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rent right of appeal, appears from the use Absalom made of the delay of justice, which arose from the great number of cases that came before the king his father (2 Sam. xv. 2-4). These were doubtless appeal cases according to the above direction.
Of the later practice, before and after the time of Christ, we have some clearer knowledge from Josephus and the Talmudists. It seems that a man could carry his case by appeal through all the inferior courts to the Grand Sanhedrim at Jerusalem, whose decision was in the highest degree absolute and final. The Jews themselves trace the origin of these later usages up to the time of Moses: they were at all events based on early principles, and therefore reflect back some light upon the intimations respecting the right of appeal which we find in the sacred books.
The most remarkable case of appeal in the New Testament belongs to another class. It is the celebrated appeal of St. Paul from the tribunal of the Roman procurator Festus to that of the emperor; in consequence of which he was sent as a prisoner to Rome (Acts xxv. 10, 11). Such an appeal having been once lodged, the governor had nothing more to do with the case: he could not even dismiss it, although he might be satisfied that the matter was frivolous, and not worth forwarding to Rome. Accordingly, when Paul was again heard by Festus and king Agrippa (merely to obtain materials for a report to the emperor), it was admitted that the apostle might have been liberated if he had not appealed to Casar (Acts xxvi. 32).
It may easily be seen that a right of appeal which, like this, involved a long and expensive journey, was by no means frequently resorted to. In lodging his appeal Paul exercised one of the high privileges of Roman citizenship which belonged to him by birth (Acts xxii. 28). [CITIZENSHIP. The right of appeal connected with that privilege originated in the Valerian, Porcian, and Sempronian laws, by which it was enacted that if any magistrate should order flagellation or death to be inflicted upon a Roman citizen, the accused person might appeal to the judgment of the people. But what was originally the prerogative of the people had in Paul's time become that of the emperor, and appeal therefore was made to him. Hence Pliny mentions that he had sent to Rome some Christians, who were Roman citizens, and had appealed unto Cæsar. This privilege could not be disallowed by any magistrate to any person whom the law entitled to it. Indeed, very heavy penalties were attached to any refusal to grant it, or to furnish the party with facilities for going to Rome.
APPHIA, the name of a woman (Philemon 2) who is supposed by Chrysostom and Theodoret to have been the wife of Philemon.
APPII-FO'RUM, a market town in Italy, 43 Roman miles from Rome, on the great road from Rome to Brundusium, constructed by Appius Claudius. The remains of an ancient town, supposed to be Appii-Forum, are still observed at a place called Casarillo di Santa Maria, on the border of the Pontine marshes. When Saint Paul was taken to Italy, some of the Christians of Rome, being apprised of his approach, journeyed to meet him as far as Appii-Forum and
the Three Taverns' (Acts xxviii. 15), a town eight or ten miles nearer to Rome than AppiiForum. The Three Taverns' was certainly a place of rest and refreshment, probably on account of the badness of the water at Appii-Forum, and the probability is that some of the Christians remained at the Three Taverns,' where it was known the advancing party would rest, while some others went on as far as Appii-Forum to meet Paul on the road.
APPLE. The word Tappuach is thus rendered in the Authorized Version. Most authors on Biblical Botany admit that apple is not the correct translation, for that fruit is indifferent in Palestine, being produced of good quality only on Mount Lebanon, and in Damascus. Many contend that quince' is the correct translation of Tappuach. Though somewhat more suitable than the apple, we think that neither the quince tree nor fruit is so superior to others as to be selected for notice in the passages of Scripture where tappuach occurs. The citron, we think, has the best claim to be considered the Tappuach of Scripture, as it was esteemed by the ancients, and known to the Hebrews, and conspicuously different, both as a fruit and a tree, from the ordinary vegetation of Syria, and the only one of the orange tribe which was known to the ancients. The orange, lemon, and lime, were introduced to the knowledge of Europeans at a much later period, probably by the Arabs from India. That the citron was well known to the Hebrews we have the assurance in the fact mentioned by Josephus, that at the Feast of Tabernacles king Alexander Jannæus was pelted with citrons, which the Jews had in their hands; for, as he says, 'the law required that at that feast every one should have branches of the palm-tree and citron-tree. There is nothing improbable in the Hebrews having made use of boughs of the citron, as it was a native of Media, and well known to the Greeks at a very early period; and indeed on some old coins of Samaria, the citron may be seen, as well as the palm-tree; and it is not an unimportant confirmation that the Jews still continue to make offerings of citrons at the Feast of Tabernacles. Citrons, accordingly, are imported in considerable quantities for this purpose, and are afterwards sold, being more highly esteemed after having been so offered.
The tappuach, or citron-tree, is mentioned chiefly in the Canticles, ch. ii. 3, 'as the citron tree among the trees of the wood;' ver. 5, 'Comfort me with citrons, for I am sick of love;' vii. 8, The smell of thy nose like citrons;' so in viii. 5. Again, in Prov. xxv. 11,‘A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold (or rather golden citrons) in baskets of silver.' In Joel i. 12, it is enumerated with the vine, the fig-tree, the palm, and pomegranate, as among the most valuable trees of Palestine. The rich colour, fragrant odour, and handsome appearance of the tree, whether in flower or in fruit, are particularly suited to all the above passages of Scrip
AQUILA, a Jew with whom Paul became acquainted on his first visit to Corinth; a native of Pontus, and by occupation a tent-maker. He and his wife Priscilla had been obliged to leave Rome in consequence of an edict issued by the
Emperor Claudius, by which all Jews were
of persecution; here was the scene of all the marvellous displays of divine power and mercy that followed the deliverance of Israel from the Egyptian yoke, and accompanied their journeyings to the Promised Land; and here Jehovah manifested himself in visible glory to his people. From the influence of these associations, combined with its proximity to Palestine, and the close affinity in blood, manners, and customs between the northern portion of its inhabitants and the Jews, Arabia is a region of peculiar interest to the student of the Bible; and it is chiefly in its relation to subjects of Bible study that we are now to consider it.
In early times the Hebrews included a part of what we call Arabia among the countries they vaguely designated as the East,' the inhabitants being numbered among the Sons of the to show that these phrases are ever applied to East,' i. e. Orientals. But there is no evidence the whole of the country known to us as Arabia. They appear to have been commonly used in speaking of those parts which lay due east of Palestine, or on the north-east and south-east; tracts which lay indeed to the south and souththough occasionally they do seem to point to west of that country, but to the east and southeast of Egypt.
AR, the capital city of the Moabites (Num. xxi. 28; Deut. ii. 9, 18, 29), near the river Arnon (Deut. ii. 18, 24; Num. xxi. 13-15). It appears to have been burnt by King Sihon (Num. xxi. 28), and Isaiah, in describing the future calamities of the Moabites, says, In the night, Ar of Moab is laid waste and brought to silence' (Isa. xv. 1). In his comment on this passage, Jerome states that in his youth there was a great earthquake, by which Ar was destroyed in the nighttime.
This city was also called Rabbah or Rabbath, and, to distinguish it from Rabbath of Ammon, Rabbath-Moab. The site still bears the name of Rabbah. It is about 17 miles east of the Dead Sea, 10 miles south of the Arnon (Modjeb), and about the same distance north of Kerek. The ruins of Rabbah are situated on a low hill, which commands the whole plain. They present nothing of interest except two old Roman temples and some tanks.
ARA'BIA, an extensive region occupying the south-western extremity of Asia, between 12° 45′ and 344° N. lat., and 3240 and 60° E. long. from Greenwich; having on the W. the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea (called from it the Arabian Gulf), which separate it from Africa; on the S. the Indian Ocean; and on the E. the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates. The boundary to the north has never been well defined. It is one of the few countries of the south where the descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants have neither been extirpated nor expelled by northern invaders. They have not only retained possession of their ancestral homes, but have sent forth colonies to all the adjacent regions, and even to more distant lands, both in Africa and Asia.
With the history of no country save that of Palestine are there connected so many hallowed and impressive associations as with that of Arabia. Here lived and suffered the holy pa-| triarch Job; here Moses, when a stranger and a shepherd,' saw the burning, unconsuming bush; here Elijah found shelter from the rage
44. [Bedouin Arabs.]
We find the name Arab first beginning to a portion of the country, an inhabitant being occur about the time of Solomon. It designated called Arabi, an Arabian (Isa. xiii. 20), or in later Hebrew, Arbi (Neh. ii. 19), the plural of which was Arbim (2 Chr. xxi. 16), (Arabians) (2 Chr. xvii. 11). In some places these names seem to be given to the Nomadic tribes generally (Isa. xiii. 20; Jer. iii. 2) and their country (Isa. xxi. 13). The kings of
Arabia from whom Solomon (2 Chr. ix. 14) and Jehosaphat (2 Chr. xvii. 11) received gifts were, probably, Bedouin chiefs; though in the place parallel to the former text (1 Kings x. 15), instead of Arab we find Ereb, rendered in Jer. XXV. 20, 24, mingled people,' but which Gesenius, following the Chaldee, understands to mean foreign allies.' It is to be remarked, however, that in all the passages where the word Arab occurs it designates only a small portion of the territory known to us as Arabia. Thus in the account given by Ezekiel (xxvii. 21) of the Arabian tribes that traded with Tyre, mention is specially made of Arab (comp. Jer. XXV. 24). In 2 Chr. xxi. 16; xxii. 1; xxvi. 7; Neh. iv. 7, we find the Arabians classed with the Philistines, the Ethiopians (i. e. the Asiatic Cushites, of whom they are said to have been neighbours), the Mehunims, the Ammonites, and Ashdodites. At what period this name Arab was extended to the whole region it is impossible to ascertain. From it the Greeks formed the word Arabia, which occurs twice in the New Testament; in Gal. i. 17, in reference probably to the tract adjacent to Damascene Syria, and in Gal. iv. 25, in reference to the peninsula of Mount Sinai. Arabs are mentioned among the strangers assembled at Jerusalem at the Pentecost (Acts ii. 11).
The early Greek geographers mention only two divisions of this vast region, Happy and Desert Arabia. But after the city of Petra, in Idumæa, had become celebrated as the metropolis of a commercial people, the Nabathaans, it gave name to a third division, viz. Arabia Petraa (improperly translated Story Arabia); and this threefold division has obtained throughout Europe ever since.
1. ARABIA FELIX, i. e. Happy Arabia. This part of Arabia lies between the Red Sea on the west and the Persian Gulf on the east, the boundary to the north being an imaginary line drawn between their respective northern extre mities, Akaba and Basra or Bussora. It thus embraces by far the greater portion of the country known to us as Arabia.
Arabia may be described generally as an elevated table-land, the mountain ranges of which are by some regarded as a continuation of those of Syria. In Arabia Felix the ridges, which are very high in the interior, slope gently on the east towards the Persian Gulf, and on the northeast towards the vast plains of the desert. On the west the declivities are steeper, and on the north-west the chains are connected with those of Arabia Petræa. Commencing our survey at the north end of the Red Sea, the first province which lies along its shore is the Hedjaz. This was the cradle of Mohammedan superstition, containing both Mecca, where the prophet was born, and Medina, where he was buried; and hence it became the Holy Land of the Moslem, whither they resort in pilgrimage from all parts of the East. It is on the whole a barren tract, consisting chiefly of rugged mountains and sandy plains. Still more unproductive, however, is the long, flat, dreary belt, of varying width, called Tehama, which runs along the coast to the south of Hedjaz, and was at no distant period covered by the sea. But next to this comes Yemen, the true Arabia Felix of the ancients,
Araby the Blest' of modern poets, and doubtless the finest portion of the peninsula. Yet if it be distinguished for fertility and beauty, it is chiefly in the way of contrast, for it is far from coming up to the expectations which travellers had formed of it. Turning from the west to the south coast of the peninsula, we next come to the extensive province of Hhadramaut (the Hazarmaveth of the Bible), a region not unlike Yemen in its general features, with the excep tion of the tracts called Mahhrah and Sahar, which are dreary deserts. The south-east corner of the peninsula, between Hhadramaut and the Persian Gulf, is occupied by the important district of Oman, which has been in all ages famous for its trade, which has been greatly extended by the present imaum of Muscat. Along the Persian Gulf northward stretches the province of Lahsa, or rather El Hassa, to which belong the Bahrein Islands, famous for their pearls. The districts we have enumerated all lie along the coasts, but beyond them in the south stretches the vast desert of Akhaf, or Roba-elKhali, i.e. the empty abode,' a desolate and dreary unexplored waste of sand. To the north of this extends the great central province of Nedched or Nejd. It may be described as having been the great officina gentium of the south, as were Scandinavia and Tartary of the north; for it is the region whence there issued at different periods those countless hordes of Arabs which overran a great part of Asia and Africa. Here too was the origin and the seat of the Wahabees (so formidable until subdued in 1818 by Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt), their chief town being Dereyeh.
The geological structure and mineralogical productions of this part of Arabia are in a great measure unknown. In the mountains about Mecca and Medina the predominant rocks are of grey and red granite, porphyry, and limestone. This is also the case in the great chain that runs southward towards Maskat; only that in the ridge that rises behind the Tehama there is found schistus and basalt instead of granite. Traces of volcanic action may be perceived around Medina, as also at Aden and in many other parts of the peninsula. Hot-springs are of frequent occurrence or the Hadjee or pilgrim road to Mecca. The ancients believed that Arabia yielded both gold and precious stones, but Niebuhr doubts if this ever was the case. The most valuable ore found now is the lead of Oman: what is called the Mocha stone is a species of agate that comes from India. The native iron is coarse and brittle; at Loheia and elsewhere there are hills of fossil salt. Arabia Felix has always been famous for frankincense, myrrh, aloes, balsam, gums, cassia, &c.; but it is doubtful whether the last-mentioned and other articles supposed to be indigenous were not imported from India. Here are found all the fruits of temperate and warm climates, among which the date, the fruit of the palm tree, is the most common, and is, along with the species of grain called dhourra, the staple article of food. But the most valuable vegetable production is coffee; for Yemen, if not its native country, is the habitat where it has reached the greatest state of perfection. In the animal kingdom Arabia possesses, in common with the adjacent
regions, the camel, panthers, lynxes, hyænas,
frontier, there meets the elevated plain of Belka,
To the west of Idumæa extends the great and terrible wilderness' of et-Tih, i. e. the Wandering.' so called from being the scene of the wanderings of the children of Israel, consists of vast interminable plains, a hard gravelly soil, and irregular ridges of limestone hills. It appears that the middle of this desert is occupied by a long central basin, extending from Jebel-et-Tîh (i. e. the mountain of the wandering, a chain pretty far south) to the shores of the Mediterranean. This basin descends towards the north with a rapid slope, and is drained through all its length by Wady-el-Arish, which enters the sea near the place of the same name, on the borders of Egypt.
This description of the formation of the northern desert will enable us to form a more distinct conception of the general features of the peninsula of Sinai, which lies south of it, being formed by the two arms of the Red Sea, the Gulfs of Akaba and Suez. If the parallel of the north coast of Egypt be extended eastward to the great Wady-el-Arabah, it appears that the desert, south of this parallel, rises gradually towards the south, until on the summit of the ridge Et-Tîh, between the two gulfs, it attains the elevation of The waters of all this great tract 4322 feet.
The sky in these deserts is generally cloudless,
3. ARABIA PETREA appears to have derived
flow off northward either to the Mediterranean | or the Dead Sea. The Tih forms a sort of offset, and along its southern base the surface sinks at pace to the height of only about 3000 feet, forming the sandy plain which extends nearly across the peninsula. After this the mountains of the peninsula proper commence, and rise rapidly through the formations of sandstone, grünstein, porphyry, and granite, into the lofty masses of St. Catherine and Um Shaumer, the former of which has an elevation of 8168 Paris feet, or Learly double that of the Tîh. Here the waters all run eastward or westward to the Gulfs of Akaba and Suez.
The soil of the Sinaitic peninsula is in general very unproductive, yielding only palm-trees, acacias, tamarisks, coloquintida, and dwarfish, thorny shrubs. Among the animals may be mentioned the mountain-goat, gazelles, leopards, a kind of marmot called wabber [CONEY], the sheeb, supposed by Col. C. Hamilton Smith to be a species of wild wolf-dog, &c.: of birds there are eagles, partridges, pigeons, the katta, a species of quail, &c. There are serpents, as in ancient times (Num. xxi. 4, 6), and travellers speak of a large lizard called dhob, common in the desert, but of unusually frequent occurrence here. The peninsula is inhabited by Bedouin Arabs, and its entire population was estimated by Burckhardt at not more than 4000 souls.
Though this part of Arabia must ever be memorable as the scene of the journeying of the Israelites from Egypt to the Promised Land, yet very few of the spots mentioned in Scripture can now be identified: nor, after the lapse of so many centuries, ought that to be occasion of surprise. According to Niebuhr, Robinson, &c. they crossed the Red Sea near Suez, but the tradition of the country fixes the point of transit eight or ten miles south of Suez, opposite the place called Ayoun Mousa, i. e. the Fountains of Moses, where Robinson recently found seven wells, some of which, however, were mere excavations in the sand. About 154 hours (33 geographical miles) south-east of that is the Well of Hawârah, the Marah of Scripture, whose bitter water is pronounced by the Arabs to be the worst in these regions. Two or three hours south of Hawarah the traveller comes to the Wady Ghirundel, supposed to be the Elim of Moses. From the plain of El-kaa, which Robinson takes to be the desert of Sin (not to be confounded with that of Zin, which belonged to the great desert of Kadesh), they would enter the Sinaitic range, probably along the upper part of Wady Feiran and through the Wady-esh-Sheikh, one of the principal valleys of the peninsula. The Arabs call this whole cluster of mountains Jebel-et-Tür; the Christians generally designate it as 'Sinai,' and give the name of Horeb to a particular mountain, whereas in Scripture the names are used interchangeably. [SINAI.]
Having now taken a rapid survey of this tensive region in its three divisions, let us advert to the people by whom it was at first settled, and by whose descendants it is still inhabited. There is a prevalent notion that the Arabs, both of the south and north, are descended from Ishmael; but the idea of the southern Arabs being of the posterity of Ishmael is entirely without foundation, and seems to have originated in the tra
dition invented by Arab vanity, that they, as well as the Jews, are of the seed of Abrahama vanity which, besides disfiguring and falsifying the whole history of the patriarch and his son Ishmael, has transferred the scene of it from Palestine to Mecca. If we go to the most authentic source of anciert ethiography, the book of Genesis, we there find that the vast tracts of country known to us under the name of Arabia gradually became peopled by a variety of tribes of different lineage, though it is row impossible to determine the precise limits within which they fixed their permanent or nomadic abode. We shall here exhibit a tabular view of these races in chronological order, i. e. according to the successive æras of their respective progenitors:
I. HAMITES, i. e. the posterity of Cush, Ham's eldest son, whose descendants appear to have settled in the south of Arabia, and to have sent colonies across the Red Sea to the opposite coast of Africa; and hence Cush became a general name for the south,' and specially for Arabian and African Ethiopia. The sons of Cush (Gen. x. 7) were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah or Ragma (his sons, Sheba and Dedan), and Sabtheca.
II. SHEMITES, including the following: A. Joktanites, i. e. the descendants of Joktan, the second son of Eber, Shem's great-grandson (Gen. x. 25, 26). According to Arab tradition Joktan, after the confusion of tongues and dispersion at Babel, settled in Yemen, where he reigned as king. Joktan had thirteen sons, some of whose names may be obscurely traced in the designations of certain districts in Arabia Felix. Their names were Almodad, Shaleph, Hhazarmaveth (preserved in the name of the province of Hhadramaut), Jarach, Hadoram, Uzal (Lelieved by the Arabs to have been the founder of Sanaa in Yemen), Dikla, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab.
B. Abrahamites, divided into
(a) Hagarenes or Hagarites, so called from Hagar the mother; otherwise termed Ishmaelites from her son. The twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 13-15), who gave names to separate tribes, were Nebaioth (the Nabathæans in Arabia Petræa), Kedar, Abdeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad or Hadar, Thema, Jetur, Naphish (the Ituræans and Naphishæans near the tribe of Gad: 1 Chron. v. 19, 20), and Kedmah. They appear to have been for the most part located near to Palestine on the east and southeast.
(b) Keturahites, i. e. the descendants of Abraham and his second wife Keturah, by whom he had six sons (Gen. xxv. 2): Simram, Jokshan (who, like Raamah, son of Cush, was also the father of two sons, Sheba and Dedan), Medan, Midian, Jishbak, and Shuach. Among these, the posterity of Midian became the best known.
(c) Edomites, i. e. the descendants of Esau, who ex-possessed Mount Seir and the adjacent region, called from them Idumæa. They and the Nabathæans formed in later times a flourishing commercial state, the capital of which was the remarkable city called Petra.
C. Nhorites, the descendants of Nahor, Abraham's brother, who seem to have peopled the land of Uz, the country of Job, and of Buz, the country of his friend Elihu the Buzite, these