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treasure; and he disposed of the men as he would; and he sent bishop Egelwine to Abingdon, where he died early in the winter.

A. 1072. This year king William led an army and a fleet against Scotland, and he stationed the ships along the coast and crossed the Tweed with his army; but he found nothing to reward his pains. And king Malcolm came and treated with king William, and delivered hostages, and became his liege-man; and king William returned home with his forces. Bishop Egelric died this year; he had been consecrated to the archbishopric of York, of which he was unjustly deprived, and the see of Durham was given to him; this he held as long as he chose, and then resigned it and went to the monastery of Peterborough, and there he spent twelve years. Then after king William had conquered England, he removed Egelric from Peterborough, and sent him to Westminster, and he died on the Ides of October, and he is buried in the abbey, in the aisle of St. Nicholas.

A. 1073. This year king William carried an army of English and French over sea, and conquered the province of Maine: and the English did great damage, for they destroyed the vineyards and burned the towns, and they laid waste that province, the whole of which submitted to William ; and they afterwards returned home to England.

A. 1074 This year king William went over sea to Normandy; and child Edgar came into Scotland from Flanders on St. Grimbald's mass-day. King Malcolm and Margaret his sister received him there with much pomp. Also Philip, king of France, sent him a letter inviting him to come, and offering to give him the castle of Montreuil, as a place to annoy his enemies from. After this, king Malcolm and his sister Margaret gave great presents and much treasure to him and his men, skins adorned with purple, sable-skin, grey-skin and ermine-skinpelisses, mantles, gold and silver vessels, and escorted them out of his dominions with much ceremony. But evil befell them at sea; for they had hardly left the shore, when such rough weather came on, and the sea and wind drove them with such force upon the land, that their ships went to pieces and they saved their lives with much difficulty. They lost nearly all their riches and some of their men were taken by

the French but the boldest of them escaped back to Scotland, some on foot and some mounted on wretched horses. King Malcolm advised Edgar to send to king William beyond the sea, and request his friendship. Edgar did so, and the king acceded to his request and sent to fetch him. Again, king Malcolm and his sister made them handsome presents, and escorted them with honour out of their dominions. The sheriff of York met him at Durham, and went all the way with him, ordering him to be provided with meat and fodder at all the castles which they came to, until they reached the king beyond the sea. There king William received him with much pomp, and he remained at the court, enjoying such privileges as the king granted him.

A. 1075. This year king William gave the daughter of William Fitz-Osberne in marriage to earl Ralph: the said Ralph was a Welchman on his mother's side, and his father was an Englishman named Ralph, and born in Norfolk. Then the king gave the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk tc his son, who brought his wife to Norwich, but

There was that bride-ale
The source of man's bale.

For earl Roger and earl Waltheof were there, and bishops and abbats, and they took counsel to depose the king of England. And this was soon reported to the king then in Normandy, and it was told him withal that earl Roger and earl Ralph were the heads of the conspiracy, and that they had brought over the Britons to their side, and had sent eastward to Denmark for a fleet to assist them. And earl Roger departed to his earldom in the west, and gathered his people together in rebellion against the king, but he was checked in his attempt. And earl Ralph also being in his earldom would have marched forth with his people; but the garrisons of the castles of England, and the inhabitants of the country came against him, and prevented his effecting any thing, on which he took ship at Norwich: and his wife remained in the castle, and held it till she had obtained terms, and then she departed from England with all her adherents. And after this the king came to England, and he took his kinsman earl Roger and put him in prison; and earl Waltheof went over the sea and betrayed himself but he

asked forgiveness and offered a ransom. The king let him off lightly until he came to England, when he had him seized. And soon afterwards two hundred ships arrived from Denmark, commanded by two chieftains, Canute the son of Sweyn, and earl Hacco, but they durst not risk a battle with king William, but chose rather to go to York, where they broke into St. Peter's minster, and having taken thence much treasure, went away again. They then crossed over the sea to Flanders, but all who had been concerned in the act perished, namely earl Hacco and many others with him. And the lady Edgitha died at Winchester seven nights before Christmas, and the king caused her to be brought to Westminster with great pomp, and to be laid by her lord king Edward. And the king was at Westminster during Christmas, and there all the Britons who had been at the bridal feast at Norwich were brought to justice; some were blinded, and others banished. Thus were the traitors to William subdued.

1076. This year Sweyn king of Denmark died, and Harold his son succeeded to the kingdom. And the king gave Westminster to Vitalis, who had before been abbat of Bernay.* Earl Waltheof was beheaded at Winchester on the mass-day of St. Petronilla, † and his body was carried to Croyland, where it now lies. And the king went over sea and led his army into Brittany, and besieged the castle of Dol, and the Britons defended it till the king of France came up, and then William departed, having lost both men and horses and much treasure.

Or Berneges. A cell to the abbey of Fescamp, in Normandy.

+ "II. Kal. Jun. or the 31st of May. This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable MS. c. T. B. IV. Yet if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of early piety and Christian zeal, it must be Petronilla. She was no less a person than the daughter of St. Peter himself; who, being solicited to marry a nobleman at Rome of the name of Flaccus, and on her refusal allowed three days to deliberate, after passing the whole time in fasting an prayer, and receiving the sacrament at the hands of Nicomedes the prie expired on the third day! This is no Romish legend of modern growth, for her name appears in the martyrology of Bede, and in the mou venerable records of primitive Christianity."-INGRAM. And yet, tho reader, who shall receive even the existence of Petronilla in any other light then as a fable, must possess a credulity which will enable him to realize all the impostures with which ecclesiastical history abounds.

1077. This year a peace was made between the king of France and William king of England, but it lasted only a little while. And this year, one night before the assumption of St. Mary, there was a more dreadful fire in London than had ever happened since the town was built. And the moon was eclipsed, three nights before candlemas: the same year died Egelwig abbat of Evesham, on the fourteenth day before the Kalends of March, which was the mass-day of St. Juliana; and Walter became bishop in his stead. Bishop Herman also died on the tenth day before the Kalends of March. He was bishop in Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Dorsetshire. Also in this year king Malcolm won the mother of Malslaythe and all his best men and all his treasure and his oxen and himself hardly escaped . . . . There was also this year a dry summer, and wild-fire burned many towns, and many cities were ruined by it. A. 1078.


A. 1079. This year king William's son Robert, fled from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders, because his father would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he himself, and with his consent Philip king of France, had given to him. The best men of that land had sworn allegiance to him and taken him for their lord. And the same year king William fought against his son Robert without the borders of Normandy near a castle called Gerberoy, and there king William was wounded, and the horse on which he sat was killed, and he that brought him another horse, namely, Tookie Wiggodson, was killed with a dart, and his son William was also wounded, and many men were slain, but Robert returned to Flanders. We will not say more at present of the harm that he did to his father.

This year, between the two festivals of St. Mary, king Malcolm invaded England with a large army, and laid waste Northumberland as far as the Tyne; and he slew many hundred men, and carried home much money and treasure and many prisoners.

A. 1080. This year Walcher bishop of Durham was slain at a gemot, and a hundred French and Flemings with him: Walcher himself was born in Lorraine. The Northumbrians perpetrated this in the month of May.

A. 1081. This year the king led an army into Wales, and there he set free many hundred persons.

A. 1082. This year the king arrested bishop Odo. And there was a great famine this year.

A. 1083. This year a quarrel arose in Glastonbury between the abbat Thurstan and his monks. It was first caused by the abbat's unwise conduct, in that he treated his monks ill in many respects, but the monks were lovinglyminded towards him, and begged him to govern them in right and in kindness, and they would be faithful and obedient to him. But the abbat would none of this, and wrought them evil, and threatened worse. One day the abbat went into the chapter-house, and spoke against the monks, and would have taught them amiss ;* and he sent for laymen, and they came in all armed upon the monks in the chapter-house. Then the monks were greatly terrified and knew not what to do, and some ran for refuge into the church and locked the doors from within; but the others followed them, and would have dragged them forth when they durst not come out. Rueful things happened there on that day, for the French broke into the choir and threw darts towards the altar where the monks were collected, and some of their servants went upon the upper floor† and shot down arrows towards the chancel, so that many arrows stuck in the crucifix which stood above the altar, and the wretched monks lay around the altar, and some crept under it, and they called earnestly upon God and besought his mercy, since they could obtain no mercy at the hands of men. What can we say, but that they shot without ceasing, and others broke down the doors, and rushed in, and they slew some of the monks and wounded many, so that the blood ran down from the altar on the steps, and from the steps to the floor? Three were smitten to death and eighteen wounded. And the same year Matilda the wife of king William died on the day after the feast of All Saints. And the same year after Christmas the king caused a great and heavy tax to be raised throughout England, even seventytwo pence upon every hide of land.

*He wished to substitute the chant of William of Feschamp for that called the Gregorian.

Probably along the open galleries in the upper story of the choir, commonly called the triforium.

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