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the other side with bosses of silver, weighing in all 134 oz., the gift of Mr. Richard Smyth, Yeoman of the Robes with our Sovereign Lord the King." Also "Item two basons of silver weighing 48 oz., the gift of Mr. R. Smith." Also in the Inventory of Vestments we find presented by him "A sewte of black velvett wt. garters," and "iij. vestments wt. thappells of whit saten, a brydgs wt. orfrey of grene saten." ij. Copes of satten russet and crane, the orfrey red damaske and satten. ij. Copes of saten, a bryges white and grene paned wt. orfrey of tawney saten."
Mr. Richard Smythe also presented the church with many "awter clothes of velvett and satten" and a cushian of crane col. satin.
In the Inventory of 1503 is “ a corpax cace the one syde of cloth of gold and the other syde of blax velvett wt. tres of gold n. and s. of the gyft of Quene Elizabeth by the p'curing of Mr. Richard Smyth, yoman of the quenys robys, wt. iiijor knoppis of silves wt. a corpas cloth to the same." His wife also appears to have taken an interest in the church, for she stood "godmoder" at the "consecracyon of the tenour bell, namyd "Harry," erected in 1498-9, at the expense of Henry Kelsall, and she joined with her husband in presenting a canapye of crimson velvett imbroidred wt. gold floures and the Holy Lambe in the mydle." The said "Misnes Smyth" was buried at St. Lawrence in 1522-3.
1503. Elizabeth of York, Henry VII.'s Queen, died in 1503, and the next mention we have of Swallowfield is on the accession 1509. of Henry VIII. in 1509, when we find that "the King, in anticipation of his marriage (so the words run) granted to Katherine, Princess of Wales, in dower for her life (inter alia) the Lordship and Manor of Swallowfield, and throughout this reign certain lands designated as "Queen's Lands" were granted successively to the several Queens of Henry VIII., and amongst them the
Lordship and Manor of Swallowfield invariably are named. 1533-4. Thus the King grants in dower to Anne (Boleyn) then
queen consort, the same lands that were enjoyed by the Princess Katharine late wife of our new Prince of Wales, the King's brother. [Pat. R. 25 Hen. VIII., pt. 2, m. 1.]
1536. The same grant (including Swallowfield) of dower was made after marriage to the Lady Jane (Seymour) Queen 1539-40. Consort, and next to the Lady Anne (of Cleves) from whom the King was shortly after divorced.
In consideration of the nobility of her stock, and for the support
of her estate, the King made a grant to her of lands in Essex and other counties, but not including Swallowfield.
1540-1. The King, then having married Katherine Howard, granted in dower to her as Queen Consort, the several Castles, Lordships, Manors, etc., which had been assigned to the Lady Jane, late Queen of England.
1543-4. Next, the King after his marriage with Katharine Parr, granted dower to her, which dower included the Manor and park of Swallowfield. Christopher Lytcott, Esquire, was Henry VIII.'s bailiff at Swallowfield at this time, and held a lease of the place, "To hold for 60 years paying yearly for the first 21 years £6 12s. 9d. and during the remainder of the term £13 45. [Pat. R. 34 Hen. VIII., pt. 7.] He was son of John Lytcott, of Rushcombe, Berks, by his wife Julian, daughter of John Barker, of Okingham (Wokingham), and Anne Martyn of the same place, the said Anne Martyn being of the same family as the John Martyn who lived at Swallowfield 100 years before. In Christopher Lytcott's grant of 1543, we have the second mention of a house at Swallowfield. It says "The dwelling-house of Swallowfelde with all meadows, pastures, woodlands and lowlands as then enclosed, called the "parke of Swallowfelde" lately disparked, viz., 30 acres of pasture called 'Newlandes," 24 acres in a corner of the park on the south side from the church way called "Martyn's Corner," 110 acres of pasture lying from the said way or path between the gate and dwelling house, 120 acres of pasture from the said dwelling house up to the pale, a meadow near the park pale called "Parke-Meade," and the "Courte garden" containing 4 acres.
Christopher Litcott had also a lease of a fulling mill (or cloth mill) in Swallowfield "with Milne Meade" and "Milne Crofte" there, to hold for 21 years at the yearly rent of 36s. [Pat. R. 34 H. 8, pt. 3, m. 28 (4).] The grant goes on to say "that the manor of Swallowfelde is an entier manor and the parishe of itself. And the Ryver called Lodon devydethe the same Manor frome the Manor of Shynfelde. And the patronage of the chirche belongithe to the Deane of Herefforde. And is dystaunte from the Kinges Majesties Castell of Wyndsor xiiij. (14) myles and from Redyng iiij. (4) myles."
1545. In 1545 we find that Christopher Litcott, of Swallowfield, bought the Rectory and Vicarage of Warfield from the King for £378 45., Litcote holding of the "King and his successors, in capite, by the service of the 30th part of a knight's fee."
Mr. Herbert Reid, in his "History of Wargrave," says
"It is more
than probable Litcote was the means employed for disposing of the church property the King then had in such abundance, for we notice his name constantly recurring as having purchased similar properties direct from the Crown, retaining them, however, seldom more than a year or two. Such is the case with his purchase of Wargrave Vicarage. After holding possession for less than two years, he disposed of it at a considerably enhanced price to George Kensham, gentleman."
1547. In 1547, Sir Alexander Unton, of Wadley, Faringdon, died "possessed of lands in Swallowfield." (See his will registered in Preroge. Court of Canterbury.) He was son of Sir Thomas Unton, who claimed descent from Sir Robert Danvers, of Ipwall, Oxon, who died 1467, so that he probably got this property as a descendant of the de la Beches.
1548. Katharine Parr, the last of Henry VIII.'s wives, having died in 1548, Swallowfield devolved upon Edward VI., who 1553. sold it in 1553 for £783 8s. 2 d. to the afore-mentioned Christopher Lytcott and Katherine his wife.
1553. The Manor of Swallowfied was rated together with the Manor of Shenfelde at 25 years' purchase, but, in consequence of a letter, received from the Marquess of Northampton (Katharine Parr's brother) the Manor of Shenfelde was appointed to remain in the King's hand because "it doithe lye nighe the Kinge's parke of Whitley." This appears to have been the first severance of the two
THE PRIORY OF ST. MARY'S, HURLEY, BERKS.-The Vicar of Hurley is to be congratulated upon having re-discovered an original charter relating to his parish. Through the courtesy of the Dean of Westminster he has recently succeeded in obtaining a perfect and full copy of the original deed of gift by Geoffrey de Magnaville when he founded the Benedictine monastery at Hurley in the last year of William the Conqueror (1086). The transcript has been made on a large parchment broad sheet under the auspices of the Society of Antiquaries by an expert. Bishop Osmund of Salisbury is the principal witness to the charter. The monastery was founded as a cell to Westminster Abbey, and the original deed has been preserved in the muniment tower of the Abbey. It is in (abbreviated) Latin. Mr. Wethered is engaged in making a careful and complete translation of it into English. A copy of this charter deed appears in "Dugdale's Monasticon."
An Archæological Survey of Berkshire.
By Emma Elizabeth Thoyts.
T is proposed by this Society to begin a collection of records and discoveries, ancient and modern, past, present, and future, which now exist, and are known of, or any day may be brought to light. Such real evidence, and not merely the theories, speculations and assertions of writers, will furnish material of great value to the Antiquary, beyond dispute and criticism, and help towards forming such a history of our County as at present we do not possess.
The earliest written record is to be found in the Saxon Chronicle, but, unfortunately, it gives us information which is meagre and unsatisfying. Domesday Survey represents the Norman period, but much of it puzzles us as to measurements; and even what places are meant in many cases is open to question. For the history of the succeeding centuries we may search among public records and private manuscripts, or refer to brief passages in the early Chroniclers. The first popular work on Topography is the "Britannia," of Camden, written the end of the 16th Century. It was a ten years' labour to compile. Locally, its value to us is not great, because the author drew his information principally from Leland and other writers, not from personal knowledge, for we do not know that he was ever in the County, except, perhaps, journeying along the main roads to or from London. Ashmole, on the contrary, resided in Berkshire and collected his MSS. while there, yet he is not responsible for the many errors contained in his book as it was not published until after his death, which occurred in 1692. "Walpole's British Traveller," compiled obviously from other works, is a rather curious and little known account. "Dugdale's Monasticon tains an outline of the early Ecclesiastical history of Berkshire; of the lesser religious houses he gives very few details of any interest. Lyson's is, of all the books written about Berkshire, the one best known; he borrowed freely from his predecessors, adding thereto
notes from public records; nor can implicit reliance be placed in all his statements. Less known and more modern writers there are, yet all, more or less, rely too much upon the above-named works, and only perpetuate their inaccuracies. Colonel Cooper King has recently published a County history, but it is not voluminous enough to satisfy the Antiquary.
Thus it will be clearly seen that a wide field of enquiry is, at the present time, open to the local Antiquary, especially now that we have an Archæological magazine wherein to record discoveries and argue out and compare theories. For, like all such publications, its interest and value depends chiefly upon its subscribers, contributors, and readers, all of whom can, without difficulty, send interesting items of information, if they will only take the trouble to do so, or by sending queries to it may direct attention and enquiry into new channels.
For the study of pre-historic man in Berkshire we enjoy great opportunity and much encouragement from Dr. Stevens' very large collection in the Reading Museum, which gives us a vast number of curiously interesting relics, and only wants one thing to make it more valuable, namely, a well written descriptive catalogue or
Stone implements are often found, principally on clay land or the chalk hills. Personally, I only know one spot where they have been picked up, that is around Purley. This winter a fine Celt was dredged up out of the Kennet at the Arrow Head by the workmen engaged in cutting through the bend of the river at that point.
Succeeding ages are represented by the immense number of barrows and tumuli to be found in the County. In the " History of the Hundred of Compton" alone sixty are enumerated, and probably many more exist.
No two barrows are alike. There is the round barrow and the oval tumulus, and every known form of sepulture, varying according to tribe or nation-British, Saxon, Danish, or Anglo-Saxon. In Berkshire each period is represented. These barrows are chiefly to be found in the hilly parts of the Downs, for two reasons-first, because the people whose tombs these are, were warlike clans or tribes, who took advantage of the high ground, adding to its natural defences by strong earthworks, forming thus secure fortresses, many of which remain to this day; and secondly, because on the lower ground cultivation would, in course of ages, obliterate all traces of such tumuli, if they had existed.