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Cosmographical ELEMENTS,

Necessary to be known.


"Here are two kind of Motions in the Heavens; the first

is. called the Common Motion of the fixed Stars and Pla- Fig. neis together ; by which they go all about in 24 Hours from XXV. East to West. The second Motion is called the proper Morion, by which they go about, every one in his own Time or Pc

riod, from Weft to East. II. These Two Motions are the Original of Two Circles, the Æ.

quino&tial and the Ecliptick; for the Diurnal Motion is done about the Pole of the Æquinoctial either in the fEquinoctial ic self, or in a Lesser. Circle, parallel unto it: But the proper llotion, is about the Poles of the Ecliptick, either in the Ecliptick it self, or in a Lejer Circle, parallel unto it..

a III. The Sun's Center keepeth always upon the Ecliptick Line, but

the other Planets do go from the Ecliptick on both sides 8 Deg. Hence the broad Circle, whose Middle is the Ecliptick, doth : arise, and is called the Zodiack. .

IV. The Æquino&tial is in the Heavens about that Streak, which

the Sun doth make by his Diurnal Motion on the Days of the Two Aquinoxes, viz. the 10th of March, and the 12th of September.

V. The Zodiack is known by the Twelve Asterisms of fixed

Stars, called, The Twelve Signs.

VI. The Two Luminaries are the Sun 0, and the Moon (, the

Moon cometh round by her proper Notion, in a Monih, the
Sun in a lear.

VII. The other Planets are either the Superior, as Saturn 5,

coming about in his proper Motion, once in 30 Years. Fupi.

Fig. XXV.


ter 7 in 12, Mars 8 in 2 Years. The Inferior Planets are Venus ? and Mercury ( ; Venus is 9 Months Morning Star, and other 9 Months Evening Star. These Two Planets keep always near to the Sun, so that Mercury g is for the molt

part covered with its Beams. VIII. The fixed Stars move also from West to East, either in the

Ecliprick, or in a Parallel to the Ecliptick, but very slowly, viz. One Degree in 70 Years. Hence the Signs are diftinguished in Starred and Un-starred. The Starred Signs are the Twelve Asterisms of the Zodiack; but the Un-starred are every one a Twelfth part of the Ecliptick. Now the Starred Signs left their former Places, and are preceded in some 1800 Years almost One whole Sign; so the Starred Aries r, stands now in the Place of the Un-starred Taurus 8 ; and the Starred

Taurus 8, in the Place of the Un-starred Gemini , &*c. IX. The Aquino&tial and Ecliptick are immutable, for there is

never but One Aquinoctial, and One Ecliprick: But the Hori. con and Meridian are mutable: for every Body walking upon the Superficies of the Earth, doth carry along with him his Horizon ; So this Circle is as manifold as there are divers Points upon the Surface of the Earth. The Horizon is determined by the Eye of the Man turning about in an even open Field, where the Heaven seemeth to join with the Earth; and its Office is to shew the Rising and Setting of all Heavenly Bodies.

X. The Meridian is not alter'd by.going on streight towards South

or North, but only when you walk never fo little towards the East or West, you have presently another Meridian. It is observable in the Heaven, by letting fall a Plummet or Perpendicular

from the Vertex, by the Sun (or any Star) being at its highest. :XI. Every one of these Four Circles hath its Poles, which the Cir.

cle is just between, and every way equally distant from it, exa&tly dividing the Sphere into Two equal Hemispheres, and they divide each other into Two equal" Semicircles: And by the Poles of each, there are described Secondary Circles (the Meridian only excepted) which Secondary Circles do cut their Principal Circle into Two Equal Parts, and at Right Angles.


XII. The

XII. The Poles of the Equino&tial are the same with the Poles, of Fig.

the World; the one of which is called the Artick Pole, because XXV. it is near to the Two Arkios or Bears: The other oppofite to it, is called Antarlick: And the streight Line, which passeth between, through the Centre of the Sphere (from one Pole to the other) is called the Axis of the World. The Aquino&iial divideth the Ecliprick into Six North, and Six South, Signs: The Secondary Circles of the Equinotial

, are called in the Heavenly Sphere Circles of Declination. Amongst thefe is one of chiefest Note, the Meridian; and besides it, Eleven Hour-Circles, paffing by every 15th Degree of the Æquino&tial, to be reckoned from the Meridian, and so they divide the whole ÆquinoEtial into 24 equal Hours. There are alfo Two chief Secondar:y Circles of the Æqui noftial, which are called Colures; the one paffing by the Vernal and Autumnal Se&ion, is called the Colure of the Aquinoxes; the other passing by the Two Soliticial Points, viz. the beginning of Cancer ® and Capricorn v, is called the Colure of the Solstice. This latter, dívideth the Ecliptick in Ascending and Descending Signs ; because in the first the Sun doth ascend to our Zenith in Capricorn, viz. in van een on * r 8 I, which are also called the signs of Short Afcenfion, because they rise in a short time equal to the Shortest Day of the Year: But in the Descending Signs, the Sun doth defcend every Day more and more from our Zenith, and those are a ring m.f: These are called also Signs of Long AScenfion, because they Rise in a time, equal to the Longest Day in the Year. Both Colures together divide the Ecliptick into Four : Quadrants; the Vernal containing Aries r, Taurus 8, Gemini D';. The Summer Quadrant, Cancer S, Leos , Virgo me; The Autumnal, Libra , Scorpio m, Sagittarius * ; the Winter

f Quadrant, Capricorn' v, Aquaries , Pifces H. XIII. The Secondaries of the Terrestrial Æquino&tial are called ?

Meridians, and they are 18, passing by every oth Degree of the Aquino&tial, and in some Globes, through every 15th Degree of the Æguinołtial, which is equal to One Hour, in Time. The first of these doth pass by the Islands of Azores, in fome Globes. But by the newest, and best made English, Globes, at St. Michael's Idland in the Azores,


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XIV. The

Fig. XIV. The Parallels to the Æquino&tial, are Leser Circles, dividing XXV. the Sphere into Two unequal Parts: They are Two Tropicks,

which the Sun describeth, the one in the Longest Day, the other in the Shortest Day. Their Name Tropicks, lignifieth-a returning, viz. of the Sun. And Two other Lesser Circles are described by the Diurnal Revolution of the Poles of the Ecliprick; the

one called Artick, the other Antartick. XV. The Two Tropicks, together with the Two Polar Circles, di

ftinguisheth the whole Surface of the Earth into Five Zones; the Hot or Torrid Zone is between the Two Tropicks, but from the Tropick of Cancer to the Artick Circle is the North Ten perate Zone, and from the Tropick of Capricorn up to the An. tartick, is the South Temperate Zone. What lyeth within the Artick Circle, is called the North Cold or Frigid Zone ; and

that which lyeth within the Antartick, the South Frigid Zone, XVI. The Inhabitants of the Torrid Zone are called Amphifcij,

because their Mid-days Shadow falleth now towards the Sourb, and then towards the North: But the Inhabitants of the Two Temperate Zones are called Heteroscii, because their Mid-days Shadow falleth only towards the Norih in our Hemisphere, and only towards the South in the other HemisphereAnd lastly, the Inhabitants of the Two Frigid Zones are called Perifcii, because their Shadow goeth round about them in 24 Hours.

XVII. There are Parallels also which distinguish the Climates;

which Climates are, as it were, Little Zones : They are greatest near the Æquino&tial, and from thence they grow smaller and smaller towards both the Poles. Their Distance and Largeness is determined by the length of the Longest Day; for as often as the Longest Day gaineth half an Hour above 12 Hours, there is produced a new Climate : So the first natural Climate ought to have its midft where the Longest Day is 12 Hours and a half long: But the Ancients (perhaps knowing nothing of those parts of the World so near to the Equinoctial) left out this fiuft natural Climate, and made their first Climate, where indeed the Second should have been, viz. where the Longest Day was 13 Hours; and because the midst of this did pais by


the Iand which the Nilus maketh, and is called Meroe ; they Fig. .
named their first Climate Dia Meries, the second Dia Syenes, XXV.
Syene being a Town lying under the Tropick of. Cancer; the
third they called Dia Alexandria, this being a Town fituated
upon the Month Nilus; the fourth, Dia Rhodia; the fifth, Dia
Romes; the sixth, Dia Ponta; the seventh, Dia Boristhenis,
where the Longest Day was 16 Hours; and here the Ancients
left it: But the Modern have continued their Climates to the
Artick Circle, where the Longest Day is 24 Hours, because
the Sun doth not set there in the beginning of Cancer, but only
toucheth the Horizon with his Circle. And now, there are as
many Climates on the other Side of the Aquino&tial. The Cir-
cle of Perpetual Apparition is described by a Point touching
the North Cardinal, being carried about by the daily Motion;
and all the Stars that are within this Circle of Perpetual Ap-
parition are always seen above our Horizon. Another Circle of
Perpetual Occultation there is described by a Point touching the
South Cardinal, and being carried about by the daily Motion ;
fo all the Stars that are within this, do never Rise with us.

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XVIII. The Secondaries of the Ecliptick, are called Circles of La.

titude ; there are Six of them upon the Cæleftial Globe, dividing
the Signs of the Ecliptick, and also the whole Sphere into Twelve
equal Parts; by which Division all Stars are referred to that
Sign which is between the Two next Circles of Latitude. Now
Six Signs of the Ecliptick are always above the Horizon, and
Six are beneath.

XIX. The Poles of the Horizon, are the Zenith and the Nadir:

the Secondary Circles are called Vertical or Aximuth, or Cir.
cles of Altitude, amongst which, the chiefest are, (1.) The Mle-

ridian. (2.) The Circle of the 90th Degree of ihé Ecliptick,
paffing by the Poles of the Ecliptick, the Zenith, and the
goth Degree of the Ecliptick, being

counted from the Horizon,
either from the East or Weft. (3.) The Vertical, passing by the
East and West Cardinals ; where the Intersection is of the Aqui.
noétial and the Horizon; which Sections also, be Poles of the
Meridian: And the Poles of this Vertical passing by East and
West, are in the South and North Cardinals, where the Me-
ridian doth divide the Horizon in the Ortive and Occidental
Semicircles. Now the Secondaries of this said Vertical, which



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