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present in the Judgment Hall and is represented headless, with an ostrich feather in place of the head. Her figure, sometimes only the feather of her headgear, is placed in the scale-pan, opposite the one containing the vase with the heart.* The jackal-headed Anubis and the hawk-headed Horus superintend the weighing. In the scale-pan to the right is the weight in the shape of the goddess Maat. This scale is adjusted by another divinity un-named in the hieroglyphic text. In the scaie-pan to the left is a jar containing the heart of the departed. Upon the beam of the balance sits the dogheaded ape deity called Hapi. The little figure seated on the crook to the left represents the new birth after the justification of the "Osiris." Close to the balance stands the ibis-headed scribe Thoth, with his tablets, recording the result of the weighing. Close in front of him, upon a shrine, sits the adversary (the Egyptian Cerberus), called in hieroglyphics Amemit, the devourer of the dead, in the shape of a strange being composed of three beasts: hippopotamus, lion and crocodile, ready to destroy the Ka in case he should, after weighing, be found wanting. Immediately facing the throne is an altar full of sacrifices, consisting of bread, geese, onions, lotus flowers, buds, and burning incense. Beneath the altars are jars containing wine and other liquids for oblations. At the head of the hall is Osiris himself, sitting upon a throne which is richly decorated with ankhs, emblems of life, and uas, emblems of purity. He is closely shrouded, and wears the white crown of Upper Egypt, called Atef, ornamented with two ostrich feathers, the symbols of truth and justice; his hands crossed upon his breast, on his wrists are bracelets. He holds in his right hand the Nekhekh, scourge; and in his left, Hek, the crooked staff, symbolical of justice. Above are the forty-two divine assessors, seated in two rows of twenty-one each, with different type of head, such as the heads of apes, serpents, crocodiles, etc., adorned with the feather representing truth and justice, and each holding in his hand a sharp-pointed knife. The Ka of the deceased stands, in beseeching posture, with hands raised, in front of each row of the judges.

The same chapter (125) contains the confessions of the deceased. Every one of the forty-two judges whom the deceased called by their proper names had to pronounce him innocent, he emphatically affirming before each of them in turn that he did not commit any of the forty-two sins. The negative confession is very interesting but space forbids the mentioning of more than a few of them. The judge having to consider the crime of theft was addressed by the deceased as follows: "O Devourer of Shades, coming out of the orbits I have not stolen;" another was addressed: "O Eyes of Flames, coming out of the shrine I have not played the hypocrite;" "O Cracker of Bones, coming out of Suten Khem (Bubastis) . . I have not told falsehoods ;" "O Swallower, coming out of Khnem have not blasphemed "O Eater of Hearts, coming out of the thirty I have not made conspiracies: "O Eye in the Heart, coming out of the land of Sahu . . I have not defiled the river," etc.


Many of the Pharaohs adopted her name in their royal titles, i. e., Ramesis II styled himself Se Ra Usur Ma, “Son of the Sun, the Keeper of Truth."

Among other sins denied are: "I am not sluggish; I have not made to weep; I am not a landgrabber; I committed not adultery; I am not a slayer of man; I tamper not with the balance; I do not cheat," etc.

Howsoever absurd the Egyptian Pantheon may appear to our eyes, we must acknowledge from the evidence of these forty-two confessions, that they possessed a superior code of morality, a code which included not only our decalogue, but much of the ethical teachings and humanity of modern civilization.

The vignettes of this chapter, as we have already remarked, vary. The finer illuminated papyri made for royal personages or high priests and priestesses are exquisitely illuminated and the texts are unabridged. For instance, the Papyrus of Nu is more than sixty-five feet long. The Papyrus of Ani is seventy-eight feet long by one foot and three inches wide.

Most copies of the Books of the Dead are defective, others betray gross ignorance on the part of the scribe or copyist. The common people who were unable to purchase a wellwritten and illuminated text for their dead had to be satisfied with a cheaply, badly written, abridged copy. The scribes must have possessed a large stock of blanks on hand, containing spaces to be filled with the deceased (Osiris') name. Some of the Egyptian scribes were as dishonest as most of the embalmers. As the papyrus was to be placed with the mummy, the mercenary scribe or embalmer substituted a spurious for a good one.

SAMUEL A. BINION, Author of Ancient Egypt or Mizraim.

Book of Mormon, a collection of 16 distinct books professing to be written at different periods by successive prophets. Its style is an exceedingly clumsy and verbose imitation of that of the common English translation of the Bible, portions of which, to the number in all of 300 passages, are incorporated without acknowledgment. It constitutes the scriptures of the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith, an American, of Manchester, N. Y., professed to have heard in 1823 the Angel Moroni reveal to him in visions that the Bible of the Western Continent was buried in a box near his residence.

This, according to his own account, he at length found -a volume six inches thick, with leaves broad, bound together with three gold rings; on of thin gold plate. eight inches long by seven which leaves was a mystic writing that he characterized as reformed Egyptian. With the book he professed to have found a pair of magic spectacles, by means of which he was able to read the contents, which he dictated to an amanuensis. This book consists of an alleged history of America from 600 B.C., when Lehi and his family (descended from the dispersion after the building of the Babel tower) landed in Chile. Between the descendants of Nephi. Lehi's youngest son, and the offspring of his older long conflicts waged: the Nephites finally being brothers, who are the North American Indians, almost annihilated. There remained a fragment, among whom Mormon and his son, Moroni. They collected the records of their people, and buried them in the hill of Cumorah, on the Divine assurance that they would be found by the Lord's prophet. Besides this history, the book, as it finally was received, has various moral and religious teachings. The real



history of it is as follows: Solomon Spalding, an eccentric Presbyterian preacher, wrote a historical romance in 1809, which a compositor, into whose hands it fell, sold to Smith. This was, in substance, the Book of Mormon,' which Smith issued, and to which various additions have since been made. See MORMON.

Book of Nonsense, A, a nursery classic by Edward Lear. It is made up from four minor collections published at intervals during a long life. The author began as an artist; colored drawings for serious purposes were supplemented by others for the amusement of the groups of little ones he loved to gather around him; and the text added to them has proved able to endure the test of time without the aid of drawing, and much of it has become part of the recognized humorous literature of the language.

Book of Snobs, The, a series of sketches by William Makepeace Thackeray. It appeared first in Punch, and was published in book form in 1848. The idea of the work may have been suggested to Thackeray when, as an undergraduate at Cambridge in 1829, he contributed to a little weekly periodical called the Snob.

Bookbinding, the art of arranging and making up the sheets of a book into a volume. The first operation in bookbinding is to fold the sheets. If the book be folio, each sheet is folded into 2 leaves; if quarto, into 4 leaves; octavo, 8 leaves; 12mo, 12 leaves; 18mo, 18 leaves; and so of all others, to 72mo, the smallest size in general use. The first page of each sheet of all English books has, at the bottom, a letter of the alphabet, or a number, the letters or figures forming a consecutive series. These marks, technically denominated signatures, direct the workmen in the proper arrangement of the sheets. After the sheets are folded, they are arranged in the proper order. The book is then beat on a large smooth stone with a heavy hammer, or put through a rolling machine, to make it smooth and solid; care must be taken in beating or rolling it to prevent setting off the printing of the one page on the other, which may happen if the ink is not perfectly dry. After beating, the book is separated into three or four portions, and put between smooth hardwood boards, and pressed in a screw or hydraulic press for several hours. It is then carefully collated according to the letter or number at the bottom of the sheet, and sawed on the back, in three or five places, according to the size of the work, in order to admit the cords on which it is to be sewed. When a book has been sewed, it is then secured by a coating on the back of strong glue, care being taken that the sheets be accurately adjusted at the head and back. When the glue has dried, the back is rounded with a hammer, the same as those used by shoemakers; it is then screwed up very tight in the cutting press, between hardwood boards, half the breadth of the book, and thinner on the one edge than the other; the boards being kept an eighth of an inch from the edge of the back. The back of the book is now beat smooth, and the edge of the back being beat on the edge of the boards that compress it, a groove is formed for the pasteboard to rest in. The pasteboards are then laced to the book by the ends of the cords on which it is sewed; after the lacing the superfluous parts are cut away, and the rest hammered smooth. The book is then pressed again for

several hours, to make it solid for cutting, which is performed by a machine called a plough. The boards ought always to be cut one fourth inch longer and one eighth inch broader than the book. The part of the board that projects is called the squares, and is a protection to the book.


When the book is cut, it may either be gilt, marbled (see MARBLING), or sprinkled on the edges, or left white, as all law-books are. order to be gilt, the book is screwed hard up in the cutting press, between two cutting boards, and scraped perfectly smooth with a small circular piece of steel, having a sharp edge all round. It is now burnished with a dog's tooth or agate burnisher; a solution of the white of egg and water being spread over with a sponge; and the gold is laid on with a piece of paper in the ordinary way. After having dried for about 20 minutes, the gold is then burnished.

with a brush. Holding the brush in the right Sprinkling the edges of a book is performed hand, and a bar of iron in the left, the workman dips the brush in the requisite solution, and haying beat the brush on a bar till the color is nearly out, the residuum falls fine, and produces the desired effect. The edges of sprinkled books are either burnished or not, at pleasure. The usual compositions for sprinkling are a solution of umber, vermilion, sap-green, or indigo.

The head-band is now added, which is an ornament made of cotton cloth, thread, or silk, of two or three colors, placed at top and bottom of the book, across the leaves, and woven or twisted about a strip of vellum the width of the square. When the book is head-banded, it receives on the back another coat of strong glue; on the top of the glue is laid a piece of cartridge paper the size of the back, and rubbed smooth with a folder. The book is now ready for the leather cover. The cover, after being damped with a sponge and water, and having the edges pared thin on a marble stone, and the rough side smeared with strong paste made of flour, is now pulled on, and doubled over the edges of the boards. The sides and edges are then neatly squared and smoothed, and the bands at the back raised by working the cover with a bone paper-knife, the white or colored lining papers are inserted, and the book is put for some hours into the press, after which it is ready for its ornaments and letters. The letters or ornaments on books are made with brass tools engraved in relievo. Those parts of the leather on which gold is to be applied are glazed over two or three times with glair, each coating being allowed to dry before another is applied. When dry, the cover is slightly rubbed over with oil or hog's lard, and the gold laid on; the brass tools, after being heated to about 200° F. are then impressed; the superfluous gold-leaf is rubbed off with a piece of cotton cloth. An iron tool, called the polisher, heated as above, is then applied, and the book, after being pressed for four or five hours in smooth japanned plates is considered finished. Leather covers are also often used in which a pattern is previously embossed by means of a powerful fly-press acting on a metal die. The metal die rests on the lower bed of the press, and to the upper bed is attached a counter-die or millboard, which has received its impression from the metal die. Between the two the leather is embossed in an instant.

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