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periali ad Septennium. Argentorati, per Wendelinum Rihelium, anno 1545."

The printer addresses the reader, and tells him that the work was presented to him by a friend of Francfort, who told him that it was a collection made by Eberhard Tappi of Luna. The author acknowledges that he has made use of the Adagia of Erasmus, illustrating them with German proverbs. These proverbs are not without considerable interest. Is anything known of Eberhard Tappi? Is there a town called Luna in Germany, or is it the modern city of Carrara in Italy? CRAUFURD TAIT RAMAGE.

Two PAGODAS.-I have before me a gold coin about the size and weight of a Napoleon. Its edge is milled diagonally. On one side is a garter, within which, in Roman letters, are the words "TWO PAGODAS," followed by five signs: neither Greek nor Hebrew, I fancy Hindoostanee. Within the garter is a pagoda-shaped temple, and on either side of it nine stars. On the reverse is a garter, bearing twelve signs somewhat similar to those named. Within the garter there is the figure of an idol, and on either side four moons: those on the left being crescent, those on the right showing a face within the crescent. I am told this coin is one of a large number found in a ditch at Great Stanmore, about twenty-five years ago. Can any correspondent of "N. & Q." tell me where they were in circulation?



FREDERICK, PRINCE OF WALES. A literary journal, reviewing Mrs. Oliphant's new book on the reign of George II., asks for the reason why Frederick Prince of Wales was nicknamed the "Monster" by his mother Queen Caroline, and the "Beast" by his sisters. I once, for purposes of literary lecturing, went very carefully over the literature and history of that period, and I thought I had gained a tolerably complete acquaintance with the private life and public career of the father of George III.; but I am not able to give a satisfactory reply to the foregoing inquiry. Perhaps some reader of "N. & Q" will be good enough to indicate some book, which I may have overlooked, that throws a final light upon Prince Frederick's private character ? D. BLAIR.


WESTON: SHIRLEY.-In the Stemmata Shirleiana, privately printed by J. B. Nichols, 1841, it is recorded that

"Robert William, Viscount Tamworth, only son of Washington, eighth Earl Ferrers, born in the parish of St. Mary-le-bone, London, August 24, 1783, married at Brailesford Church, Derbyshire, Dec. 12, 1841, Miss Anne Weston, and had issue."

Her arms impaled with those of Shirley are given as Party per chevron azure and or an

eagle displayed sable in base; on a chief embattled of the second three torteuxes. These bearings would seem to show that she was descended from a junior branch of the Staffordshire Westons, whose arms-Or an eagle displayed sable, quartering ermine on a chief azure five bezants— appear to have been modified and amalgamated in the armorial insignia of her family.

I shall feel indebted to any contributor to "N. & Q." who will afford information regarding: the parentage and the grant of arms to the an-cestor of the lady I have named. W.

Queries with Answers.

"FEROHER" AND "DOKAMEH."-In the very interesting and striking article on the " Prechris-tian Cross," in the Edinburgh Review for January last, I find some terms of antiquarianism which are new to me. "Dolmen " I know: according to Mrs. Bury Palliser it is derived from the Breton daul, a table, and mæn, a stone. "Menhir," on the same authority I learn, comes from man, & stone, and hir, long, in the same language. what is a "feroher"? And is a Gueber "dokhmeh" one of those strange conical temples of Persia where the sacred fire is kept continually burning? It would be well if the writers of articles of the kind in question would make it a rule to accompany any new terms they may have occasion to use with some passing note of explanation. D. BLAIR.



[The value of essays like that in question is sadly diminished for the want of a little pictorial embellishment. In attempting to satisfy present requirements, of course we cannot hope to succeed better than the Reviewer.

A "feroher" is the hieratic symbol of the solar deity; and which may be seen on many of the steles or graved tablets exhumed from the ruins of Nineveh. It has also been found in Mexico and Central America. Sometimes it is simply depicted as a pennate circle; at others the demi-figure of the god, with expanded wings, and in the act of discharging an arrow from his bow, is, as the author of the essay remarks, "the highest or most aesthetical of its various developments." The term "feroher is common enough in archæological publications; but we are ignorant nevertheless of its origin and etymology.

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The "dokhmeh or ossuary of the ancient Parsees is a low round tower built of large stones, and usually elevated upon a platform of the same material; into the open top of which human bones were promiscuously cast, after the flesh had been torn from them by vultures or other birds of prey, and when they had been sufficiently blanched by the rain. (See Chardin's Travels, vol. viii. pp. 96 and 378.) Similar structures are scattered about the hills which surround lake Titicaca in

South Peru. Dokhmehs and fire-altars are totally distinct monuments. For a description of the form and uses of the last mentioned, see Sir William Ouseley's Travels in Persia, vol. ii. p. 80. According to his report, fire-altars were composed of single upright stones, about 10 feet high by 3 feet broad at the base, with a small cavity at the top, wherein the sacred fire was placed. Similar monuments have been found, strange to say, on the island of Tinian, one of the Marian or Ladrones group: a fact which effectually disposes of the vulgar belief that the inhabitants were unacquainted with fire before the advent of the Spaniards early in the sixteenth century.]

THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF ENGLAND.-Among the charges preferred against Sir Edward Coke was one, that on the title-pages of his volumes of Reports he had described himself as Lord Chief Justice of England, and not as Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench. When, in the year 1829, Lord Tenterden delivered a speech against the Roman Catholic Relief Bill, that great constitutional authority, the late Earl Grey, in answering the Chief Justice, most pointedly called him the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. What authority has Sir Alexander Cockburn for assuming (as he does) the title "Lord Chief Justice of England"? A BARRISTER.

[If Lord Coke styled himself Chief Justice of England, and Sir Alexander Cockburn does the same thing, we would say, in language parodied from Tickell

"What Coke has done and Cockburn has approved Cannot be wrong."

When the Lord Chancellor lately moved for the letter of the Chief Justice on the Law Bills, he styled him "Chief Justice of England"; and as the Queen, in the patent by which he is created, styles him "Our Chief Justice to hold Pleas before us," it would seem clear that he is Chief Justice of England. Tomline, in his Law Dictionary, says he is styled "Capitalis Justiciarius" because he is the chief of the rest, and for this reason he has usually the title of Lord Chief Justice of England.]

REDERIFFE.—I wish to identify this place with its modern name. In Harleian MS. 1180, for 153 b, I find a person named William Hall described as "de Rederiff iuxta London," and in another MS. as of Rederiffe, co. Kent, and in his will proved in C.P.C. 10 Dec. 1612 (Fenner 112) he describes himself as of Rederiffe, co. Surrey. Can any one tell me where Rederiff is, and whether it is a parish or manor, and whether it is in Kent or Surrey? G. W. M.

[Redriffe is a popular form of Rotherhithe. In the early part of the present century, Rotherhithe was as commonly spoken of as Redriffe, as Croydon was called Craydon-a practice recorded in the song

"For though it is spelt C, r, o, y,
The Cockney's call it Craydon."]

"To PISTOL."-Has this verb ever been used by English writers? It seems to be an Americanism. In a recent St. Louis paper the writer and reporter of the famous McFarland trial says:

"At the time Richardson was pistolled by McFarland, the latter was not responsible for his actions, either in the eyes of God or by the laws of man." HERMANN KINDT.

[This is unquestionably an English word. In Johnson's Dictionary (ed. Nares), the verb "To Pistol" is defined" to shoot with a pistol," and it is illustrated by a passage from Beaumont & Fletcher's Love's Cure:"You base Lord, I'll pistol thee";


and another instance is quoted from Aubrey's MiscellaIn like manner Richardson defines the word, quoting examples from Howell and Anthony Wood.] COUNTESS OF SUNDERLAND.-Wanted, information concerning this lady, to whom "P. B.” dedicated Lord Brooke's Life of Sir Philip Sidney in 1652: and who was P. B. ? STUDENT.

[P. B. has dedicated the work to Lady Dorothy Sidney, the daughter of Robert Earl of Leicester. This lady married on July 11, 1633, Henry, third Lord Spencer

of Wormleighton, created Earl of Sunderland, 1643, and killed at the battle of Newbury, Sept. 20, 1643. The countess was a lady of inimitable beauty, virtue, and merit, with all accomplishments; and, under the name of Sacharissa, is highly celebrated by the poet Waller. The countess remarried on July 8, 1652, Robert Smythe, Esq. of Bounds in Kent.]

KEBLE'S REDBREAST IN SEPTEMBER." - To this beautiful poem (for the twenty-first Sunday after Trinity) Keble appends two stanzas "To the Redbreast," which he states were "borrowed from a friend." Who was the friend? The verses seem to me to be very much in Keble's D. BLAIR.

own manner.

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["The Winter Thrush" is in the Lyra Apostolica, sixth edition, 1843, p. 112, and is signed, as all Keble's poems in that collection, with Y.]

"THE TEMPTATIONS OF ST. ANTHONY."-Who is the author of this poem, beginning—

"St. Anthony sat on a lowly stool," in the Bentley Ballads? It bears the initials "T. H. S." JAMES J. LAMB.

Underwood Cottage, Paisley.

[By the Rev. R. H. Dalton Barham, author of the Ingoldsby Legends.]


(4th S. v. 33, 152, 217, 243, 350.)

I am able to give D. P. a little information as to some of the arms he has described.

Glover (Derbyshire, vol. ii. 220) says that Chatsworth was for many generations the property of a family named Leche or Leech, one of whom, John, was chirurgeon, or, as a medical man was termed at that period, "leech," to Edward III., and, no doubt, the family name was taken, like Archer, Forester, and many others, from the profession of the ancestor, who doubtless was a "learned leech." And thence, too, came the crest; out of a ducal coronet, or, an arm erect, proper, grasping a leech environed round the arm, vert. (Lysons' Derbyshire, cxxxiv.)

The Chatsworth branch became extinct by the death of Francis Leche, who sold the estate about the middle of the sixteenth century. His uncle, Ralph, had three daughters, married to Kniveton of Mercaston, Wingfield, and Slater of Sutton, in Lincolnshire. (Lysons, ibid.)

Thomas Kniveton of Mercaston married Joan, the eldest daughter of Ralph Leech of Chatsworth (Burke's Ext. Baronet.); and the arms of Kniveton of Mercaston were gules, a chevron vair, argent and sable; and there is a tablet in the church at Bradley, Derbyshire (another seat of the Knivetons), on which we have Kniveton impaling Leche, and, no doubt, these are the arms of Thomas Kniveton and Joan Leche; and they seem to be the same as No. 4 given by D. P. Lysons gives them as ermine, on a chief dancettée, gules, three ducal coronets, or.

The Bradley tablet also has a crescent on the Leche arms, and rightly, as Joan Leche was the daughter of a second son.

I have no doubt that the name Slater given by Lysons was either a contraction of Slaughter or another mode of spelling the name. In Burke's Landed Gentry there is a Slater, who bears the same arms as are given by D. P. for Slaughter; and the Herefordshire Visitation of 1634, and Derbyshire Visitation of 1611 (antè, p. 320), show that the Slater of Lysons really was Slaughter.

I have not discovered the name or arms of the wife of Ralph Leche; but I think it probable that the arms in No. 3 are his and his wife's, and if so, she was a Leake.

The Slaughters seem to have assumed the Leche crest; no uncommon thing in former times.

I am unable to give the date of any of the marriages of the daughters of Ralph Leche; but as Sir William Kniveton, the son of Miss Leche, was sheriff for Derbyshire in 1587, which he would not have been before he was of age, his mother was married before 1566.

I think the several coats were put up to show the relations of the Slaughter family as well as some members of that family; and, peradventure, they may be explained as follows:

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No. 1, with the Slaughter arms only upon it, may represent their ancestor. As the Leche arms are not quartered either in No. 2 or No. 9, I infer that they denote two Slaughters and their wives before the one who married Miss Leche; possibly his father and mother and grandfather and grandmother. As the Leche arms are quartered in No. 5, it may represent the son of Miss Leche and his wife; and the Visitations show that this was so. No. 7 may represent Miss Leche's grandson when a bachelor, and, if so, he is the last of the Slaughters here represented; and probably the coats were put up by him. It is very remarkable that Slaughter impaling Leche does not


So far for the Slaughters; now for their relations. Francis Leche, who sold Chatsworth, married the sister of "Bess of Hardwick," the celebrated Countess of Shrewsbury (Glover, ii. 220), and he was Mrs. Slaughter's first cousin. Now the countess and her sister were the daughters of John Hardwick of Hardwick (Lysons, 190), whose arms were argent a saltier engrailed, azure, on a chief of the second three cinquefoils of the field (Lysons, cxxxii.); and I think these are probably the husband's arms in No. 8. On the countess's monument in All Saints' church, Derby, are the arms of Hardwick impaling azure on a saltier engrailed nine annulets, a crescent for difference (Glover, ii. 245, 466); and Collins (Peerage,i. 289) says that the countess was the daughter of J. Hardwick by Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Leake of Hasland, Derbyshire, who was of the younger branch of that family (Lysons, 82); and I think that probably the wife's arms in No. 8 are Leake, five annulets being a mistake for nine, and that No. 8 represents John Hardwick and his wife, Elizabeth Leake.

Then No. 6 may represent Miss Leake before her marriage with J. Hardwick.

As to No. 3, I think it is Leche impaling Leake, and it may be that Ralph Leche married another Miss Leake. Glover says that "Raulf Leech was a captain in the vanguard of the king's army, which entered France June 16, 1513." (Glover, ii. 220.) This may have been the father of Mrs. Kniveton and Mrs. Slaughter.

As the ancient family of Gibbs bore argent three hatchets sable, No. 9 may represent Slaughter impaling Gibbs. (Gwillim, 252.)

Mr. Robinson informs me that the wife's arms in No. 5 are those of Arnold, and Miss Leche's son for his first wife married an Arnold. (Hereford Visitation of 1634.)

I have not discovered the name of the wife in No. 2.

The third husband of "Bess of Hardwick " was Sir Wm. St. Low or Loe, and Mrs. Kniveton's third son bore the Christian name of St. Loe, which he probably received from Sir W. St. Loe. Since the above was written I have examined the monument of "Bess of Hardwick" in All Saints' Church, Derby. It is a very fine monument, and in excellent preservation. There are three coats of arms upon it; and, as the arms of "Bess of Hardwick are not given accurately either by Lysons or Glover, I will describe them. On a large shield in the centre is Shrewsbury impaling Hardwick. There are twelve quarterings for Shrewsbury (see Glover, ii. 466), and four for Hardwick. These are, 1st and 4th Hardwick, as I have already given them, and 2nd and 3rd argent a fess azure in chief three mullets of five points of the 2nd. I have not discovered whose arms these are.

On a separate shield on the dexter side of the large shield is Hardwick impaling Leake, with nine annulets and a crescent for difference on the Leake arms. On the sinister side of the large shield, on a lozenge, are the Hardwick arms, surmounted by a coronet.

At each end of the top of the monument is the Hardwick crest; on a wreath argent and azure, a stag tripping proper, charged on the neck with a chaplet of roses, argent, between two bars azure. These are carved figures, which stand on the top of the monument, and they are of an extremely elegant appearance. The feet of the countess' effigy, which reclines at the base of the monument, rest upon a similar stag. The inscription is given in Glover, ii. 466. CHAS. S. GREAVES.


The medal or token about which G. K. asks is certainly not of Bisset. I have no doubt but that it was struck in honour of John Freeth of Birmingham, who was always called by his contemporaries "Poet" Freeth, and sometimes "the Birmingham Poet." The following passage from my Century of Birmingham Life will afford G. K., and perhaps other readers of "N. & Q.," some not uninteresting information about this Birmingham worthy of the last century:

"Few men occupied a more notable position in Old Birmingham than John Freeth-or, as he was invariably called, Poet Freeth. Notwithstanding his popularity (and this is proved by the large number of editions of his Political Songster which were published), the materials for his biography are very slight. We know that he was born in the year 1731; that he kept a tavern at the corner of Lease Lane and Bell Street; that he wrote and sung and published a very large number of songs: that he was one of the group in John Eckstein's famous picture of Birmingham Men'; a member of the 'Jacobin Club'; one of the Twelve Apostles,' as they were called by

their political opponents; and that he died September 29, 1808, at the good old age of seventy-seven. These facts gather from his poems. In the preface to his collected are all that are known of the man, except what we

works, entitled The Political Songster, or, a Touch on the Times, on Various Subjects, and adapted to common Tunes,' he thus lets us into the secret of their composition:It is,' he says, a very common and not an untrue saying, that every man has his hobby-horse. Sometimes, indeed, it is a profitable one; more frequently it is otherwise. My hobby-horse and practice for thirty years past have been to write songs upon the occurrence of remarkable events, and nature having supplied me with a voice somewhat suitable to my style of compositions, to sing them also, while their subjects were fresh upon every man's mind; and being a publican, this faculty, or rather knack of singing my own songs, has been profitable to me; it has in an evening crowded my house with customers, and led me to friendships which I might not otherwise have experienced. Success naturally encouraged me to pursue the trade of ballad-making; for without it, it is not probable I should have written a tenth part of what this volume contains.'

"Thus inspired by pleasure, friendship, and profit, the genial-hearted publican-poet sang about almost everything under the sun. From odes for thanksgiving days to Prescot's famous breeches-from roval celebrations to paviours-from the Gold Coin Act to Tutania bucklesfrom the Old King's Ghost to Seven Devils in the Taylorfrom Parliament Wake to Birmingham Ale-tasters, all subjects were alike acceptable, and there was nothing too lofty nor too lowly for this prolific and self-contented singer. His verses sing because they are always written to some common tune,' but there was little poetry in John Freeth. He maintains a curious level; rarely, if ever, rising in his flight, and rarely, if ever, reaching the royal demesne of lyrical power, fancy, or pathos. He was not one of those who saw the light that never was on sea or shore'; the vision and the faculty divine' for the life of a town and of a nation. All public events, were not bestowed upon him. But he had a keen eye whether of local or national importance, attracted him; and he threw them into a lilting kind of verse which, doubtless, he sung to the admiration and delight of his parlour audiences. One critic says: many of Freeth's published effusions possess the merit and sterling animus peculiar to Dibdin's popular songs, whose style they closely resemble.' This is certainly the very highest praise which a friendly pen could write."

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In 1792 John Eckstein painted the well-known picture of the twelve friends who met nightly at Freeth's house. They were all Liberals in politics, and their political opponents called them, in ridicule, "The Twelve Apostles." The original of this painting is now in the possession of Mr. Dugdale Houghton. The following MS. memorandum is attached to the back: :

"This picture is the common property of the twelve disposed of at all times as a majority of them shall think. following gentlemen represented on the reverse, to be proper, and to be the sole property of the survivor: James Sketchley, John Freeth, John Miles, James Murray, Joseph Blunt, Richard Webster, Joseph Fearon, Jeremiah Vaux, Samuel Toy, John Collard, James Bisset, John Wilkes."

"Poet" Freeth died on September 29, 1808, at the ripe age of seventy-seven. On Monday,

This was written in 1783.

October 3, Aris's Birmingham Gazette published the following brief obituary notice:

"On Thursday, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, Mr. John Freeth, of this town, commonly called the Poet Freeth, a facetious bard of nature, forty-eight years proprietor of Freeth's Coffee-house, Bell Street-a house

much frequented by strangers as well as the inhabitants, where the Poet' used every evening to delight a large company with original songs, composed from subjects of a public nature, replete with wit and humour

Who when good news is brought to town,
Immediately to work sits down,

And business fairly to go through,

Writes songs, finds tunes, and sings them too.' His morals were unsullied, and his manner unaffected. Formed to enliven the social circle, possessing wit without acrimony, and independence of mind without pride, he was beloved by his friends, courted by strangers, and respected by all. The harmless, yet pointed sallies of his muse will be remembered with pleasing pain by thousands

who admired his talents and revere his virtues."

I should be obliged if G. K. would furnish a fuller description of the medal.



(4th S. v. 490, 542.)

As the OLD SUBSCRIBER will hardly be satisfied with the odd reply of the NEW, I add two or three words, even though they be doubtful and conjectural. The words quoted, taken together with the context, certainly seem to indicate that the readers might give their sixpennyworth or shillingsworth or five-shillingsworth of censure, provided they purchased text to those amounts; and as I have shown in a previous note in the last volume, that a quarto play was sold for about fivepence or sixpence, it would seem as though the folio plays could be purchased separately. It favours this view, that the three parts-the comedies, histories, and tragedies-have each their separate pagination and signatures; and that though the comedies and histories end each on an imperfect quire (two and four instead of six), the succeeding part commences on a fresh quire. Thus the three parts form three volumes in one, and each would, I think, be sold for about five shillings. On the other hand, it is against this that, so far as I know, no copies have been found either separate or with separate title-pages. It is still more strong against the sale of separate folio plays, that when one ends near the middle of a quire of six, the next commences on the next page, and this even if that page be the second page of a leaf. While, therefore, it may be that the parts were if required, sold separately, I think that the words sixpence and shilling refer to the quarto single and double plays; and I hope in a future note to show that the folio was not, as has been supposed, a commercially antagonistic speculation to the legitimate quartos.

In the instance of the posthumous folio edition of Ben Jonson's collected works, in 1640, it appears pretty certain that parts were sold and were intended to be sold separately. In that year some of Ben Jonson's minor poems were published in quarto, and a second edition in duodecimo, augmented by several pieces, was issued before the close of the year. There was, therefore, some call for his works. Now, in the first folio volume of 1616, the paging, signatures, and quiring are continuous and regular throughout. But in the first folio volume of 1640, which is a reprint of that of 1616, the paging, signatures, and quiring begin afresh at the epigrams, although to do this the last (Lll) quire of the plays is in fours instead of in sixes; and the only possible conclusion is, that it was intended when required to sell the plays and the epigrams, Forest, and masques as separate parts. At the same time it would have been possible to sell any one play, or the epigrams and Forest, or either the king's or queen's entertainments, or the masques; for each (with the exception of the Forest) has a separate addressed and dated title-page, which was printed on a new leaf, even when the previous work ended on the first page of a leaf. The folio second volume is printed in the same way. The whole volume is made up of four parts, each separate from the other in paging, signatures, and quiring, namely: 1. Bart. Fair, Staple of News, The Devil is an


2. The Magn. Lady, Tale of a Tub, The Sad Shepherd. 3. Horace's Art of Poetry, English Grammar, Timber.

3. Masques, Underwoods, and, as an after edition, Mortimer.

And each play or work has its separate titlepage, with the exception of the masques; and as the signature on their first page is B, it is clear that it had been intended to add a title-page and some preliminary matter. B. NICHOLSON.


(3rd S. xii. 462; 4th S. i. 41; v. 256, 562.) The copy charter granted by Alexander II. in the eighteenth year of his reign (1232) of the whole land of "Kelosberum" in favour of Ivan de Kirkepatrick is particularly interesting; and its appearance was the more desirable as hitherto it had not, as far as known, been printed in extenso, although known and referred to in one of the Sibbald MSS. now deposited in the Advocates' Library-a MS. descriptive (shortly) of the eleven parishes comprising the presbytery of Penpont. This MS., the work of the Rev. Mr. Black, minister of Closeburn (now united with Dalgarno) in the end of last century, was printed as an appendix to Symson's large description of Gal

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