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Suggestion for a new bridge, with approaches starting from St. Paul's, Jones 113-125 Particulars of the bridge proposed by Mr. Bennoch, Brand 252-256--Reasons why the plan was not carried out, ib. 257-263-Estimated cost of Mr. Bennoch's bridge, ib. 260--Sum at which witness estimates his plan might be carried out, Bennoch 305-308. 338, 339-Proposed width of the bridge, ib. 309, 310-The estimate is confined to the cost of the bridge, excluding the purchase of ground and houses, ib. 314.

2. Opinions in favour :

The local advantages for constructing this bridge are very great, Bennoch 311-313 --Extent to which witness believes his proposed bridge would relieve London Bridge, ib. 333-335 Opinion in favour of a bridge from St. Paul's, Page 548, 549. 556. 561 -Mr. Bennoch's plan for a new bridge is a good one, but it will require the neighbourhood at the Surrey end to be altered, Brunel 804-807- Expediency of erecting a bridge at St. Paul's, Tite 1037-1039-The bridge at St. Paul's would be required, even supposing Southwark Bridge to be thrown open, ib. 1080, 1081-A bridge at this spot will very speedily become a necessity, Rep. p. iv.

3. Opinions against :

Mr. Bennoch's plan for a new bridge is rather before the requirements of the day Evans 755, 756-St. Paul's would not be a good position for a bridge, Horne 1212. See also Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. Post Office. Southwark Bridge. Salomans, Mr. Alderman. (Analysis of his Evidence.)-Extent of witness's knowledge of London streets, 637-Excessive amount of traffic over London Bridge, 638, 639The remedy for the inconvenience arising from this circumstance, is to distribute the traffic more generally, 640-A diversion of the traffic passing on the northern side of the river should be made to the Surrey side, 641-644--All the toll-paying bridges ought to be thrown open, 645-647. 651--Improvement that would be required in the approaches to Southwark Bridge, 648-650. 664.

The purchase money of the bridges should be raised by Exchequer bills, granted on the security of a rate to be created, and by a contribution from the corporation, 652-654 -Limits within which such a rate ought to be raised, 655, 656—Extent to which the city may be reckoned upon to co-operate in improving the approaches to the bridges, 658 Points in the city at which the traffic is more particularly concentrated, 659--Manner in which it might be distributed, 660-663- -Expediency of having two new streets in the borough, in order to distribute the traffic to Southwark Bridge, 664-670. Seine. The limited navigation of the Seine renders the erection of bridges easier than over the Thames, James Walker 392, 393.

Selfe, Henry. (Analysis of his Evidence.) The principal grievance in connexion with Kingston Bridge, is the continuance of the toll over a longer period than was stated at its commencement, 1432-1436-The toll is fixed by the Act of Parliament; difficulty of making the toll less than it already is, 1437-1442.

Shares. See Battersea Bridge. Putney Bridge.

Sites. Situations where it would be advisable to build new bridges, Page 513, 514The proper site for a new bridge in the City is between Blackfriars and Southwark Bridges, Plews 834-836--It would be a waste of money to build any new bridge at the west end of London, ib. 837, 838-The sites witness would recommend for additional bridges are at St. Paul's, Essex-street, and the Horseferry; estimated cost of constructing them, Tite 1034. 1048, 1049--Sites upon which it would be advisable to erect new bridges if they are found necessary, Rep. p. iv.

Smith, Robert. (Analysis of his Evidence.) -Date of the erection of Richmond Bridge, 1547, 1548-It was built under the powers of a private Act of Parliament, 1549, 1550 Sum expended in its erection, 1551—Manner in which the funds were raised, 1552 -There are three lives of the tontines now living, but they are about eighty years of age, and when they drop, the bridge will be free, 1552, 1553-A sum of 14,000 7. is already invested, the interest of which will be sufficient to keep the bridge in repair, 1554-1559. 1571.

Report, 1854-continued.

Smith, Robert. (Analysis of his Evidence)-continued.

The inhabitants of Richmond have a decided objection to pay any rate for throwing open the other bridges, having already contributed to their own bridge, and not being affected by others, 1560-1564-Table showing the receipts from tolls for the last four years, and the rate of toll levied under the Act, 1565-1567--The surviving life of the first tontine receives 800 l. a year, 1568-1570- -The steep gradients of the approaches

of the bridge are irremediable, 1572-1574.

Smith. Mr. Expenses allowed to this witness, Rep. p. x.

Southwark. See Borough, The.


1. Generally.

2. As to Throwing Open.

3. Approaches.

1. Generally:

Value of the bridge taken on the amount of the income, Brand 240-242-Impediments to throwing open the bridge for a year, as an experiment, ib. 244, 245-The bridge suggested by witness can be made at a less expense than will be required to purchase Southwark Bridge, and carry out the improvements in Earl-street, Bennoch 337

-Improvements of which Southwark Bridge is capable, Page 515-The bridge is perfectly sound in every respect, Rennie 985-989-Amount expended in its erection, ib. 992-Witness hands in a report, recently made by him, on the condition of the bridge, ib. 995-Amount which the bridge cost, Joshua Walker 997-999- -Plan of alteration witness would recommend, ib. 1004-1007-No estimate has ever been made of the expense of carrying out the alterations, ib. 1008, 1009- Southwark Bridge would not be much affected by a new bridge from St. Paul's, Leith 1018-Considerations as to trying the experiment of making Southwark Bridge toll free for a year, ib. 1019, 1020 Increase that ensued in the revenue of Southwark Bridge at the time of building London Bridge, and on subsequent occasions of its close, ib. 1021-1026.

2. As to Throwing Open:

It would not improve matters to make Southwark Bridge free as long as the route is so intricate through Southwark, Laing 33, 34. 57-59--The_throwing open this bridge will remove the inconvenience more than that of Waterloo, James Walker 405. 409,410

-The immediate opening of this bridge is required to relieve the traffic over London Bridge, Evans 713-717. 736. 757, 758--Southwark Bridge ought to be the first thrown open, Plews 812--It is very desirable that Southwark Bridge should be thrown open, Rennie 990, 991--Witness is strongly in favour of the opening of this bridge, as the most effectual remedy for the existing inconvenience, Tite 1072-1078.

3. Approaches:

Alterations that would be necessary to be made in the approaches to Southwark Bridge in the event of its being thrown open, Brand 268-273--The approaches require a large outlay to render them available, Bennoch 335-337--Eligibility of the approaches, James Walker 381-383-Manner in which the approaches to Southwark Bridge are capable of improvement, ib. 410-414. 417-427--Improvement that would be required in the approaches, Salomons 648-650. 664--Alterations would be required in the approaches to, Joshua Walker 1001-1003--Character of the approaches to Southwark Bridge; they are perhaps open to improvement, Tite 1066-1068--The approaches on the Surrey side require some improvement, Horne 1214, 1215.

See also Bridges. Bridge Traffic. Chaplin & Horne, Messrs. Common Council, Dresden, Foundations. London, Corporation of. Negotiations. Omnibuses. Tolls. Tower, The. Traffic.

Southwark Bridge Company. Income and expenditure of the company, Leith 1011-1013 Dividends paid by the Southwark Bridge Company, ib. 1014-1017. 1030, 1031—— Statement of annual tolls derived by, App. p. 158.

Spencer, Lord. The Battersea Bridge Act enabled Lord Spencer, the owner of the ferry at Battersea, to build the bridge; and in 1771 he conveyed it to fifteen proprietors, who subsequently reduced their number to thirteen, Janson 1761-1765.

Staines. The toll on Staines Bridge is a serious injury both to that town and Egham; there is a general desire on the part of the inhabitants for its abolition, Ritchings 1410 -Reasons for which the people of Staines are anxious for the bridge to be made free, T. Ashby 1443-1448. 1467-1481--Injury done to the trade of Staines by the existence of the toll on the bridge, F. Ashby 1492, 1493.

See also Petitions. Taxation.


Report, 1854-continued.

Staines Bridge. Capital of Staines Bridge; original cost, and annual amount of the tolls, Ritchings 1422-1431-A Mr. Levy holds the bridge at present as a mortgagee, ib. 1424-1430-The bridge is now in the possession of a mortgagee, T. Ashby 1460-1464

-There is no toll on foot passengers, ib. 1483-1485-The bridge has been rebuilt five times within the recollection of witness, ib. 1486-1488-Particulars as to the funds with which the bridge was built, and also as to the revenue, ib. 1449-1459. 1465, 1466. 1482. 1489-1491.

Steam-boat Piers. The erection of steam-boat piers on the Surrey side of London Bridge would be an infringement of the Act, Jones 109, 110-Witness proposes an improvement to the steamboat landing at London Bridge, Brand 251.

Stephenson, Mr. Report made by him as to Mr. Bennoch's bridge, Brand 259.

Stratford Estate. See Bridge House Estates.

Street Traffic. Tables showing the amount of, App. p. 150.

Superway. Witness delivers in a copy of his scheme, called a "superway," for relieving the traffic of the metropolis, Pym 1032.

Surrey. See Taxation.


Taxation. Manner in which money for metropolitan improvements should be raised, Laing 44-The expense of local improvements should be borne by the place where they are made, and not by the country, ib. 77-82--The inhabitants of the City are not likely to approve of any direct tax for facilitating the traffic over the bridge, Jones 126128. 134, 135. 154, 155– -The coal-tax is the only source from which the expense of the proposed improvements should be taken, ib. 139-142. 177-180-Ten or twelve miles is the area within which a tax for the proposed improvements ought to be levied, ib. 143-151-Objection to any tax for building a new bridge, ib. 176The inhabitants of the metropolis are strongly opposed to the imposition of any tax upon them alone for purchasing or throwing open bridges, Tyrrell 189-191-It would be considered as a contrivance for relieving those who had entered into a bad speculation, ib. 192-194 An extension of the bridge accommodation of the metropolis would be viewed as a benefit to the whole country, and therefore fairly chargeable on the Consolidated Fund, ib. 196, 197-It would not be advisable to defray the expense of any improvements by a rate, on account of its unpopularity, Brand 266, 267– Manner in which the expense of building the bridge proposed by witness would partly be met, Bennoch 351

A rate in aid of the funds for its construction would not be objected to, and it ought properly to be levied on the county, ib. 352-A rate levied within a certain radius would be the best method of raising the purchase money, James Walker 373. 375 The funds for erecting the bridges could be raised by a rate in the counties of Middlesex and Surrey, Maclean 468-473-A rate of two-pence in the pound would provide the means of building the two bridges, and throwing open the money-paying ones, ib. 474476-Limits within which a rate ought to be raised, Salomans 655, 656-A small increase of the coal-tax would be the most preferable way of raising funds for extending the bridge accommodation, Tite 1057–1062. 1079—Area over which it is equitable to levy a tax for bridge purposes, ib. 1082-1092A peuny rate on the counties of Surrey and Middlesex would raise a sufficient sum for buying up the country bridges, Guy 12731275-Area within which it would be equitable to levy a rate for bridge purposes, ib. 1286-1302-The coal-tax would be the most desirable source from which to derive the purchase money for the toll-paying bridges, Gould 1310-1317--The coal-tax is so imperceptibly levied, and so small in amount, that it is the least objectionable way of raising money, ib. 1318-1320-A sufficient sum for purchasing the country bridges could be raised by a penny rate on the two counties, ib. 1340-1343- -There is a great willingness to pay a rate to buy up Moulsey Bridge, Andrews 1353-1358-The inhabitants of Staines would not object to a tax over an area of twenty miles around the Post-office for opening all the bridges, Ritchings 1411-1421-There is a general willingness on the part of the inhabitants of Staines to share in a tax for abolishing tolls on all the bridges, F. Ashby 1494-1498-The inhabitants of Walton are favourable to a tax, such as the coal-tax, for removing the tolls from all the bridges, Wilson 1517-1523Witness is of opinion that the inhabitants of Hampton of his district would be willing to contribute their quota of taxation towards opening all the metropolitan bridges, Juckson 1532, 1533-The inhabitants of Richmond have a decided objection to pay any rate for throwing open the other bridges, having already contributed to their own bridge, and not being affected by others, Smith 1560-1564-Since witness's last examination the inhabitants of Putney have held a meeting, and come to a resolution that the most equitable way of raising money for the redemption of the bridge would be by a county rate, and not the coal-tax, with an exception, however, as to the latter tax, Hare 1622

Report, 1854-continued.


1626--The Kingston people are anxious for the abolition of the bridge toll, but they have never considered how they should prefer to be rated for that purpose, thinking that the Woods and Forests Commissioners could wipe out the debt with the Exchequer Loan Commissioners, Gemmet 1646-1649-Witness considers that the coal-tax, or any tax raised within the twenty mile area, would be the fairest manner of freeing the bridges, Tyrrell 1650-1655. 1662-1665--The people of Kew would not object to contribute to a county rate for freeing the bridges, Mason 1796-1799.

See also Coal Duty.

Exchequer Bills. Railway Companies.

Tayler, Stephen Seaward. (Analysis of his Evidence.)-Battersea bridge was built under an Act of Parliament of 1766; it is in a good state of repair, 1691-1697- -This bridge

is fully adequate to the traffic, 1698-1701-The inhabitants in the neighbourhood of the bridge have expressed no opinion as to the desirableness of removing the toll, 17021704.

The tolls derived from Battersea Bridge amount to about 6,000 l. per annum, 17051710--Property belonging to the bridge exclusive of the tolls, 1711, 1712.

Tenders. Witness believes the lowest tender for the Westminster Bridge to be 200,000 l., Few 634-636.

Thames Tunnel. Impediments to rendering the Thames Tunnel more available for traffic, Laing 63-65-The Thames Tunnel might readily be adapted to heavy traffic, Brunel 761- Amount which would have to be laid out in the approaches, ib. 762-765. 775, 776-Manner in which the traffic over London Bridge would be relieved by rendering the tunnel available for heavy traffic, ib. 766-Altering the tunnel for the use of heavy traffic would materially improve the revenue, ib. 770. 774-Dimensions of the tunnel, ib. 771-773--Distance of the Thames Tunnel from the bridge proposed by witness, Page 1142, 1143.

Tite, William. (Analysis of his Evidence.)-There is a great want of free bridges in the Metropolis, 1033, 1034-The sites which witness would recommend for additional bridges are at St. Paul's, Essex-street, and the Horseferry; estimated cost of constructing them, 1034. 1048, 1049--A bridge from Charing Cross would be a great convenience, 1035, 1036, 1040,1041 -Expediency of erecting a bridge at St. Paul's, 1037-1039.

Advisability of purchasing and throwing open Charing Cross Suspension Bridge, 1042, 1043-It would be better to widen and improve the Lower Marsh and New Cut than go to the expense of adopting Mr. Pennethorne's plan for a new street, 1044-1047Manner in which the approaches of the bridge from St. Paul's might be adapted to the existing levels, 1050-1056--A small increase of the coal tax would be the most preferable way of raising funds for extending the bridge accommodation, 1057–1062. 1079.

The toll on Southwark Bridge is the great cause of the limited use made of it, 10631065--Character of the approaches, they are perhaps open to improvement, 1066– 1068--Objections on architectural grounds to the suggested widening of London Bridge, 1069-1071--Witness is strongly in favour of the opening of Southwark Bridge as the most efficacious remedy for the existing inconvenience, 1972-1078-The plan of dividing the bridge proposed by the North Kent Railway Company is in successful operation at Dresden, 1073-1077.

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The bridge at St. Paul's would be required, even supposing Southwark Bridge to be thrown open, 1080, 1081-Area over which it is equitable to levy a tax for bridge purposes, 1082-1092 Blackfriars Bridge is entirely supported by the scaffolding, 1093-1095--The change in the bed of the river could be obviated by a dam upon the principle of that at Tours, 1096-1113- Decrease which has been occasioned in the depth of the Thames below London Bridge by the removal of the old bridge, 1114-1124 It was not supposed at the time London Bridge was projected that the increased scour would have so serious an effect upon the foundations of the other bridges, 1125-1129. Toll-paying Bridges. The immediate remedy for the evil is to throw open the present tollpaying bridges, James Walker 366-371. 400, 401.-See also Valuation. Tolls. Tolls levied on the Glasgow Bridges, Bennoch 350-The toll proposed to be imposed at Charing Cross Bridge will be no impediment to the traffic, Few 594-596. 602-The tolls on Waterloo Bridge are not let, Plews 861. 890. 892-The toll certainly prevents that full use of Waterloo Bridge, of which it is capable, ib. 872-875 --The toll on Southwark Bridge is the great cause of the limited use of it, Tite 10631065 The effect of the tolls levied at Hampton Court Bridge is to turn a large amount of traffic into another direction, Guy 1230-Objections to the toll system of the bridges at Kingston and Hampton Court, ib. 1284- Injurious operation of the toll levied at Kingston Bridge, Gould 1309-The operation of the toll at Kingston Bridge is in the nature of a very heavy tax on the surrounding neighbourhood, ib. 1323-Popular



Report, 1854-continued.


feeling as to the desirability of getting rid of the toll, Andrews 1362-1370venience arising from the toll at Kingston Bridge, Jackson 1542, 1533- -Expediency of removing the existing tolls on the bridges between Staines and London Bridges, Rep. p. iii.

See also Battersea Bridge.

Hampton Court Bridge.
Southwark Bridge Company.

Tontines. See Richmond Bridge.

Charing Cross Bridge. Hammersmith Bridge.
Kingston Bridge. Moulsey Bridge.
Staines Bridge.

Kew Bridge.

Tower, The. Explanation of witness's plan for a bridge below London Bridge, Page 11301139-Estimate of the expense of this bridge, ib. 1145--Length of the span, ib. 1146, 1147——Manner in which the approaches to the bridge on the Surrey side will be arranged, ib. 1154-1164--Considerations as to the height proposed for this Bridge, ib. 1165-1170-The advantages of a bridge lower down the river than Southwark Bridge would not be so great as throwing that bridge open, Horne 1200-1211.

Trafalgar Square. See Charing Cross.

Traffic. The widening of the surface will facilitate the traffic of London Bridge, Bunning 301, 302-Points from which the traffic converges to London Bridge, Bennoch 326 Tables showing the traffic over the various metropolitan bridges, ib. 340, 341London Bridge has the greatest amount of traffic, Jumes Walker 404, 405——Statement of the traffic over Charing Cross Bridge, Few 573-578--Amount of weekly traffic over Westminster Bridge, ib. 597-601--The throwing open the toll-paying bridges would sufficiently relieve the present pressure of traffic, Plews 812-Southwark Bridge is capable of bearing any additional traffic that would arise on its being thrown open, Rennie 993, 994--The traffic in the eastern part of the metropolis would be much facilitated by making Southwark Bridge free, Joshua Walker 1000-A bridge above London Bridge would not relieve it of the great amount of traffic which flows from the eastern part of the metropolis, Page 1140, 1141-General direction taken by the traffic between the railway stations on either side of the water; it would be greatly facilitated by throwing open Southwark Bridge, Horne 1198, 1199- -Amount of traffic over Kingston Bridge, Guy 1247-1250-Extent to which the traffic in London streets is diverted and incommoded by the limited bridge accommodation, Rep. p. iii. See also Charing Cross Bridge. Traffic. Diversion of Traffic.


Concentration of Traffic. Distribution of Foot Passengers. Freeing Bridges. Thames

Tyrrell, Edward. (Analysis of his Evidence.)-The inhabitants of the metropolis are strongly opposed to the imposition of any tax upon them alone for purchasing or throwing open bridges, 189-191. It would be considered as a contrivance for relieving those who had entered into a bad speculation, 192. 194-There would be a stronger indisposition to buying up bridges than for building a new one, although the latter would be viewed in an objectionable light, 195-Such improvements would be viewed as a benefit to the whole country, and therefore fairly chargeable on the Consolidated Fund, 196, 197-Witness does not concur in Mr. Laing's suggestions, 198, 199.

[Second Examination.]-Witness considers that the coal tax or any tax raised within the twenty mile area, would be the fairest manner of freeing the bridges, 1650-1655. 1662-1665-Sources from which the money for the repair of Blackfriars Bridge has been taken, 1656-1661-Reasons for which the corporation do not desire to estimate the value of the Bridge House Estate, 1666-1668.

Tyrrell, Mr. Papers delivered in by, App. p. 148.


Valuation. The fairest manner of assessing the sum to be paid for the different bridges would be to throw them open for a year, to ascertain the traffic, James Walker 376-379 Basis upon which a valuation should be made of the toll-paying bridges, ib. 384391- Witness does not acquiesce in Mr. Jones's proposal that the companies should throw open the bridges for a year, and so lose the year's revenue by way of experiment, ib. 394-399-Circumstances which must regulate the purchase of Waterloo Bridge, Plews 813-The increaing yearly revenue of Waterloo Bridge ought to be considered in assessing the purchase money, ib. 882-884-The value of Waterloo Bridge is what it cost, as no bridge of a similar kind can be built for a less sum, ib. 885, 886.

See also Putney Bridge.

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