. Being deficient in elocution, and not possessed of the popular talents of an advocate, his progress was slow. Having attended the courts of law at Westminster for seven years, without success, he determined to quit the practice of his profession, and retire to his fellowship at Oxford. The system of education in the English universities supplying no provision for teaching the laws and constitution of the country, Blackstone undertook to remedy this defect by a course of lectures on that important subject; and the manner in which he executed the task has conferred a lasting distinction on Oxford. His first course was delivered in 1753, and was repeated for a series of years with increasing effect and reputation. These lectures doubtless suggested to Mr. Viner the idea of founding, by his will, a liberal establishment in the University of Oxford for the study of the common law; and Blackstone was, with great propriety, chosen the first Vinerian professor. His engagements at Oxford did not prevent his occasional practice as a provincial barrister; and in 1754, being engaged as counsel in a contested election for the county of Oxford, he was led into considerations on the elective franchise, which produced his work entitled 'Considerations on Copyholds.' In 1759 he published a new edition of the Great Charter and Charter of the Forest, with an historical preface; and during the same year, the reputation which he had obtained by his lectures induced him to resume his attendance at Westminster Hall, when business and the honors of his profession soon crowded in upon him. In 1761 he was elected member of Parliament for Hindon, made king's counsel and solicitor-general to the queen. About this time he also married, and thereby losing his fellowship, was appointed principal of New Inn Hall; which office, with the Vinerian professorship, he resigned the next year. In 1765 he also published the first volume of his 'Commentaries on the Laws of England'; a work of greater merit than any which had yet appeared on the subject. The real merit and talents of Blackstone, backed by political tendencies which are generally favorable to advancement, now made him an object of ministerial favor, and he was offered the post of solicitor-general in 1770, and, declining it, was made one of the justices of common pleas, which station he held unti! his death, in his 57th year.

Blackstone, Mass., town in Worcester Co., on the Blackstone River, and on the New York, New Haven and Hartford R.R. It is an important manufacturing town and the centre of an extensive agricultural region. It has numerous churches, schools, library, weekly newspapers, electric lights, and excellent water power. Pop. (1890) 6,138; (1900) 5,721.

Blackstone River, a river of eastern New England; rises in Paxton and Holden townships, Worcester County, Mass., flows southeast into the State of Rhode Island, and empties into the Providence River, near Providence, where it is known as the Seekonk. It is over 50 miles long, and falls over 700 feet, thus affording abundant water-power, and for a great part of its course flows through an almost continuous village of manufacturing establishments.


Blacktail, the name of two different species of western American deer, notable for the blackness of the tail as compared with the snowy white tail of the eastern or "white-tailed" deer. One of them is more suitably called "mule" deer, and is described elsewhere under that title. The other is the Columbian or Pacific Coast deer (Cervus, or Odocoileus, columbianus).

The Columbian blacktail is somewhat smaller than the mule deer, with relatively shorter ears and finer hair. The general color in summer is red or reddish-yellow; in winter the color is more varied. The coat is then brownish-gray, darkest along the spine; top of head, chestnut and black; face gray, with a black spot on the forehead, passing backward as a stripe over each eye; chin white, behind which is a black patch; upper throat, posterior portion of under part, and base of tail, white; chest, sooty; legs, dark cinnamon, white inside, and rest of under parts covered with black; upper surface of the tail, black. The antlers of the buck resemble those of the mule deer. This deer is limited to the Pacific coast, from central California northward to Alaska, and does not pass east of the coast ranges of mountains. It is a deer of the woods, frequenting the foot-hills and valleys especially those covered with small brush; and its habits and gait, more nearly resemble those of the white-tailed deer, than of the mountainloving mule deer. Its hunting affords excellent sport, and its venison is highly prized. See also DEER. Consult: Farell, Big Game in North America', and VanDyke, The Deer Family.'

Blackthorn, a shrub or small tree. See

Blackwater Fever, an obscure disease of uncertain causation that is prevalent in Africa, and is said to be present in other parts of the world. By many it is regarded as a very severe form of malaria, a malignant form, associated with great prostration and with bloody urine. By others it is considered a disease of itself and due to a special parasite of the blood. The question will undoubtedly be settled within a short time as soon as skilled physicians have the opportunity of studying the disease in Africa.


Blackwell, Mrs. Antoinet Louisa (BROWN), American woman suffragist and Unitarian minister: b. Henrietta, N. Y., 20 May 1825. A graduate of Oberlin (1847), she "preached on her own orders," at first in Congregational churches, becoming at length a champion of women's rights. She married Samuel C., a brother of Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (1856). She has written (Shadows of Our Social System' (1855); The Island Neighbors' (1871), a novel of American life; 'Sexes Throughout Nature' (1875), etc.

Blackwell, Elizabeth, the first woman who ever received the degree of M.D. in the United States: b. Bristol, England, 3 Feb. 1821. Elizabeth, a girl of 17 years at the time of her father's death, and one of the elder of nine children, opened a school, which she conducted successfully for several years. But her energetic temperament and strong desire for the acquisition of knowledge demanded a wider field; and long reflection having persuaded her that some avenue should be opened to women whom either necessity or choice impelled to gain a subsistence by their own exertions, she felt that


her path of duty lay in that direction. She resolved to become a physician, and to return again to teaching to acquire the requisite means of education. A situation as governess found in the family of Dr. John Dixon, of Asheville, N. C., where she remained a year, having access, during that time, to a medical library, and receiving from Dr. Dixon some direction as to her reading, but no encouragement in her purpose. At the end of the year she removed to Charleston, S. C., still acting as a teacher of music, but pursuing her studies with the aid and sympathy of Dr. S. H. Dixon, subsequently professor of the institute and practice of medicine in the University of New York. Miss Blackwell next went to Philadelphia, and passed six months in study under Dr. Allen and Dr. Warrington, of that city. During that time she made formal application to the medical schools of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, for admission as a student. In each instance the request was courteously but firmly denied, on the ground of a want of precedent for such an admission, and of the impropriety of such an innovation upon established custom. Several of the professors, however, avowed a sincere interest in her hopes and purposes, and some of them urged her to seek admission into one or another of the schools under the disguise of a feigned name and male attire. She declined to take into consideration any such suggestion, for, though anxious to obtain a medical education for herself, she was hardly less desirous of asserting her right to it as a woman. Undismayed by these difficulties, however, she next made application to 10 other medical schools in different parts of the country, which was rejected by all except those at Geneva, N. Y., and at Castleton, Vt. At Geneva, the faculty, after expressing their own acquiescence, laid the proposition before their students, leaving the decision with them. The young men unanimously assented to the reception of the new pupil, and pledged themselves that no conduct of theirs should ever cause her to regret the step she had taken. It is to their credit that they faithfully observed this pledge during the two subsequent collegiate years that she passed among them. Here MissBlackwell took her degree of M.D., in regular course, in January 1849. During her connection with the college, but when not in attendance there upon lectures, she pursued a course of clinical study in Blockley Hospital, in Philadelphia. The spring after her graduation she went to Paris and remained six months as a student in the Maternité, devoting herself to the study and practice of midwifery. The next autumn she was admitted, as a physician, to walk the hospital of St. Bartholomew, in London, where she could not have been received as a student. After nearly a year spent in St. Bartholomew's she returned to New York, where she practised her profession with credit and success, and established the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, and the Woman's Medical College. In 1859 she registered as a physician in England, and since 1869 has practised in London and Hastings; she founded the National Health Society in London, and assisted in founding the London School of Medicine for Women. Her works include: Physical Education of Girls'; 'Religion of Health': 'Counsel to Parents on Moral Education'; 'Pioneer in Opening

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