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mentioned by Macaulay. A very singular fact is that, comparatively speaking, very few remains of bodies or implements of warfare have been discovered, either in the bed of the river or on the battle-field; though there cannot be any doubt concerning a large quantity of both being hidden there; nor, as far as I have been able to ascertain, has any very diligent search ever at any time been made. Perhaps the day may arrive, as Virgil says —
"Scilicet et tempus veniet, quum finibus illis
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes, Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris." Georg. i. 493 et seq. No obelisk or memorial stone has been erected to mark the place of the battle, as is the case at Mortimer's Cross and Blore Heath-the scenes of two conflicts in the Wars of the Roses, but neither of them equalling, in importance or in sanguinary nature, Towton. It may be worth notice, that in 1766, the gallant Admiral Hawke was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Hawke of Towton.
Some little distance from the battle-field is
Saxton Church, in which parish, as before observed, it is situated; and in its churchyard great numbers of the slain are known to have been buried in a deep trench. Lord Dacre, who was killed, as the story goes, with an arrow shot by a boy perched in a "bur-tree," * lies buried under a tomb on the north side of the church, the slab or covering of which is broken in two pieces. Drake gives the inscription, in 1736:
"Hic jacet Ranulphus Ds. de Dacres et miles et occisus erat in bello Principe Henrico VI., Anno D. MCCCCLXI., XXIX. die Martii, videlicet dominica die palmarum-cujus animæ propitietur Deus. Amen."
The inscription is in Old English characters, and now very much defaced.
Near the village of Towton, according to Leland, Richard III. commenced building a chapel where masses might be said for the souls of those slain in the battle, but it never was completed. Of this not a vestige remains, though the name is perpetuated by that of a field called "Chapel Garth," close to Towton Hall. This king always entertained a strong affection for Yorkshire; and Middleham Castle, in Wensleydale, in the North Riding (one of the fairest spots in England), was for a time his chief residence. There had he learned the art of war under Warwick, stout in armour bright, the last of the barons; and owing to his marriage with the Lady Anne Neville, the daughter of the King Maker, the Castle of Middleham became his property. The death of Richard III at Bosworth Field, in 1485, hindered his carrying out his intention of endowing largely
# 66 Bur-tree," a local name for the "elder-tree."
the church in that place, and was no doubt also the cause of the chapel at Towton remaining unfinished.
John Lord Neville, another Lancastrian commander, is said to have been buried in Lead Chapel, about half-a-mile from Saxton, and in the parish of Ryther. Lead Chapel is one of the most primitive structures in England, situated in a farm-yard, and where service is held twice in the year. It would, on account of its simplicity and antiquity, be a pity to touch it with a restoring hand.
As to the events which succeeded the Battle of Towton, as they are matters of history, it would be needless to mention them in these pages. Suffice it to say that Edward IV., elated with success, marched to York, and soon after proceeded to London, where he was crowned on June 29, 1461. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.
Bolton Percy, near Tadcaster.
CHARLES DICKENS AND THE "MEMOIRS OF GRIMALDI."
It is a rather remarkable circumstance that two writers of sketches of Charles Dickens's
literary career which appeared on the day after his death in the morning journals should have fallen into nearly the same error with respect to the nature of his connection with the above work. One asserts that Dickens actually wrote the Memoirs, whilst the other laments that he should works of which he could never have written a have been tempted by money to lend his name to line, citing the Grimaldi Memoirs in illustration of his remark, and leading his readers to the inevitable conclusion that Dickens's name appeared as the author of the book. Now, although it is compelled to write currente calamo should occano matter of surprise that gentlemen who are sionally commit mistakes from the want of opportunity of verifying their statements before committing them to the press, yet it is nevertheless desirable that those mistakes should be as speedily as possible rectified.
The fact is that Charles Dickens was merely the editor of the Memoirs of Grimaldi, as may be seen from the title-Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi, Edited by Boz. In the preface to the work Dickens relates the history of the Memoirs, which is in substance as follows:-Grimaldi during the latter years of his life employed himself in writing his autobiography. He handed his manuscript over to Mr. Thomas Egerton Wilks for That revision and preparation for the press. gentleman pruned it of its redundancies (for Joe had been exceedingly diffuse), added some with its writer, and fitted it for publication. matter which he had gleaned in conversations Then Grimaldi died, and Wilks, with the consent
of Richard Hughes (Grimaldi's executor), disposed of the manuscript to Messrs. Chapman and Hall, the publishers, who employed Charles Dickens to edit it. Dickens further condensed it, made some trifling alterations in it, and wrote the preface.
Nothing can be clearer than Dickens's statement of the nature of his connection with the work, and there is certainly nothing either on the title-page or elsewhere in the book to lead even the most careless reader to suppose that he had written in the ordinary acceptation of the term any part of it.
W. H. HUSK.
For either of them, nor for Handel.
Or through the world with comfort go,
And know no more of stave or crotchet
Than did the primitive Peruvians,
Or those old ante-queer-Diluvians,
That lived in the unwashed world with Tubal,
Before that dirty blacksmith Jubal,
By strokes on anvil or by summ'at
Found out, to his great surprise, the Gamut.
I care no more for Cimarosa
Than he did for Salvator Rosa,
Being no painter: and bad luck
Be mine, if I can bear that Gluck.
Old Tycho Brahe, and modern Herschel
Had something in 'em; but who's Purcell ?
For aught I care, may take Beethoven;
I'll throw him Weber into boot.
To choose, 'twixt him last-named and Winter.
I shall not say a word to grieve 'em,
"The reason why my brother's so severe,
'Letters to a Young Physician. By James Jackson, M.D., LL.D., Professor Emeritus of the Theory and Practice of Physic in the University at Cambridge, U.S.
"I will not give you a list of the worthy successors of Hippocrates. It would be a long list, though I should select those only whose claims would not be disputed. I might find some such in our own land, who have finished their career in the present century. I will indulge myself in naming one only; one whom I had the happiness to know intimately. He was my first teacher, and I have been accustomed, with some others of his pupils, to call him old master. I refer to the late Edward Augustus Holyoke, M.D. of Salem. He, like Hippocrates, lived more than a hundred years, retaining his faculties, mental and bodily, to the end of his century in unusual perfection. . . . His conceptions were clear, and his memory strong; though, like other old men, he lamented its decay in the latter part of his life. He had not lost it, however, as was shown on the day which completed his hundred years, and when he began on a new century. On that day a case was presented to him of an unusual character, on which, after examining it, he remarked that he did not recal any like it, unless that of a patient whom he named. This patient was one whom he had seen once only, forty years before."
AN ANCIENT COUPLET.
"Tolerabilius est audire basiliscũ sibilante,
"THE WORLD IS A STAGE, BUT THE STAGE IS NOT THE WORLD."-In like manner we say, "Les hommes font les décorations, mais les décorations ne font pas les hommes," which was once beautifully illustrated by Charlet in one of his admirable lithographs-a poor scene-painter addressing a high functionary "all cover'd with orders, and all forlorn." P. A. L. LOUIS NAPOLEON'S BIRTHPLACE.-The following extract from the Daily Telegraph of June 9, 1870, appears to me to contain an error :
"A house in the Rue Laffitte, to which deep historical interest will attach, is about to be taken for the purposes of the Austrian Embassy. In it Queen Hortense once lived, and there was born Charles Louis Napoleon III., Emperor of the French. It was lately used as offices by the Lyons Railway Company."
The " manor of Cat- or Cats-hanger was alleged to have been described in one or more old deeds which the speaker had examined as "the manor of the Chanting Singers," and this phrase, "chanting singers," was assumed to be the original form from which the word Cat- or Cats-hanger was derived. I need hardly inform the readers of "N. & Q." that the hanger in Cat- or Catshanger means, according to Halliwell, a wood on a declivity," and that it occurs in Clay- or Clehanger and Panshanger, both of which words one may assume, without much fear of contradiction, to be quite independent of any connection with singers, whether chanting, congregational, or choral.
The manor of Cathanger is mentioned in Domesday-book under the form Cathangre; and in the inquisit. post-mort. of Edward I. (Roberts's Calendarium Genealogicum, 418, 756) it occurs under the forms Catanger and Cathangre. I have also met with the word in similar forms in the early patent rolls of Edward I.
I suspect that the so-called "old deed" must have been of a comparatively late date, and the form of the word Cathanger, alleged to have been discovered in it, a mere modern corruption, possibly itself founded on the absurd derivation it was intended to establish in the hands of my "learned" friend.
QUEEN HENRIETTA-MARIA AT BRIDLINGTON.— The enterprising firm of Peck & Son of Hull have just reprinted in a most admirable manner, in facsimile of the original of 1735, Gent's History of Hull (Annales Regioduni Hulbini), "to which is appended Notices of the Life and Works of Thomas Gent, printer of York," where he became proprietor of the only newspaper as yet published in the county of York, the Original York Journal, or Weekly. Courant, and his was the only press that had been set up, as yet, in those parts. In 150 he alludes to Queen Henriettapage Maria having nearly lost her life whilst she was staying at Bridlington Quay, where she had landed on Feb. 19. His words are
"Queen staying at Bridlington near a Fortnight, waiting for a Guard (absolutely refusing to be conducted by the Lord Fairfax), had like to have lost her Life, by two of the Parliament Ships (which unperceiv'd in the Night Time had enter'd the Bay) firing upon the Town, whereby Two Bullets fell upon the House where she was, piercing
even to the Bottom; And Her Majesty being forced to take shelter in the Ditch,* as she was now and then leaving the Place, the Bullets flew so very thick, that a Serjeant was slain near her Person."
Now I have given the above extract in order to make the following note:-After the queen made her escape she took shelter at Boynton Hall, near Bridlington town, and in gratitude for the care and attention and secret protection she received, she in after days sent to her host a portrait of herself painted by C. Janssens. I had the gratification of an inspection of it a month since. ALFRED JOHN DUNKIN.
44, Bessborough Gardens, Belgravia. MIRACLE PLAYS IN SPAIN.-I am not aware
whether the miracle plays still performed in Spain are ever acted by amateurs, or are under the patronage of the church, as seems to have been the case in the Middle Ages, and even now at Ammergau, and, I believe, in Britanny. I chanced to arrive at Tarragona on the evening of Good to the cathedral, I saw a large placard announcing Friday, 1869, and the next morning, on my way the performance that night in the theatre by the ordinary company of comedians of a grand sacred de Nuestra Señora "The seven Sorrows of Our drama, with epilogue, entitled Los siete Dolores Lady" in eight tableaux, with appropriate scenery, some of which was announced as new, female characters were to be personated by acespecially the garden of Abaramithia (sic). The tresses, and a numerous corps de ballet were to represent Angels, Disciples, Roman soldiers, the unable to remain at Tarragona to witness the perJewish multitude, &c. Unfortunately, I was
in extenso, I took a note of its contents, as follows: Not having time to copy the play-bill
Prophecy of the Priest (? Simeon). Beheading (? Massacre of the Innocents).
1st Tableau, 1st Sorrow.-Presentation in the Temple.
2nd Tableau, 2nd Sorrow.-Flight into Egypt. 3rd Tableau, 3rd Sorrow.-The Lost Child.
4th Tableau.-Redemption of the Magdalen and Entry into Jerusalem.
5th Tableau.-Pilate's Sentence.
6th Tableau, 4th Sorrow.-The Street of Bitterness.
(?Bearing the Cross).
7th Tableau, 5th Sorrow.-Mount Calvary and Death
of Our Lord.
"I think that the physician having a wound, himself requires the aid of a distinguished physician."
It is still more clearly indicated in the Prometheus Vinctus (1. 481, ed. Scholefield, Cantab., 1830) of schylus:
Κακὸς δ' ἰατρὸς ὥς τις, ἐς νόσον Πεσὼν ἀθυμεῖς, καὶ σεαυτὸν οὐκ ἔχεις Εὑρεῖν ὁποίοις φαρμάκοις ἰάσιμος. "Like a bad physician who is afflicted by some disease, thou art out of spirits, and canst not discover by what kind of medicines thou mayst be cured."
It is quoted by Rabelais (Pantagruel, Prologue, livre iv.):
"Difficilement sera creu le médecin avoir soing de la santé d'autruy, qui de la sienne propre est négligent." Erasmus, in his Adagia, quotes Plutarch (Пpòs Κολώτην, 1110, Ε) :
ἄλλων ἰατρὸς αὐτὸς ἕλκεσι βρύων.
"He boasts of healing poor and rich,
But Plutarch does not give the name of the poet. Is it known? I do not recollect having found the proverb in a Latin author. Can any one supply an example? Is it an Eastern proverb? The true reason, no doubt, is that we are so formed by nature that we are better able to see what
benefit our neighbours than ourselves. This is the opinion of Terence (Heaut., III. i. 96): –
adjoining the above, and which is shortly to be pulled down to make room for a new tavern. I have been informed that this inn is of the time of Henry VI. W. D.
BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.-Where can I procure the following information ? - Charles Pedley, in his History of Newfoundland, London, 1863, 8vo, mentions at p. 410 the Amalgamated Legislature of Newfoundland, but does not give their names. Where are they to be found? I want to know where this document can be seen.
Royal Circus Street, Greenwich. "CIVANTICK."-Pepys (Diary, May 24, 1668), visiting Lady Sandwich,
"Found her and her family at chapel: and thither I went to them, and sat out the sermon, where I heard Jervas Fulwood, now their chaplain, preach a very good and civantick kind of sermon, too good for an ordinary congregation."
What is a "civantick" sermon? Is there any known meaning or derivation of the word? It may be a forgotten cant expression of that day. But Pepys diarised to amuse himself and not others, and would not naturally talk slang to himself, nor was it his habit to do so. Or may it be a mistake of the transcriber of Pepys's shorthand? JEAN LE TROUVEUR.
COINS IN FOUNDATION STONES. It is usual now to enclose coins and documents in the foundation-stones of public buildings. How long has this been the custom? And was there ever a deposit of this kind found in the foundation-stone of any ruined or demolished building?
"LE FIL DE LA BONNE VIERGE (GOSSAMER THREADS)."-This title of a picture in the present Royal Academy Exhibition-the subject a female figure with a distaff-has, I expect, reference to some proverb of which I should be thankful for an account; as also the derivation of the title of another picture in the same place-"St. Luke's little summer "-the representation of an autumn
A. S. HAMPSHIRE COUNTRY CHURCHYARD.-In Pepys's Diary, under date April 26, 1662, we read: —
"Sir George & I, and his Clerk Mr Stephens, and Mr Holt our guide, over to Gosport, and so rode to Southampton. In our way besides my Lord Southampton's parks and lands, which in one viewe we could see £6000 annum, we observed a little church yard where the graves are accustomed to be all sowed with sage."
Can any of your readers tell me the name of the church in question, as there are several on the roads between Gosport and Southampton; and if the custom of sowing the graves with sage is still preserved? Portsmouth.
THE KERLOCK.-What are the botanical and common names of this plant? I met with it in a West-country song. I presume that the word is provincial, as I do not find it in any dictionary.
STEPHEN JACKSON. MASONS' MEDALS.-In many of our cathedrals the masons, as is well known, have cut their initials or some other figure, in the hope, doubtless, of obtaining that immortality of fame which charms so many of us poor "creatures of a day." In Switzerland the hewers of stone adopted another method to obtain the same end. They cast in rude moulds leaden medals bearing their names or initials, with a rough sketch of the building on which they had been employed, and placed them below the foundation stone. One of these leads is in my possession. On the obverse are seen the outlines of a church, placed between the letters B. and F., the initials of the builder; and the reverse bears what would seem a representation of an oriel window, surrounded, garter fashion, by the date partly defaced. May I ask whether such leaden medals are ever found in our own country? OUTIS.
MORTAR MARK.-On a bronze mortar in my possession, dated 1568, is a coat of arms or merchant's mark which I am anxious to identify. It consists of a three-arched bridge with a tower at each end. There is an indistinct object, probably a star, in chief. I think the mortar is of Italian workmanship. EDWARD PEACOCK.
Bottesford Manor, Brigg. "NORTATIVE": "SORORISING."-In the Daily Telegraph of May 17, I met, in the third notice of the Royal Academy, two words which are new
to me-"nortative" and "sororising." Does the latter word mean the feminine of "fraternising"? Are they English words? ELLIS RIGHT.
PAUL'S GROVE.-In Baynes' Hora Lucane, or Biography of St. Luke, recently published, it is said concerning St. Paul: "From Spain limping tradition pretends to have conducted him through France to Britain, and here to have landed him on the coast of Hampshire, at a place since called Paul's Grove.'" I cannot find this place mentioned in any map, topography of the county, or gazetteer. Where is it? B. S.
PAULET OF AMPORT.-Being unable to find any information in the peerages concerning the seven brothers of George, twelfth Marquis of Winchester, I shall be very glad if any of your readers can supply the deficiency. W. J. MANBEY.
works of the Puritans generally contain an enPORTRAITS OF PURITAN DIVINES.-The printed graved likeness of the author; such engravings were executed from oil portraits, which for the most part still exist, either in chapels, institutions, or in the possession of private individuals. Dr. Williams's Library in London contains some of the readers of "N. & Q." could inform him of those best known, but the writer will be glad if
the existence of others elsewhere. Exeter.
G. E. S.
QUERIES.-Can any of your readers explain the allusion in the following passage from Reed's First Lecture on Tragic Poetry?
"The wind comes rising up from beneath the horizon, like the terrific phantom that haunted the palace of Dion-a sullen spectre
"Sweeping, vehemently sweeping,
Like Auster, whirling to and fro
Who is the author of a short piece of four stanzas, beginning—
Still glides the gentle streamlet on,
With shifting current new and strange;
But those green shadows never change"?
SLADE.-Wanted, information of the family of Sir Thomas Slade, Kt., who married a Miss Inglefield about 1740, or a little later. Who was H. A. B., MR. LEWIS, Bookseller, Gower Street, his father, and where did he live? Address, Euston Square.
EBERHARD TAPPI OF LUNA.-I have lately, through the Messrs. Asher of Berlin and London, got a copy of the following work:
collatorum, Centuriæ septem. Jam denuo recognitæ et locupletata per ipsum authorem Eberhardum Tappium Lunensem; cum Indice. Cum gratia et privilegio Im
"Germanicorum Adagiorum cum Latinis ac Græcis