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"April 21st. Saturday. I went to see the Bishop of Winchester
at Farnham and dined with him.
Mr. Young went with me.
Mr. Keightley, Mr. Parry and
Dr. Hungerford and Mr. Pocock dined.
April 23rd. Monday. In the evening the Corporation of Reading sent one of their serjeants to know when they might wait on me. This was the first civility they had shewed me since the new regulation, and I don't much care to have to do with them, all the honest men being turned out, so I sent them word I was going out of the country, and when I returned I would let them know it. "April 24th. Tuesday. Mr. Bromstead and his wife dined with
On July 10th, Lord Clarendon was much distressed at the elopement of his son, Lord Cornbury, with Catharine O'Brian, daughter of Lady Catharine Williamson by her first husband Henry, Lord Ibrackan (son of Lord Thomand). Many of his father's letters are full of projects of marrying him to a suitable wife, and asking assistance of his brothers, Lord Rochester and others in the furtherance of his plans. Money seems to have been wanting on Lord Clarendon's side, but Lady Clarendon, though only the step-mother, offered her "King's shares" for the advancement of these negociations. The Duchess of Beaufort wished Lord Cornbury to marry Lady Betty Stanhope, daughter of Lord Chesterfield; Lord Clarendon had some negociations with a "widow Whitmore," and then wished for the daughter of Sir Stephen Fox, but the young man chose for himself. The following is Lord Clarendon's entry in his diary on the subject: "July 10th. When I came home from prayers in the morning my wife told me my son was gone away with Miss O'Brian, my Lady Catharine's daughter, which struck me to the heart. The more I think of it the more it troubles me. I had been in treaty this last year with my Lady Catharine and Sir Joseph Williamson* for this young lady at my son's desire, for I had no acquaintance with them, but finding she had no portion, without which I can make no settlements, and that her estate does not come to her part till the Duke of Richmond's debts are paid, which are still near £14,000, I broke very fairly off. It is the most inconvenient match that could have been for me; a young woman
6. Dr. Peter Mews, who had been Vicar of St. Mary's, Reading, in 1664. In 1684, at which time he was Bishop of Winchester, he directed the artillery at Sedgemoor, and afterwards received a medal for his services on that occasion.
oddly bred, no manner of advantage, and an unavoidable charge. Besides, it is a base thing, and unbecoming a man of honour to steal a child from a parent. Thank God, I had no hand in it. O Lord, make me able to bear this irrecoverable blow. Good God! that my poor family should be brought into utter misery for him, who was the only hopes of raising it. O Lord, my heart is even broke! My brother whose kindness is never wanting quickly came to me; but I told him I would not see my son, nor take any notice of the match. He went then to my Lady Catharine who was full of indignation, as I confess she had no reason to be. My wife, who had always been as fond of my son as if he had been her own, helped him all she could in this match, believing it a convenient and advantageous match for him, but finding I was so much troubled at it, she took a lodging for them in Leicester-fields, whither they came in the evening. It seems they were married at Totteridge. Mrs. Garraway and Mr. Keightley had been assisting in the contrivance, and went away with them, thinking, I verily believe, that they had done well in it.
"July 11th. Reflecting with myself that this young man, who, I doubted, had made himself unhappy, was my son and only child ; that I ought to make the best of a bad market, and not to add misery to misery, I yielded to the persuasions of my wife and my brother, and went to see my son and his wife. I dined with them, and took them home to my house in the evening. I endeavoured to wait upon my Lady Catharine, but she was not or would not be at home.
"July 12th. In the afternoon I was with my Lady Catharine and found Sir Joseph with her. I made my compliments as well as she would give me leave; but she would not hear me say anything with patience (which I confess I could not blame her for) and so I came away. I desired Sir Joseph to do good offices, and persuade my lady to see her daughter, but he said with a wonderful stiffness that he was the unfittest man in the world to interpose between my lady and her daughter. I said I thought quite the contrary, that he was the fittest and so we parted. They went immediately to Cobham.”
The quarrel, however, was soon at an end, for on the 17th July Lord Clarendon writes: "My lady Catharine and Sir J. W. came to town. I went to see them; they were pretty well pacified. In, the evening Sir J. visited my daughter and said her mother would quickly see her. We all went to the Duchess of Richmond's* to see the fireworks, which were made for the birth of the Prince of
Wales." And again "July 18. Sir J. W. came to my daughter and carried her to her mother; so God be thankful that breach is made up. He afterwards visited my wife and me; and in the evening we went to my Lady Catharine." A day or two after we find Lord and Lady Clarendon staying with Sir. J. and Lady Catharine Williamson at Cobham. On July 28, Lord and Lady Clarendon and Lord and Lady Cornbury went to Swallowfield, having dined at Bagshot.
The next day, Sunday, Dr. Hungerford and Mr. Pocock dined with them at Swallowfield but no visitors are mentioned.
August 11th, Lord Clarendon writes: "Got to Swallowfield before noon, and quickly after my Lord Montrath* and my son came in."
On August 13th, Lord Clarendon went from Swallowfield to Lord Chancellor Jeffery's house at Bulstrode for an arbitration about the New River, "but of the parties only Mr. Dockmanique appeared, so nothing was arranged." Lord Clarendon then left for Swallowfield and the Lord Chancellor took him in his Calash as far as Mr. Hickman's living. Lord Clarendon says of Jeffery: "He talked very freely to me of all his affairs, called the Judges a thousand fools and knaves; that Chief Justice Wright was a beast; the King and Queen were to dine with him on Thursday next; that he had still great hopes the King would be moderate when the Parliament When we came to Hickman's I staid about an hour and then left them, having at least 14 miles to go." In September Lord and Lady Clarendon were for some days at Swallowfield, but they spent October in London, and we find at this time Lord Clarendon upbraiding his niece, Princess Annie, for countenancing the false reports respecting the birth of the Prince of Wales† and begging her to consider what miseries these suppositions might entail upon the kingdom, even in case God should bless the King with more sons. On November 5th, the Prince of Orange landed at Torbay and ten days later Lord Clarendon heard that his son, Lord Cornbury, had deserted the King and joined the Prince. The next day Lord Clarendon writes: "I waited on the King at W. Chiffinch's. I said what I was able upon so melancholy a subject. God knows I was in confusion enough. The King was very gracious to me, and said he pitied me with all his heart, and that he would still be kind to my family." In December Lord Clarendon,
* Coote Lord Montrath. This title became extinct in 1802.
† James Francis Edward, baptised October 15th.
accompanied by others, went to interview the Prince of Orange, who was staying at Berwick, near Salisbury, and whilst there Monsieur Bentinck told him it was a most wicked and false insinuation to suggest that the Prince aspired to the Crown, "which," says Lord Clarendon, " gave me great satisfaction."
A house of Sir George Howe's, but then inhabited by the widow of Lord Clarendon's cousin, E. Hyde, of Hatch.
(To be continued.)
The Archæological Survey of Berkshire.
By Emma Elizabeth Thoyts.
AST winter I glanced casually over the County of Berkshire
and remarked on some of the discoveries made therein. Now, the information as to the discoveries of coins, &c., is to be turned to practical account, with the idea of forming from it an archæological map of Berkshire.
Archæological finds are often made by ignorant people who are unable to give an opinion, and unhesitatingly pronounce every interment to be Anglo-Saxon, and every bit of pottery to be Roman. Here is one of the chief difficulties to be encountered in making an Archæological Survey. Another is the inaccuracy as to the precise locality of such finds. This at first may appear of slight importance, but it is not really so, because both tumuli and coin discoveries are a certain and valuable clue to the localization of Roman roads or residences.
As regards Berkshire, we do not know of any large city here in Roman times, but several minor colonies or camps existed, and various villas have been found. The vexed question of the true Calleva can now only be settled by a clear and undeniable tracing of all the roads, and the direction and intention of each.
The only early guides for this are the Itineraries of Antonine and the later work of Richard the Monk. Many now believe the last spurious work to have been written by someone whose knowledge of Roman roads was extensive. These differ widely, as might be expected from the difference of time between their being written. That Roman roads were not necessarily straight in detail, although the line was fairly so, we can see in the course of the Portway as it crosses the Downs, or with the Ichnield Way, and many others. The passing of the Enclosure Act in the early part of the