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cuts off all view of the southern extremity of Dartmoor from Black Down, the necessary alternative was, the firing of lights on some remote station, communicating with Butterton. Rippin Tor was quickly discovered to be the most proper spot'; and that eminence would, in every point of view, be a most eligible one for a new direction of the meridian, if the hills in the middle of the moor were not considerably higher. It was, therefore, chosen only with a view of being subservient to the purpose of finding the latitude of Butterton.

In making observations on the Pole Star, the same precautions were taken to ensure accuracy, as were observed at Dunnose and Beachy Head in the year 1793; (see Phil. Trans. for 1795, p. 460.) I shall, therefore, not enumerate them, but content myself with observing, that no pains were spared in this performance.

From Black Down, the party removed to Butterton; at which place but few observations were made, the weather being either tempestuous or hazy, during the greatest part of the time we were at that station: they were, however, made under favourable circumstances, in other respects, and are therefore likely to afford accurate results.

As in the case of Rippin Tor, with respect to Black Down, so Hensbarrow, in Cornwall, was selected as the spot for connecting St. Agnes Beacon with the station on Butterton; for these latter are not visible from each other, the high land about St. Austle, on the northern part of which is situated Hens or Hengist barrow, being higher and intermediate. The staff to which the lights and star were referred, was placed on a hill called Hemmerdon Ball, a secondary station in the series of 1795.

On the 1st of May, the party proceeded to St. Agnes Beacon; at

which place the observations were completed on the 8th. The staff for connecting the observations made on the Pole Star with those made on the lights fired at Hensbarrow, was placed near Peranzabulo; which spot is laid down in the plan, Pl. XXVII.

After these directions of meridians were determined, we proceeded with the survey, and from St. Agnes Beacon repaired to Trevose Head, a promontory on the northern coast of Cornwall. The ascent from the sea to the station on this headland being very gradual and unobstructed, we took the opportunity of finding its altitude by means of the transit instrument. The levelling was begun on the 30th of May, and finished the following day; from which operation, it was found that the height of the station above low water-mark was 274,2 feet; which is, probably, within six inches of the truth. This base of altitude, will afford the means of computing the heights of the stations in the north of Devon, and also of verifying those in the western part of Cornwall. (See Phil. Trans. for 1797, P. 471.)

In giving an account of this and similar articles, it is my intention merely to set forth the order in which the different parts of the survey have been performed. It would be prolix, and perhaps, unnecessary, to assign the reasons for the choice of each station. In the present instance, however, it may not be improper to observe, that a station called Black Down, near Lydford, was selected for the purpose of carrying distances into the north of Devon, by means of the side formed by that station and Carraton Hill. The difficulty of running up the series of triangles from the west, (and it might have been also added, towards the north,) is mentioned in the account of 1797. A tract of country exists in Cornwall, possessing the same characteristic features with Dartmoor, and has thrown in our

way equal embarrassments. The station called Carraton Hill, is situated on its southern extremity, from which no part of the north of Cornwall can be seen it, therefore, became expedient to erect a staff on the top of the rugged hill Brown Willy, (a spot not accessible to the instrument,) and afterwards to content ourselves with surveying round it. This resolution became the more necessary, as by means of it, the triangles in the west of Devon will be hereafter connected with those in the north of Cornwall, in a shorter and more direct way than from the sides in the more southern country. In order, therefore, to observe the staff erected on this station, the instrument was taken a second time to Bodmin Down. The station named Cadon Barrow, near Camelford, and those on St. Stephen's Down, near Launceston, were also visited; at which time it was judged expedient to discontinue the operations in Devonshire.

In proceeding along the southern coast, in the years 1795 and 1796, with a single chain of triangles, we acted in conformity with our instructions. It was, in many points of view, the most eligible mode of proceeding; and particularly in that which regarded an early determination of the latitudes and longitudes of the great head-lands in the channel, and also of the Scilly Isles.

When the operations above spoken of were completed, and those instructions carried into full execution, (ample materials being provided for ascertaining the situations of every remarkable point on the English side of the channel,) the want of a spot in the southern part of Cornwall, for the measurement of a base, was felt and regretted; we were, therefore, unwilling to introduce errors, if any should exist, from the sides in Cornwall, into the north of Devon: our operations were consequently discontinued.

From Devonshire we proceeded to the eastward, for the purpose of carrying on a second series of triangles. These were necessarily intended to originate from the side which connects the station on Beacon Hill, near Amesbury, with that on Wingreen Hill, near Shaftesbury.

In the month of July, the observations were completed at the station on the Mendip Hills, after which the instrument was taken to Bradley Knoll; Dundry Beacon, near Bristol; Lansdown and Farley Down; the station on Lansdown being chosen rather for a secondary than a principal place of observation.

From Bradley Knoll, to which place the instrument was carried from Farley Down, we proceeded to Westbury Down, and from thence to Beacon Hill, near Amesbury; because it was necessary that a new point on the range near Marlborough, commonly named St. Ann's Hills, should be observed. The station formerly chosen at the eastern extremity of this range, and observed in 1794, (see Phil. Trans. 1795, p. 471.) was this year found to be useless, as the high land, on the same range; prevented it from being seen at Lansdown: two others were, therefore, selected to the westward of the former, and observed from Beacon Hill; one for the purpose of connecting with Lansdown, and a station near Symmond's Hall, in Gloucestershire; and the other with Inkpin Beacon. The particular circumstances of this range, both as to situation and height, have thrown great impediments in the way of the survey, and are the means of cutting off, in a considerable degree, the connection between the southern triangles and those which have been since carried on in the midland of the kingdom. From Amesbury the party proceeded to Inkpin Beacon, near Hungerford, where the operations terminated.


The stations chosen and observed this year, but not visited with the instrument, were Monymoor, near Penhow; the mountain Twymbawlin, near Newport; and Scilly Point, in Glamor ganshire. These stations in South Wales will connect with three in Somersetshire, also selected this season; one on Bleak Down, which is situated on the western extremity of the Mendip range; a second on Brent Beacon; and a third on the Quantock Hills. Subsequent to the operations on Salisbury Plain, enquiries had been often made after a spot on which a third base might be measured. Experience had almost convinced us that, if Sedgemoor were excepted, the southern part of England did not contain one of sufficient extent for a base of three miles. Aware, therefore, of the imperfect state in which our work must rest, without a fresh base, Mr. DALBY and myself passed over into South Wales, and examined the extensive level between the new Passage House and Cardigan. After, however, a very diligent search, we could not find any spot, four miles in length, sufficiently unobstructed. The advantages which the situation itself holds out, are so great, that we should not have scrupled to dispense with a desideratum, heretofore required, of the base being one continued line. So much, however, is this flat cut up with rhynes and ditches, that we were not able to find any point from which two right lines might be measured, and so inclined to each other as to afford, by means of an including angle, a third side of five miles in length: necessity, therefore, compelled us to think of measuring a base on Sedgemoor, which we immediately examined. That which relates to this situation, will be found in an ensuing article: it is now only necessary to observe, that we concluded the operations of 1797, after the practicability of measuring a base upon it had been decided in the affirmative.

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