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Necessary to be known.
"Here are two kind of Motions in the Heavens; the first
is. called the Common Motion of the fixed Stars and Pla- Fig. neis together ; by which they go all about in 24 Hours from XXV. East to West. The second Motion is called the proper Morion, by which they go about, every one in his own Time or Pc
riod, from Weft to East. II. These Two Motions are the Original of Two Circles, the Æ.
quino&tial and the Ecliptick; for the Diurnal Motion is done about the Pole of the Æquinoctial either in the fEquinoctial ic self, or in a Lesser. Circle, parallel unto it: But the proper llotion, is about the Poles of the Ecliptick, either in the Ecliptick it self, or in a Lejer Circle, parallel unto it..
a III. The Sun's Center keepeth always upon the Ecliptick Line, but
the other Planets do go from the Ecliptick on both sides 8 Deg. Hence the broad Circle, whose Middle is the Ecliptick, doth : arise, and is called the Zodiack. .
IV. The Æquino&tial is in the Heavens about that Streak, which
the Sun doth make by his Diurnal Motion on the Days of the Two Aquinoxes, viz. the 10th of March, and the 12th of September.
V. The Zodiack is known by the Twelve Asterisms of fixed
Stars, called, The Twelve Signs.
VI. The Two Luminaries are the Sun 0, and the Moon (, the
Moon cometh round by her proper Notion, in a Monih, the
VII. The other Planets are either the Superior, as Saturn 5,
coming about in his proper Motion, once in 30 Years. Fupi.
ter 7 in 12, Mars 8 in 2 Years. The Inferior Planets are Venus ? and Mercury ( ; Venus is 9 Months Morning Star, and other 9 Months Evening Star. These Two Planets keep always near to the Sun, so that Mercury g is for the molt
part covered with its Beams. VIII. The fixed Stars move also from West to East, either in the
Ecliprick, or in a Parallel to the Ecliptick, but very slowly, viz. One Degree in 70 Years. Hence the Signs are diftinguished in Starred and Un-starred. The Starred Signs are the Twelve Asterisms of the Zodiack; but the Un-starred are every one a Twelfth part of the Ecliptick. Now the Starred Signs left their former Places, and are preceded in some 1800 Years almost One whole Sign; so the Starred Aries r, stands now in the Place of the Un-starred Taurus 8 ; and the Starred
Taurus 8, in the Place of the Un-starred Gemini , &*c. IX. The Aquino&tial and Ecliptick are immutable, for there is
never but One Aquinoctial, and One Ecliprick: But the Hori. con and Meridian are mutable: for every Body walking upon the Superficies of the Earth, doth carry along with him his Horizon ; So this Circle is as manifold as there are divers Points upon the Surface of the Earth. The Horizon is determined by the Eye of the Man turning about in an even open Field, where the Heaven seemeth to join with the Earth; and its Office is to shew the Rising and Setting of all Heavenly Bodies.
X. The Meridian is not alter'd by.going on streight towards South
or North, but only when you walk never fo little towards the East or West, you have presently another Meridian. It is observable in the Heaven, by letting fall a Plummet or Perpendicular
from the Vertex, by the Sun (or any Star) being at its highest. :XI. Every one of these Four Circles hath its Poles, which the Cir.
cle is just between, and every way equally distant from it, exa&tly dividing the Sphere into Two equal Hemispheres, and they divide each other into Two equal" Semicircles: And by the Poles of each, there are described Secondary Circles (the Meridian only excepted) which Secondary Circles do cut their Principal Circle into Two Equal Parts, and at Right Angles.
XII. The Poles of the Equino&tial are the same with the Poles, of Fig.
the World; the one of which is called the Artick Pole, because XXV. it is near to the Two Arkios or Bears: The other oppofite to it, is called Antarlick: And the streight Line, which passeth between, through the Centre of the Sphere (from one Pole to the other) is called the Axis of the World. The Aquino&iial divideth the Ecliprick into Six North, and Six South, Signs: The Secondary Circles of the Equinotial
, are called in the Heavenly Sphere Circles of Declination. Amongst thefe is one of chiefest Note, the Meridian; and besides it, Eleven Hour-Circles, paffing by every 15th Degree of the Æquino&tial, to be reckoned from the Meridian, and so they divide the whole ÆquinoEtial into 24 equal Hours. There are alfo Two chief Secondar:y Circles of the Æqui noftial, which are called Colures; the one paffing by the Vernal and Autumnal Se&ion, is called the Colure of the Aquinoxes; the other passing by the Two Soliticial Points, viz. the beginning of Cancer ® and Capricorn v, is called the Colure of the Solstice. This latter, dívideth the Ecliptick in Ascending and Descending Signs ; because in the first the Sun doth ascend to our Zenith in Capricorn, viz. in van een on * r 8 I, which are also called the signs of Short Afcenfion, because they rise in a short time equal to the Shortest Day of the Year: But in the Descending Signs, the Sun doth defcend every Day more and more from our Zenith, and those are a ring m.f: These are called also Signs of Long AScenfion, because they Rise in a time, equal to the Longest Day in the Year. Both Colures together divide the Ecliptick into Four : Quadrants; the Vernal containing Aries r, Taurus 8, Gemini D';. The Summer Quadrant, Cancer S, Leos , Virgo me; The Autumnal, Libra , Scorpio m, Sagittarius * ; the Winter
f Quadrant, Capricorn' v, Aquaries , Pifces H. XIII. The Secondaries of the Terrestrial Æquino&tial are called ?
Meridians, and they are 18, passing by every oth Degree of the Aquino&tial, and in some Globes, through every 15th Degree of the Æguinołtial, which is equal to One Hour, in Time. The first of these doth pass by the Islands of Azores, in fome Globes. But by the newest, and best made English, Globes, at St. Michael's Idland in the Azores,
Fig. XIV. The Parallels to the Æquino&tial, are Leser Circles, dividing XXV. the Sphere into Two unequal Parts: They are Two Tropicks,
which the Sun describeth, the one in the Longest Day, the other in the Shortest Day. Their Name Tropicks, lignifieth-a returning, viz. of the Sun. And Two other Lesser Circles are described by the Diurnal Revolution of the Poles of the Ecliprick; the
one called Artick, the other Antartick. XV. The Two Tropicks, together with the Two Polar Circles, di
ftinguisheth the whole Surface of the Earth into Five Zones; the Hot or Torrid Zone is between the Two Tropicks, but from the Tropick of Cancer to the Artick Circle is the North Ten perate Zone, and from the Tropick of Capricorn up to the An. tartick, is the South Temperate Zone. What lyeth within the Artick Circle, is called the North Cold or Frigid Zone ; and
that which lyeth within the Antartick, the South Frigid Zone, XVI. The Inhabitants of the Torrid Zone are called Amphifcij,
because their Mid-days Shadow falleth now towards the Sourb, and then towards the North: But the Inhabitants of the Two Temperate Zones are called Heteroscii, because their Mid-days Shadow falleth only towards the Norih in our Hemisphere, and only towards the South in the other HemisphereAnd lastly, the Inhabitants of the Two Frigid Zones are called Perifcii, because their Shadow goeth round about them in 24 Hours.
XVII. There are Parallels also which distinguish the Climates;
which Climates are, as it were, Little Zones : They are greatest near the Æquino&tial, and from thence they grow smaller and smaller towards both the Poles. Their Distance and Largeness is determined by the length of the Longest Day; for as often as the Longest Day gaineth half an Hour above 12 Hours, there is produced a new Climate : So the first natural Climate ought to have its midft where the Longest Day is 12 Hours and a half long: But the Ancients (perhaps knowing nothing of those parts of the World so near to the Equinoctial) left out this fiuft natural Climate, and made their first Climate, where indeed the Second should have been, viz. where the Longest Day was 13 Hours; and because the midst of this did pais by
the Iand which the Nilus maketh, and is called Meroe ; they Fig. .
XVIII. The Secondaries of the Ecliptick, are called Circles of La.
titude ; there are Six of them upon the Cæleftial Globe, dividing
XIX. The Poles of the Horizon, are the Zenith and the Nadir:
counted from the Horizon,