Fig. XII. The Poles of the Equinoctial are the fame with the Poles of the World; the one of which is called the Artick Pole, because XXV. it is near to the Two Arktos or Bears: The other oppofite to it, is called Antartick: And the ftreight Line, which paffeth between, through the Centre of the Sphere (from one Pole to the other) is called the Axis of the World. The quino&ial divideth the Ecliptick into Six North, and Six South, Signs: The Secondary Circles of the Equinoctial, are called in the Heavenly Sphere Circles of Declination. Amongst thefe is one of chiefeft Note, the Meridian; and befides it, Eleven Hour-Circles, paffing by every 15th Degree of the quincial, to be reckoned from the Meridian, and fo they divide the whole Equinodial into 24 equal Hours. There are alfo Two chief Secondary Circles of the Equinoctial, which are called Colures; the one paffing by the Vernal and Autumnal Section, is called the Colure of the Equinoxes; the other paffing by the Two Soliticial Points, viz. the beginning of Cancer and Capricorn ve, is called the Colure of the Solftice. This latter, dívideth the Ecliptick in Afcending and Defcending Signs; because in the firft the Sun doth afcend to our Zenith in Capricorn, viz. in + xrd I, which are alfo called the Signs of Short Afcenfion, because they rife in a fhort time equal to the Shorteft Day of the Year: But in the Defcending Signs, the Sun doth defcend every Day more and more from our Zenith, and those are mm: Thefe are called alfo Signs of Long Afcenfion, becaufe they Rife in a time, equal to the Longest Day in the Year. Both Colures together divide the Ecliptick into FourQuadrants; the Vernal containing Aries Y, Taurus 8, Gemini I The Summer Quadrant, Cancer, Leo, Virgo m; The Autumnal, Libra, Scorpio m, Sagittarius ; the Winter Quadrant, Capricorn v, Aquaries, Pifces . ད XIII. The Secondaries of the Terreftrial Equinodial are called Meridians, and they are 18, paffing by every 10th Degree of the Equinoctial, and in fome Globes, through every 15th Degree. of the Aquinoctial, which is equal to One Hour, in Time. The first of thefe doth pass by the Iflands of Azores, in fome. Globes. But by the neweft, and beft made English, Globes, at St. Michael's Inland in the Azores. XIV. The Fig. XIV. The Parallels to the Equinoctial, are Leffer Circles, dividing XXV. the Sphere into Two unequal Parts: They are Two Tropicks, which the Sun defcribeth, the one in the Longeft Day, the other in the Shortest Day. Their Name Tropicks, lignifieth a returning, viz. of the Sun. And Two other Leffer Circles are described by the Diurnal Revolution of the Poles of the Ecliptick; the one called Artick, the other Antartick. ༢% "XV. The Two Tropicks, together with the Two Polar Circles, diftinguifheth the whole Surface of the Earth into Five Zones; the Hot or Torrid Zone is between the Two Tropicks, but from the Tropick of Cancer to the Artick Circle is the North Tem perate Zone, and from the Tropick of Capricorn to the Antartick, is the South Temperate Zone. What lyeth within the Artick Circle, is called the North Cold or Frigid Zone; and that which lyeth within the Antartick, the South Frigid Zone. XVI. The Inhabitants of the Torrid Zone are called Amphifcii, because their Mid-days Shadow falleth now towards the South, and then towards the North: But the Inhabitants of the Two Temperate Zones are called Heterofcii, because their Mid-days Shadow falleth only towards the North in our Hemisphere, and only towards the South in the other Hemifphere: And laftly, the Inhabitants of the Two Frigid Zones are called Perifcii, because their Shadow goeth round about them in 24 Hours. XVII. There are Parallels alfo which diftinguish the Climates; which Climates are, as it were, Little Zones: They are greateft near the Equinoctial, and from thence they grow smaller and smaller towards both the Poles. Their Distance and Largenefs is determined by the length of the Longest Day; for as often as the Longest Day gaineth half an Hour above 12 Hours, there is produced a new Climate: So the firft natural Climate ought to have its midft where the Longest Day is 12 Hours and a half long: But the Ancients (perhaps knowing nothing of thofe Parts of the World fo near to the Equinoctial) left out this first natural Climate, and made their firft Climate, where indeed the Second fhould have been, viz. where the Longeft Day was 13 Hours; and because the midst of this did pats by the Fig. the Inland which the Nilus maketh, and is called Meroe, they named their firft Climate Dia Meries, the fecond Dia Syenes, XXV. Syene being a Town lying under the Tropick of Cancer; the third they called Dia Alexandria, this being a Town fituated upon the Month Nilus, the fourth, Dia Rhodia; the fifth, Dia Romes; the fixth, Dia Ponta; the feventh, Dia Borifthenis, where the Longeft Day was 16 Hours; and here the Ancients left it: But the Modern have continued their Climates to the Artick Circle, where the Longeft Day is 24 Hours, because the Sun doth not fet there in the beginning of Cancer, but only toucheth the Horizon with his Circle. And now, there are as many Climates on the other Side of the Equinoctial. The Circle of Perpetual Apparition is defcribed by a Point touching the North Cardinal, being carried about by the daily Motion; and all the Stars that are within this Circle of Perpetual Apparition are always feen above our Horizon. Another Circle of Perpetual Occultation there is described by a Point touching the South Cardinal, and being carried about by the daily Motion; fo all the Stars that are within this, do never Rife with us. XVIII. The Secondaries of the Ecliptick, are called Circles of Latitude; there are Six of them upon the Caleftial Globe, dividing the Signs of the Ecliptick, and alfo the whole Sphere into Twelve equal Parts; by which Divifion all Stars are referred to that Sign which is between the Two next Circles of Latitude. Now Six Signs of the Ecliptick are always above the Horizon, and Six are beneath. XIX. The Poles of the Horizon, are the Zenith and the Nadir; the Secondary Circles are called Vertical or Aximuth, or Cir. cles of Altitude, amongst which, the chiefeft are, (1.) The Meridian. (2.) The Circle of the 90th Degree of the Ecliptick, paffing by the Poles of the Ecliptick, the Zenith, and the goth Degree of the Ecliptick, being counted from the Horizon, either from the Eaft or Weft. (3.) The Vertical, paffing by the Eaft and Weft Cardinals; where the Interfection is of the Equi noctial and the Horizon; which Sections alfo, be Poles of the Meridian: And the Poles of this Vertical paffing by Eaft and Weft, are in the South and North Cardinals, where the Meridian doth divide the Horizon in the Ortive and Occidental Semicircles. Now the Secondaries of this faid Vertical, which Fig. XXV. paffeth by the true Eaft and Weft, are the Circles of Pofition, paffing by every 30th Degree of the quinolial, reckoning from the Meridian or Horizon, and dividing the whole Sphere into Twelve Houfes. The firft Houfe is called Horofcope, and is that which is next under the Ortive Horizon; from thence the other Houfes do fucceed under the Earth after the Succeffion of the Signs. Where every Arch of Pofition cutteth the Ecliptick, there is the Cufpides of the Houses. There are befides thefe Circles of Pofition, an infinite Number paffing by every Point of the Sphere. XX. The Parallels of the Horizon are called Almacantarath, and are described upon the Aftrolabe, to fhew the Altitude of the Sun, or of the Stars above the Horizon. XXI. The Meridian is the Original of Winds; there are Four Car dinals, and Four Mean: The North is known by the Flowerde-Luce, and the Eaft by the Crofs: The Mean do compound their Names from the next adjacent Cardinals; being NorthEaft, North-West, South-Eaft, South-Weft: Now every one of the Cardinals and Means hath Two Laterals, bearing the fame Name with their Principals; fo they are called North by Eaft; North by Weft, North Eaft by Eaft; North Eaft by North, &c. Now thefe Laterals being 16, make, together with the 8 Prin cipals, 24; and juft in the midft, between every Two Principals, there are the Eight Refidual Winds, bearing the fame Name with the Means they are next unto; but taking a fore Name from the next Cardinal, fo they are called North-North Eaft, Eaft North-Eaft, &c. XXII. These 32 Winds being continued upon the Surface of the Earth, do make as many Rumbs; that Rumb which paffeth by the South or North, is always a Meridian; and that which paffeth by Eaft and Weft, is always either the quinoctial, or Parallel unto it. The other Rumbs are crooked Lines, neither Circular nor Elliptical, and are Seven in every Quadrant, to be numbred both Ways from the Meridian. The general Propriety of all Rumbs is to cut all the Meridians they pass by into equal Angles. There may alfo, befides the faid 32 Rumbs, pafs one by every Point of the Horizon. XXIII. The Fig. XXIII. The Effects of all the forefaid Circles, both Principal and Secondary, are Angles and Arks. The Angles which they XXV. make are Right, when a Secondary meeteth with its own Principal, and the other Angles are altogether Oblique: So the Angle which the Equinoctial maketh with the Ecliptick is always 23 Deg. 30 Min. as much as the greatest Declination of the Sun. XXIV. The general Way of Meafuring Angles upon the Sphere, is to fet one Foot of a Pair of Callipers in the Point where the Angle is made, and extend the other 90 Deg. from thence, and fo defcribe an Ark between the Two Legs, (or Circles which make the Angle) for as many Degrees as that Ark containeth, fo many Degrees alfo is the Angle. So the Measure of the Angle made by the Equinoctial and Ecliptick is taken in the Solfticial Colure, between the beginning of, and the 90th_Degree of the Equinoctial. Likewife the Angle which the quinolial makes with the Horizon, is measured 90 Deg. from thence in the Meridian, between the Horizon and Equinoctial; and that which is farther in the Meridian, from the Equinoctial to the Zenith, is the Latitude of one Place; into which is, always, equal to the Poles Height, to be reckoned from the North Cardinal to the Pole. Sailing freight towards South or North One Mile, the Equinoctial is raised or fallen One Minute; going 60 Miles, it rifeth or falleth One Degree: So at length, coming to the middle Line of the World, the Equinoctial will be raised to the very Zenith, both Poles lying in the Horizon, and all the Parallels to the Equinoctial cut the Horizon at Right Angles; whence this Pofition of the Sphere is called Sphera Recta, where all the Stars do rife, and abide as long above the Horizon as beneath; fo there is a perpetual Equino&ial all the Year: But as foon as one of the Poles doth rife above the Horizon, and the other cometh to be under the Equino&ial, and all its Parallels make Oblique Angles with the Horizon: And for this Reafon, fuch a Pofition of the Sphere is called Sphera Obliqua; where, not all the Stars do rife, but fome are always above, and fome always below, the Horizon. When the Pole cometh to unite with the Zenith, then the EquinoElial falleth wholly in the Horizon, and the Parallels of it, are alfo parallel to the Horizon; and this Pofition of the Sphere E e 2 is |