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in baskets and barrels, and selling them to the wholesale trade.

Early Methods.- Prior to 1815 most of the shoes were hand-sewed, a few having been copper nailed; the heavier shoes were welted and the lighter ones turned. This method of manufacture was changed, about the year 1815, by the adoption of the wooden shoe peg, which was invented in 1811 and soon came into general use. Up to this time little or no progress had been made in the methods of manufacture. The shoemaker sat on his bench, and with scarcely any tools other than a hammer, knife, and wooden shoulder stick, cut, stitched, hammered, and sewed, until the shoe was completed. Previous to the year 1845, which marked the first successful application of machinery to American shoemaking, this industry was in the strictest sense a hand process, and the young man who chose it for his vocation was apprenticed for seven years, and in that time was taught every detail of the art. He was instructed in the preparation of the insole and outsole, depending almost entirely upon his eye for the proper proportions; taught to prepare pegs and drive them, for the pegged shoe was the most common type of foot-wear in the first half of the 19th century; and familiarizing himself with the making of turned and welt shoes, which have always been considered the highest type of shoemaking, requiring exceptional skil! of the artisan in channeling the insole and outsole by hand, rounding the sole, sewing the welt, and stitching the outsole. The change from which has been evolved our present factory system began in the latter part of 1700, when a system of sizes had been drafted, and shoemakers more enterprising than their fellows gathered about them groups of workmen, and took upon themselves the dignity of manufacturers. The entire shoe was then made under one roof, and generally from leather that was tanned on the premises; one workman cut the leather, others sewed the uppers, and still others fastened uppers to soles, each workman handling only one part in the process of manufacture. This division of labor was successful from the very start, and soon the method was adopted of sending out the uppers to be sewed by the women and children at their homes. Small shops were numerous throughout certain parts of Massachusetts, where the shoemaker, with members of his family or sometimes a neighbor, received the uppers and under-stock from the factories near by, bottomed the boots and shoes, and returned them to the factories, where they were finished and sent to the market packed in wooden boxes. Thus the industry developed and prospered and was carried on without any further improvement in methods until the introduction of machinery.

Machinery. The first machine which proved itself of any practical value was the leather rolling machine, which came into use about 1845, and with which it was said "a man could do in a minute what would require half an hour's hard work with a lapstone and hammer." This was closely followed by the waxthread sewing machine, which greatly reduced the time required for sewing together the different parts that formed the upper, and the buffing machine, for removing the grain from sole leather. Then came a machine which made pegs very cheaply and with great rapidity, and this in turn was followed by a hand-power ma

chine for driving pegs. In 1855 there was introduced the splitting machine, for reducing sole leather to a uniform thickness. Peg-making and power-pegging machines were soon perfected, and there had appeared a dieing-out machine, which was used for cutting soles, taps, and heels by the use of different size dies. The year 1860 saw the introduction of the McKay sewing machine, which has done more to revo lutionize the manufacture of shoes, perhaps, than any other single machine. The shoe to be sewed was placed over a horn and the sewing was done from the channel in the outsole through the sole and insole. The machine made a loop stitch and left a ridge of thread on the inside of the shoe, but it filled the great demand that existed for sewed shoes, and many hundreds of millions of pairs have been made by its use. At the time of the introduction of the McKay machine inventors were busy in other directions, and, as a result, came the introduction of the cable nailing machine, which was provided with a cable of nails, the head of one being joined to the point of another; these the machine cut into separate nails and drove auto matically. At about this time was introduced the screw machine which formed a screw from brass wire, forcing it into the leather and cutting it off automatically. This was the prototype of the "rapid standard screw machine," which is a comparative recent invention and is very widely used as a sole fastener at the present time on the heavier class of boots and shoes. Very soon thereafter the attention of the trade was attracted to the invention of a New York mechanic for the sewing of soles. This device was particularly intended for the making of turn shoes, and afterwards became famous as the Goodyear "turn shoe machine." It was many years before this machine became a commercial success, and mention of its progress is made later. Closely following the Goodyear invention came the introduction of the first machine used in connection with heeling. -a machine which compressed the heel and pricked holes for the nails and this was soon followed by a machine which automatically drove the nails, the heel having previously been put into place and held by guides on the machine. Other improvements in heeling machines followed with considerable rapidity, and a machine came into use shortly afterwards which not only nailed the heel but was also provided with a hand trimmer, which the operator swung round the heel immediately after nailing. From these have been evolved the heeling machines in use at the present time. Notable improvements had during this time been made in the Goodyear system, and a machine was made for the sewing of welts which was the foundation of the Goodyear machine now so universally used. This machine sewed from the channel of the insole through upper and welt, uniting all three, and was a machine of the chain-stitch type, which left the loop on the outside of the welt. This machine was closely followed by the introduction of one which stitched the outsole, uniting it to the welt by a stitch made from the channel in the outsole, through outsole and welt. This machine afterwards became famous as the Goodyear "rapid outsole lock-stitch machine." The great demand that existed for shoes of this type made it necessary that accessory machines should be invented, and those which prepared the insole, skived the welt, trimmed the insole,


rounded and channeled the outsole, as well as a machine which automatically rolled or leveled the shoe, and the stitch separating machine were soon produced. These formed the Goodyear welt system which has been the subject of constant improvement up to the present time. Factory-made boots and shoes are now entirely cut out by machinery, the upper are sewn by strong sewing machines, and soles and uppers are fastened together either by (1) sewing, (2) pegging with wooden pegs, (3) riveting with metal pins, or (4) screwing by means of the Standard screw machine. The latter most ingenious apparatus uncoils a reel of screwed brass wire, inserts it into the sole, and cuts off the wire flush with the outsole with remarkable rapidity; and for solidity and durability the work leaves nothing to be desired.

Manufacturing Methods. The following gives a fair idea of how a pair of shoes is turned out under modern methods in the factory of to-day: First, the cutters are given tickets describing the style of shoe required; the thickness of sole, and whatever other details are necessary. From this ticket the vamp cutter blocks out the vamps and gives them with the ticket to the upper cutter, who shapes the vamps to the pattern and cuts the tops or quarters which accompany them. The trimming cutter then gets out the side linings, stays, facings, or whatever trimmings are needed. The whole is then made into a bundle and sent to the fitting department. Here they are arranged in classes by themselves. Pieces which are too heavy are run through a splitting machine, and the edges are beveled by means of a skiving machine. Next they are pasted together, care being taken to join them at the marks made for that purpose. After being dried they go into the hands of the machine operators. The different parts go to different machines, each of which is adjusted for its particular work. The completed upper next goes to the sole-leather room, in which department machinery also performs the major part of the work. By the use of the cutting machine the sides of leather are reduced into strips corresponding to the length of the sole required. These strips are passed through a powerful rolling machine, which hardens the leather and removes from its surface all irregularities. They are then shaved down to a uniform thickness, also by machinery, and placed under dies which cut them out in proper form. The smaller pieces are died out in the form of lifts or heel pieces, which are joined together to the proper thickness and cemented, after which they are put into presses which give them the greatest amount of solidity. The top lift is not added to the heel until after it has been nailed to the shoe. The remaining sole leather is used for shank pieces, rands, and bottom leveling. For the insole, a lighter grade of leather is used, which, being cut into strips and rolled, is cut by dies to the correct shape, shaved uniformly, and channeled around the under edge for receiving the upper. The counters are died out and skived, by machine, and the welts cut in strips. The uppers and soles are then sent to the bottoming department, where the first operation is that of lasting, the uppers being tacked to the insoles. From the laster they go to the machine operator, where the upper, sole, and welt are firmly sewed together by the machine. The bottom is filled and leveled off and the steel shank inserted.

Next, the bottom is coated with cement, and the outsole pressed on it by a machine. Thence it is sent through the rounding machine, which trims it and channels the sole for stitching. From there it goes again to the sewing machine, which stitches through the welt outside of the upper. The next step is that of leveling, then heeling, both of which processes are accomplished by machinery. The heels are nailed on in the rough and afterwards trimmed into shape by a machine operating revolving knives; a breasting machine shaping the front of the heel. Still another machine drives in the brass nails and cuts them off flush with the top pieces. 'The edging machine is next used, which trims the edges of both sole and heel. The sole bottom is then sandpapered, blacked, and burnished by machinery, after which the shoe is cleaned, treed, and packed.

Factory Centres.- Prior to 1800 little attempt to establish the shoe industry outside eastern Massachusetts was made. Yet it was not to be expected that other enterprising sections would be content always to depend entirely on New England for so important an article of merchandise as shoes. In New York City and other cities of New York State, especially in Rochester, the industry has attained large proportions, and has reached a perfection not excelled anywhere. In Newark, N. J., where the business was early established, are made many of the finest shoes for men's wear. Philadelphia has made the shoe industry a leader among the many manufacturing industries for which she is celebrated. At Cincinnati and St. Louis ladies' shoes are produced in great quantities, and of a style and finish that have won a reputation. Chicago has taken up the business with an energy that has already placed her in the front rank. Throughout the West, including the Pacific Coast, there are many thoroughly equipped, financially successful shoe factories. Notwithstanding the enterprise of other parts of the country, New England still maintains the lead as the home of this industry. Boston is the center from which are sold nearly all the goods made in New England, amounting to about two-thirds of the entire production of the country. The flourishing New England cities and towns of Lynn, Brockton, Haverhill, Marlboro, Milford, Whitman, and Weymouths, and many others, are built up and maintained solely by the boot and shoe and allied interests. The force which this industry has exerted on the community at large becomes apparent.

Convict Labor.-No account of the manufacture of boots and shoes would be complete without reference to the employment of convict labor. The business offers many advantages to the authorities of prisons who are seeking remunerative work for the men and women in their charge. The great number of operations in producing a shoe makes it possible to use all classes of convicts, from the strong to the weak; and as far back as 1850, even before machinery was introduced, it was not an uncommon thing for houses of correction and prisons to produce footwear not only for their own convicts, but to be sold in the market. After the introduction of machinery, and during the demand for cheap shoes, which followed the close of the Civil War, many of the states leased the labor of their convicts to shoe manufacturers. In the year 1870 there were employed in this industry in 26 different States, 6,581 convicts,

while there were only 129.989 employed in the industry in the same States outside the prisons. In the year 1900 there were made by 7,609 convicts, 6,634,960 pairs of shoes, valued at $10,990,173, and it is probable that the number employed and the annual production are steadily increasing. In States where the system was believed to have a harmful influence on the wages of the workman outside the prisons, the business has been conducted on the States' account, and in some instances, at least, the result has been disastrous.

Export Trade.-Early manufacturers shipped goods to the West Indies, more especially to Cuba, and up to the time of the Civil War the export business was prosecuted with considerable vigor and profit. In 1810, 10 per cent of all the boots and shoes sold in Boston were for export. In the year 1865 shoes to the value of more than $2,000,000 were exported. From that time the trade fell off sharply. This may be accounted for by the great advance in 1866, when values rose at least 50 per cent. Since 1895 interest has been renewed in the export trade. Manufacturers have become convinced that there is nothing in the conditions which will prevent competition with foreign countries. The raw materials are available, and, while many hides and skins are imported, the supply of the domestic product is constantly increasing and leather manufacturers have been able to produce materials for making boots and shoes as advantageously, both in regard to quality and price, as any other country. Styles have been adapted to the wants of such countries as import their footwear. Many of the leading manufacturers are alive to the situation and are endeavoring to secure a greater share of the world's trade. The following tabular statement shows the value of the exports of leather boots and shoes from 1870 to 1901:




















$5,526,290 4,276,656



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The exports, with the exception of the year 1865, appear to have been unimportant until 1895, when the first decided gain was made, the exports for that year being valued at $1,010,228. Since that date there has been a steady increase until, in 1901, these exports amounted to $5,526,290. The maximum yearly capacity of the combined factories of the United States, on a basis of 300 working days, is slightly under 400,000,000 pairs, showing that all the factories running at full capacity would require not exceeding seven months to produce all shoes consumed in the United States, and those exported for the year ending 30 June, 1900.

Statistics of Manufacture. In 1901 a capital of $101.795,233 was invested in the manufacture of boots and shoes. This sum represents the value of the land, buildings, machinery, tools, and implements, but does not include the capi

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The total quantity of boots and shoes manufactured in 1900 was 219,235,419 pairs, an increase over 1890 of 45.372,479 pairs. This is about the same as the percentage of increase in population for the United States. In 1900 89,123,318 pairs of men's, youth's, and boys' boots and shoes were manufactured, valued at $129,505,235. Women's, misses', and children's shoes were made to the number of 107,415,855 pairs, valued at $112,823,914. Slippers were produced for men, youths, and boys to the number of 4,456,965 pairs, valued at $2,812,213. Another item "slippers, oxfords, and low cuts for women, misses, and children," is represented by 12,655.876 pairs, valued at $10,146,393. In 1900 capital to the amount of $33,667,533 was invested in the manufacture of rubber boots and shoes, with a total product valued at $41,089,819. FREDERICK D. HULL, Vice-President The Shoe Retailer, New York and Boston.

Bora, Katharina von, wife of Luther: b. 29 Jan. 1499; d. 20 Dec. 1552. She took the veil very early in the nunnery of Nimptschen, near Grimma; but feeling very unhappy in her situation, applied, with eight other nuns, to Luther, whose fame had reached them. Luther gained over a citizen of Torgau, by the name of


Leonard Koppe, who, in union with some other citizens, undertook to deliver the nine nuns from their convent. This was done the night after Good Friday, 4 April 1523. Luther brought them to Torgau, and from thence to Wittenberg. At the same time, to anticipate the charges of his enemies, he published a letter to Koppe, in which he frankly confessed that he was the author of this enterprise, and had persuaded Koppe to its execution; and he also exhorted the parents and relations of the virgins to admit them again into their houses. Some of them were received by citizens of Wittenberg; others who were not yet too old Luther advised to marry. Among the latter was Katharina, whom Philip Reichenbach, at that time mayor of the city, had taken into his house. Luther proposed to her several of his friends. She declined these proposals, but declared her willingness to bestow her hand on Nicholas von Amsdorf, or on Luther himself. Luther, who in 1524 had laid aside the cowl, was not averse to matrimony, yet appears to have been led to the resolution of marrying by reason rather than by passion. This step gave rise to many disadvantageous rumors, some of them as shameful as they were unfounded. After Luther's death Katharina removed from Wittenberg to Leipsic, where she was compelled to take boarders for her support. She afterward returned to Wittenberg and finally removed to Torgau, where she died. In the Church of Torgau her tombstone is still to be seen, on which is a life-size image of her.

Borac'ic (-ras'-) Acid, or Bo'ric Acid (from "borax"), a compound of boron with oxygen and hydrogen, having the formula HBO, and possessing feebly acid properties. It occurs in an impure state in the crater of Vulcano, one of the Lipari islands. It is also found plentifully in Tuscany, where it issues from fissures in the soil, together with sulphurous exhalations, ammonia, and other substances. On account of its having been obtained at Sasso, the acid is called by mineralogists Sassolite. The principal supply of boracic acid is obtained from Tuscany, the exhalations above referred to being passed through water which absorbs the acid. The preparation of boracic acid from these aqueous solutions is an interesting process on account of the natural obstacles which have to be surmounted. The apparently simple operation of concentrating the solution, so as to obtain the acid by crystallization, in reality involves great practical difficulties, because in Tuscany the fuel supply is limited. This drawback has been overcome by utilizing the volcanic heat of the district to concentrate the solution. Around the cracks in the soil (called "fumaroles" or "soffioni"), from which the steam containing the acid issues, and enclosing the small lakes or lagoons in which it condenses, brick tanks are built on different levels, but communicating with each other. These are supplied with cold water, in which the steam is further condensed. When the water in the tanks is sufficiently saturated, it is run off into a deep vessel, where it is allowed to stand until the black mud mechanically suspended in it falls to the bottom, and then the clear fluid is run into a series of shallow

evaporating pans of lead. These pans are heated by steam from the soffioni, the steam being made to pass under them by a system of flues. As the evaporation proceeds the fluid becomes richer in boracic acid, and when it attains a cer

tain specific gravity, it is passed into a deep vat, where it is allowed to cool. Boracic acid then crystallizes out. The first crop of crystals is quite impure, but it is improved by re-crystallization, and the second crop as thus obtained is packed in casks and exported. Commercial boracic acid sometimes contains as much as 25 per cent of foreign matter, consisting largely of clay, salts of calcium and magnesium, and sulphates and other salts of the alkalis. About 2,000 tons of crude boracic acid are exported from Tuscany per annum. Boracic acid is also prepared artificially by decomposing a hot solution of borax with sulphuric acid. The boracic acid separates out upon cooling. Boracic acid is a white, glassy substance, slightly soluble in cold water, and considerably more soluble in hot water. It possesses strong antiseptic properties, and is used as a preservative for meat. It is also used for glazing porcelain, and in the manufacture of certain kinds of glass. Boracic acid forms salts called "borates with various metallic bases, of which borax (q.v.) is the most important. See BORON.

In medicine, boracic acid is used very widely. It is a mild antiseptic, and its solutions are useful for cleansing the eyes, nose, mouth, bladder, etc. It forms with aromatic oils the basis of most mouth washes and nasal sprays. Boracic acid is also very useful in the nursery for keeping nipples free from bacteria, and it is of great service in washing out nursing-bottles, babies' mouths and eyes, and the mother's nipples while nursing. Large doses may prove poisonous.

Bo'racite (from "borax"), a mineral, tetrahedral and isometric in external form, but orthorhombic in molecular structure, and becoming isotropic only when heated to 510° F. It has the composition 6MgO.MgCl2.8B2O1, and a little iron is also occasionally present, probably as an impurity. It occurs in beds of anhydrite, gypsum, and salt, notably at Stassfurt, Prussia, also in crystals at Lüneberg, Hanover and Westeregeln, Saxony. The mineral has been prepared artifically by melting together 10 parts of boracic acid, 100 of sodium chloride, and 5 of magnesium borate. Boracite is strongly pyroelectric. Its molecular structure has been the subject of much study, on account of its exhibiting double refraction, although the mineral is apparently isometric in crystalline form.

Borage, the small genus, typical of the natural order Boraginacea, the species of which are most numerous in the Mediterranean region. Common borage (Borago officinalis), a coarse growing annual herb frequent in waste places, is about two feet tall with erect stem, rough, hairy leaves, and blue flowers arranged in racemes. Like many other innocuous plants, borage was highly valued medicinally, but is now not so employed. It is occasionally raised as a pot herb or salad plant, its young leaves being palatable. The flowers are still used to make the beverage known as cool tankard, a mixture of wine, lemon, sugar, and water. The plant's chief use, however, is as bee pasturage, its flowers being rich in nectar.

Boras, Sweden, a town in the province of Elfsborg, 36 miles east of Gothenburg. It was founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632. There are some cotton and linen manufactures, and also some dyeworks. Pop. (1903) 15,837.

Borassus Palm. See PALMYRA PALM.


Bo'rax, a compound of the metal sodium with boracic acid (q.v.). The formula of boracic acid may be written HBO, + H2O; and if the hydrogen of the HBO2 is replaced by sodium, a compound known as sodium borate is formed, which crystallizes as NaBO2 + 4H2O. Fused borax is this salt deprived of its water of crystallization, and combined with boron trioxide in the form 2NaBO2+ B2O3, or Na2B4O. Common borax, when crystallizing from aqueous solution, however, contains 10 molecules of water. Other forms of borax are easily obtained, crystallizing with different quantities of water. Borax occurs native, both as a saline efflorescence on the soil, and as monoclinic crystals. Until recent times the principal borax supply of the world was obtained from the salt lakes of Tibet. It was brought to Europe in the crude state, under the name of Tincal. Enormous quantities of borax are now obtained from California and Nevada. Borax Lake, some 80 miles north of San Francisco, was discovered in 1856. It contains borax in solution, and crystals of the mineral also occur in the surrounding mud and marshes. The crystals are occasionally quite large, weighing as much as a pound each. It is also found in large quantities at Borax Lake in San Bernardino County, Cal., and it occurs abundantly as an efflorescence in Death Valley, Inyo County, Cal. Borax is extensively used in the household, and it is used also as an antiseptic and preservative. Like boracic acid, it is employed in glazing porcelain. Its property of dissolving metallic oxides makes it of great value in blowpipe analysis (q.v.) and as a flux in the soldering of metals. In the United States commercial borax is chiefly derived from the colemanite deposits of California.

Borax is of toxicological interest because it is widely used as an antiseptic, a preservative for meats and other foodstuffs, and also as an abortifacient. In large doses there is marked gastro-enteritis, in addition to which there are symptoms of collapse, coldness of the skin, bad pulse, psychical depression, and diminution in the quantity of urine eliminated. Similar symptoms may occur from the use of borax in washing out large abscess cavities. Singultus and general motor paralysis are the symptoms in fatal cases. Borax certainly has atoxic action on the kidneys when taken in large amounts. There is albumen in the urine, casts, pain in urination, and even bloody urine. While the kidneys are markedly affected by large doses it is questionable whether borax, in the small amounts used in food preservation, causes any grave symptoms of kidney irritation, even when taken for a considerable length of time. It may well be that certain individuals have an idiosyncrasy to boron salts, in which case their use would prove detrimental. See BORON.

Borchgrevink, Carsten Egeberg, Norwegian explorer and lecturer: b. Christiania, 1864, his mother being English and his father a Scandinavian. He went to sea at an early age, but returned to go to college. In 1808 he went to Australia, joined the survey department, and scaled Mount Lindsay. In 1894-5 he was in Antarctic waters, a region more fully explored by him in 1897, when he attempted to reach the South Pole without success. In 1899 (17 February) he had, however, reached Robertson Bay. Returning to London in 1900 he reported hav

Vol. 3-11

ing reached lat. 78.50 S.; lon. 195.50 E., the farthest point south ever reached by man. Consult his work, First on the Antarctic Conti


Borda, Jean Charles, French engineer, and afterward a captain in the French marine, famous for his mathematical talents: b. Dax, department of Landes, 4 May 1733; d. 20 Feb. 1799. In 1756 he was chosen a member of the Academy of Sciences, and occupied himself in making experiments on the resistance of fluids, the velocity of motion, and other topics relating to dynamical science. In 1767 he published a dissertation on hydraulic wheels, and afterward one on the construction of hydraulic machinery. In 1771, with Verdun de la Crenne and Pingré, he made a voyage to America, to determine the longitude and latitude of several coasts, isles, and shoals, and to try the utility of several astronomical instruments. In 1774 he visited the Azores, the Cape Verde Islands, and the coast of Africa for the same purpose. In the American war he was very useful to the Count d'Estaing by his knowledge of navigation. Borda was the founder of the schools of naval architecture in France. He invented an instrument, of a very small diameter, which measures angles with the greatest accuracy, and which has been used in measuring the meridian; the reflecting circle, which has made his name immortal; besides an instrument for measuring the inclination of the compass-needle, and many others. On the establishment of the National Institute, he became one of its members, and was occupied with other men of science in framing the new system of weights and measures adopted in France under the republican governseries of experiments to discover the length of Among the latest of his labors was a a pendulum which should vibrate seconds in the latitude of Paris. The principal of his writings are: His Voyage' and his Tables Trigonométriques Décimales.'


Bordeaux, France, capital of the department of Gironde, is situated on the left bank of the Garonne, about 70 miles from the sea, and 284 southwest of Paris. It is built in a crescent form round a bend of the river, which is lined with fine quays for more than three miles, and is crossed by a magnificent stone bridge of 17 arches, finished in 1821 at a cost of $1,200,000. There is another bridge, a fine iron structure, for the railway from Paris. Bordeaux consists of an old and a new town, the boundary between them being formed by a wide and handsome street which, commencing at the quay near the centre of the crescent, stretches across the city from east to west. The objects chiefly deserving of notice in the old town are the arch called the Porte de Bourgogne at the extremity of the bridge, forming the principal entrance built at different periods; St. Michael's Church, to the town; the cathedral, a fine Gothic edifice with a lofty detached tower, and a superb front of florid Gothic; the Church of St. Croix, a specimen of gorgeous Romanesque; the bourse Ville, once the residence of the archbishops of or exchange, the custom-house, the Hôtel de Bordeaux, and the Palais de Justice. The new town is not so rich in public buildings. The most conspicuous are the library (200,000 volumes), the museum, and the theatre, a Grecian structure, regarded as the handsomest edifice

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