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it should have been so rendered. The common dill is an annual plant, growing wild among the corn in Spain and Portugal; and on the coast of Italy, in Egypt, and about Astracan. It resembles feanel, but is smaller, has more glaucous leaves, and a less pleasant smell: the fruit or seeds, which are finely divided by capillary segments, are elliptical, broader, flatter, and surrounded with a membraneous disk. They have a warm and aromatic taste, owing to the presence of a pale yellow volatile oil, which itself has a hot taste and a peculiar penetrating odour.
36. [Anethum graveolens.]
The error in translation here pointed out is not of very great consequence, as both the anise and the dill are umbelliferous plants, which are found cultivated in the south of Europe. The seeds of both are employed as condiments and carminatives, and have been so from very early times; but the anethon is more especially a genus of Eastern cultivation, since either the dill or another species is reared in all the countries from Syria to India. Jewish authorities state that the seed, the leaves, and the stem of dill were subject to tithe,' which indicates that the herb was eaten, as is indeed the case with the Eastern species in the present day.
ANKLETS. This word does not occur in Scripture, but the ornament which it denotes is clearly indicated by the tinkling (or jingling) ornaments about the feet,' mentioned in the curious description of female attire which we find in Isa. iii. Even in the absence of special notice, we might very safely conclude that an ornament to which the Oriental women have always been so partial was not unknown to the Jewish ladies. In Egypt anklets of gold have been found, which are generally in the shape of simple rings, often however in that of snakes, and sometimes inlaid with enamel or even precious stones. The sculptures show that they were worn by men as well as women. Their present use among the women of Arabia and Egypt sufficiently illustrates the Scriptural allusion. The Koran (xxiv. 31) forbids women to make a noise with their feet,' which, says Mr. Lane, alludes to the practice of knocking together the anklets, which the Arab women in the time of the prophet used to wear, and which are still worn by many women in Egypt. The same writer states that Anklets of solid gold and silver, and of the form here sketched (like fig. 3), are worn by some ladies, but are more
uncommon than they formerly were. They are of course very heavy, and, knocking together as the woman walks, make a ringing noise.' He thinks that in the text referred to (Isa. iii. 16) the prophet alludes to this kind of anklet, but admits that the description may apply to another kind, which he describes as Anklets of solid silver, worn by the wives of some of the richer peasants, and of the sheykhs of villages. Small ones of iron are worn by many children. It was also a common custom among the Arabs for girls or young women to wear a string of bells on their feet. I have seen many little girls in Cairo with small round bells attached to their anklets. Perhaps it is to the sound of ornaments of this kind, rather than of the more common anklet, that Isaiah alludes.' The anklets in use
[1, 2, 5, 6, 7. Ancient Oriental. 3, 4, 8. Modern Oriental.] among the Arab women in the country of the Tigris and Euphrates are not usually solid, but hollow, so that, in striking against each other, they emit a much more sharp and sonorous sound than solid ones.
1. AN'NA, wife of Tobit, whose history is contained in the apocryphal book named after him (Tob. i. 9, &c.).
2. ANNA, an aged widow, daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She had married early, but after seven years her husband died, and during her long widowhood she daily attended the morning and evening services of the Temple. Anna was eighty-four years old when the infant Jesus was brought to the Temple by his mother, and entering as Simeon pronounced his thanksgiving, she also broke forth in praise to God for the fulfilment of his ancient promises (Luke ii. 36, 37).
ANOINTING. The practice of anointing with perfumed oils or ointments appears to have been very common among the Hebrews, as it was among the ancient Egyptians. The practice, as to its essential meaning, still remains in the East; but perfumed waters are now far more commonly employed than oils or ointments.
In the Scriptures three kinds of anointing are distinguishable:-1. For consecration and inauguration; 2. For guests and strangers; 3. For health and cleanliness. Of these in order.
1. Consecration and Inauguration.-The act of anointing appears to have been viewed as emblematical of a particular sanctification; of a designation to the service of God; or to a holy and sacred use. Hence the anointing of the high
The first instance of anointing which the Scriptures record is that of Aaron, when he was solemnly set apart to the high-priesthood. Being first invested with the rich robes of his high office, the sacred oil was poured in much profusion upon his head. It is from this that the high-priest, as well as the king, is called 'the Anointed (Lev. iv. 3, 5, 16; vi. 20; Ps. cxxxiii. 2). In fact, anointing being the principal ceremony of regal inauguration among the Jews, as crowning is with us, anointed,' as applied to a king, has much the same signification as 'crowned.'
to attend every guest as he seated himself, and to anoint his head.
2. The anointing of our Saviour's feet by the woman who was a sinner' (Luke vii. 38), led to the remark that the host himself had neglected to anoint his head (vii. 46); whence we learn that this was a mark of attention which those who gave entertainments paid to their guests. Among the Egyptians anointing was the ordinary token of welcome to guests in every party at the house of a friend; and in Egypt, no less than in Judæa, the metaphorical expression anointed with the oil of gladness' was fully understood, and applied to the ordinary occurrences of life. It was customary for a servant
3. It is probable, however, that the Egyptians, as well as the Greeks and Jews, anointed themselves at home, before going abroad, althongh they expected the observance of this etiquette on the part of their entertainer. That the Jews thus anointed themselves, not only when paying a visit, but on ordinary occasions, is shown by many passages, especially those which describe the omission of it as a sign of mourning (Deut. xxviii. 40; Ruth iii. 3; 2 Sam. xiv. 2; Dan. x. 3; Amos vi. 6; Mic. vi. 15; Esth. ii. 12; Ps. eiv. 15; Isa. Ixi. 3; Eccles. ix. 8; Cant. i. 3; iv. 10; also Judith x. 3; Sus. 17; Ecclus. xxxix. 26; Wisd. ii. 7). One of these passages (Ps. civ. 15, oil that maketh the face to shine') shows very clearly that not only the hair but the skin was anointed.
As the custom of inaugural anointing first occurs among the Israelites immediately after they left Egypt, and no example of the same kind is met with previously, it is fair to conclude that the practice and the notions connected with it were acquired in that country. With the Egyp-in tians, as with the Jews, the investiture to any sacred office, as that of king or priest, was coufirmed by this external sign; and as the Jewish lawgiver mentions the ceremony of pouring oil upon the head of the high-priest after he had put on his entire dress, with the mitre and crown, the Egyptians represent the anointing of their priests and kings after they were attired in their full robes, with the cap and crown upon their heads. Some of the sculptures introduce a priest pouring oil over the monarch.
Anointing the Sick.-The Orientals are indeed strongly persuaded of the sanative properties of oil; and it was under this impression that the Jews anointed the sick, and applied oil to wounds (Ps. cix. 18; Isa. i. 6; Mark vi. 13; Luke x. 34; James v. 14). Anointing was used sundry disorders, as well as to promote the general health of the body. It was hence, as a salutary and approved medicament, that the seventy disciples were directed to anoint the sick' (Mark vi. 13); and hence also the siek man is directed by St. James to send for the elders of the church, who were to pray for him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord."
Anointing the Dead.-The practice of anointing the bodies of the dead is intimated in Mark xiv. 8, and Luke xxiii. 56. This ceremony was performed after the body was washed, and was designed to check the progress of corruption. Although, from the mode of application, it is called anointing, the substance employed appears to have been a solution of odoriferous drugs. This (together with the laying of the body in spices) was the only kind of embalment in use among the Jews [BURIAL].
ANT, fifth order of insects, occurs Prov. vi. 6; xxx. 25. Ants have only latterly become the subjects of accurate observation, and the result has dissipated many erroneous notions respecting them, and revealed much interesting information concerning their domestic polity, language, migrations, affections, passions, virtues, wars, diversions, &c. The following facts are selected as relevant to Scriptural illustration. Ants dwell together in societies; and although they have no guide, overseer, or ruler,' yet they have all one soul, and are animated by one object-their own welfare and the welfare of each other. Each individual strenuously pursues his own peculiar duties; and regards (except in the case of females), and is regarded by, every other member of the republic with equal respect and affection. They devote the utmost attention to their young. The egg is cleaned and licked, and gradually expands under this treatment, till the worm is hatched, which is then tended and fed with the most affectionate care. They continue their assiduity to the pupa, or chrysalis, which is the third transformation. They heap up the pupa, which greatly resemble so many grains of wheat, or rather rice, by hundreds in their spacious lodges, watch them in
in attitude of defence, carry them out to enjoy he radiance of the sun, and remove them to tifferent situations in the nest, according to the required degree of temperature; open the pupa, ind at the precise moment of the transformaion, disenthral the new-born insect of its habiiments.
The most prevalent and inexcusable error, however, respecting ants, has been the belief hat they hoard up grains of corn, chiefly wheat, For their supply during winter, having first bitten out the germ to prevent it from growing n their nests. This notion, however, is now ompletely exploded with regard to European ints. The mistake has no doubt arisen from he great similarity, both in shape, size, and olour, before mentioned, of the pupa or chryalis of the ant to a grain of corn, and from the ants being observed to carry them about, and o open the cuticle to let out the enclosed insect. t is now also ascertained beyond a doubt that o European ants, hitherto properly examined, ed on corn, or any other kind of grain. Nor as any species of ant been yet found of any ind laid up in its nest. The truth is, that ants ire chiefly carnivorous, preying indiscriminately n all the soft parts of other insects, and espeially the viscera; also upon worms, whether lead or alive, and small birds or animals. If inable to drag their booty to the nest, they make an abundant meal upon it, and, like the bee, disForge it, upon their return home, for the use of their companions; and they appear able to retain at pleasure the nutritious juices unchanged for a considerable time. Ants are also extremely fond of saccharine matter, which they obtain from the exudation of trees, or from ripe fruits, &c.; but their favourite food is the saccharine exudation from the body of the aphides, or plantlice. These insects insert their tube or sucker between the fibres of vegetables, where they find a most substantial nutriment. This nutriment they retain a considerable time, if no ant approaches them. The ant has the talent of procuring it from the aphides at pleasure. It approaches the aphis, strikes it gently and repeatedly with its antenna, when it instantly discharges the juice by two tubes, easily discerned o be standing out from its body. These creaares are the milch kine of the ants. By a remarkable coincidence, which M. Huber justly considers too much to be ascribed to chance, the phides and the ants become torpid at the same degree of cold (27° Fahr.), and revive together at the same degree of warmth. He says, I am ot acquainted with any ants to whom the art of obtaining from the pucerons (aphides) their Subsistence is unknown. We might even venure to affirm that these insects are made for their use' (Huber, Natural History of Ants, p. 210, &c.).
be devoured by these devastators. We have therefore every reason to conclude that the ants of Palestine, like those of Europe, are carnivorous, become torpid in winter, and need no magazine of provisions. The words of Solomon (Prov. vi. 6, &c.), properly considered, give no countenance to the ancient error respecting ants. He does not affirm that the ant, which he proposes to the sluggard as an example, laid up in her magazine stores of grain against winter, but that, with considerable prudence and foresight, she makes use of proper seasons to collect a supply of provisions sufficient for her purposes. There is not a word in them implying that she stores up grain or other provisions. She prepares her bread and gathers her food (namely, such food as is suited to her) in summer and harvest (that is, when it is most plentiful), and thus shows her wisdom and prudence by using the advantages offered to her. The sense is thus ably given by Dr. Hammond: As in the matter just mentioned the least delay is pernicious, so in all things else sluggishness, or negligence of those things which concern us most nearly, should ever be avoided; and if we need any instructor on this head, we may go to one of the least and meanest of creatures.' The moral, then, intended in Solomon's allusion to the ant, is simply to avail one's self of the favourable time without delay.
ANTEDILUVIANS, the name given collectively to the people who lived before the Deluge. The interval from the Creation to that event is not less, even according to the Hebrew text, than 1657 years, being not more than 691 years shorter than that between the Deluge and the birth of Christ, and only 167 years less than from the birth of Christ to the present time, and equal to about two-sevenths of the whole period from the Creation. By the Samaritan and Septuagint texts (as adjusted by Hales) a much greater duration is assigned to the antediluvian period-namely, 2256 years, which nearly equals the Hebrew interval from the Deluge to the birth of Christ, and much exceeds the interval from the birth of Christ to the present time.
In the article ADAM' it has been shown that the father of men was something more than the noble savage,' or rather the grown-up infant, which some have represented him. He was an instructed man;-and the immediate descendants of a man so instructed could not be an ignorant or uncultivated people. Their pursuits from the first were agricultural and pastoral; for it is remarkable that of the strictly savage or hunting condition of life there is not the slightest trace before the Deluge. In fact, savageism is not discoverable before the Confusion of Tongues, and was in all likelihood a degeneracy from a state of cultivation, eventually produced in particular communities by that
It is highly probable that the exotic ants sub-great social convulsion. All that was peculiar sist by similar means. The accounts given us in the circumstances of the antediluvian period of the termites, or ants, inhabiting the hottest was eminently favourable to civilization. elimates, clearly show that they are carnivorous. Bosman, in his description of Guinea, says that they will devour a sheep in one night, and that a fowl is amusement to them only for an hour. In these situations living animals often become their victims. An Italian missionary at Congo relates that a cow in a stall had been known to
By reason of their length of life, the antediluvians had ample opportunities of acquiring the highest skill in the mechanical arts. They had also more encouragement in protracted undertakings, and stronger inducements to the erection of superior, more costly, more durable, and more capacious edifices and monuments,
public and private, than exist at present. They might reasonably calculate on reaping the benefit of their labour and expenditure. The earth itself was probably more equally fertile, and its climate more uniformly healthful, and more auspicious to longevity, and consequently to every kind of mental and corporeal exertion and enterprise, than has been the case since the great convulsion which took place at the Deluge.
But probably the greatest advantage enjoyed by the antediluvians, ard which must have been in the highest degree favourable to their advancement in the arts of life, was the uniformity of language. Nothing could have tended more powerfully to maintain, equalize, and promote whatever advantages were enjoyed, and to prevent any portion of the human race from degenerating into savage life.
The opinion that the old world was acquainted with astronomy, is chiefly founded on the ages of Seth and his descendants being particularly set down (Gen. v. 6, sqq.), and the precise year, month, and day being stated in which Noah and his family, &c. entered the ark, and made their egress from it (Gen. vii. 11; viii. 13). The knowledge of zoology, which Adam possessed, was doubtless imparted to his children; and we find that Noah was so minutely informed on the subject as to distinguish between clean and unclean beasts, and that his instructions extended to birds of every kind (Gen. vii. 2-4). A knowledge of some essential principles in botany is shown by the fact that Adam knew how to distinguish seed-bearing herb' and 'tree in which is a seed-bearing fruit,' with every green herb' (Gen. i. 29, 30). With mineralogy the antediluvians were at least so far acquainted as to distinguish metals; and in the description of the garden of Eden gold and precious stones are noticed (Gen. ii. 12). That the antediluvians were acquainted with music is certain; for it is expressly said that Jubal (while Adam was still alive) became the father of those who handle the kinnur and hugab' (Gen. iv. 21). The kinnur was evidently a stringed instrument resembling a lyre; and the hugab was without doubt the pandaan pipe, composed of reeds of different lengths joined together. This clearly intimates considerable progress in the science.
Our materials are too scanty to allow us to affirm that the antediluvians possessed the means of communicating their ideas by writing or by hieroglyphics, although tradition, and a hint or two in the Scriptures, might support the assertion. With regard to architecture, it is a singular and important fact that Cain, when he was driven from his first abode, built a city in the land to which he went, and called it Enoch, after his son. This shows that the descendants of Adam lived in houses and towns from the first, and consequently affords another confirmation of the argument for the original cultivation of the human family. The metallurgy of the antediluvians has been noticed in ADAM:' and to what is there said of agriculture we shall only add a reference to the case of Noah, who, immediately after the Flood, became a husbandman, and planted a vineyard. He also knew the method of fermenting the juice of the grape; for it is said he drank of the wine, which produced inebriation (Gen. ix. 20, 21). This
knowledge he doubtless obtained from his progenitors anterior to the destruction of the old world.
Pasturage appears to have been coeval with husbandry. Abel was a keeper of sheep, while his brother was a tiller of the ground (Gen. | iv. 2); but there is no necessity for supposing that Cain's husbandry excluded the care of cattle. The class of tent-dwelling pastors-that is, of those who live in tents that they may move with their flocks and herds from one pastureground to another-did not originate till comparatively late after the Fall; for Jabal, the seventh from Adam in the line of Cain, is said to have been the 'father' or founder of that mode of life (Gen. iv. 20).
It is impossible to speak with any decision. respecting the form or forms of government which prevailed before the Deluge. The slight intimations to be found on the subject seem te favour the notion that the particular governments were patriarchal, subject to a general theocratical control. The right of property was recognised, for Abel and Jabal possessed flocks, and Cain built a city. From Noah's familiarity with the distinction of clean and unclean beasts (Gen. vii. 2), it would seem that the Levitica! rules on this subject were by no means new when. laid down in the code of Moses.
Marriage, and all the relations springing from it, existed from the beginning (Gen. in 23-25); and although polygamy was know. among the antediluvians (Gen. iv. 19), it was most probably unlawful; for it must have bee. obvious that, if more than one wife had been necessary for a man, the Lord would not have confined the first man to one woman. The marriage of the sons of Seth with the daughters of Cain appears to have been prohibited, since the consequence of it was that universal depravity in the family of Seth so forcibly expressed in this short passage, All flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth' (Gen. vi. 12)..
It is probable that even the longevity of the antediluvians may have contributed to the general corruption of manners. As there was probably a good deal of time upon their hands, the temptations to idleness were likely to be very strong; and the next step would be to licentious habits and selfish violence. The ample leisure possessed by the children of Adam might have been employed for many excellent purposes of social life and religious obedience, and undoubtedly it was so employed by many; but to the larger part it became a snare and the occasion of temptations, so that the wickedness of man became great, the earth was corrupt before God, and was filled with violence.'
ANTICHRIST. The meaning attached to this word has been greatly modified by the con troversies of various churches and sects. In Scripture, however, and the early Christian writers, it has an application sufficiently distinct from partial interpretations. Antichrist, according to St. John, is the ruling spirit of error, the enemy of the truth of the Gospel as it is displayed in the divinity and holiness of Christ. This is the primary meaning of the term, and we are led at once to consider it as the proper title of Satan. But the same apostle speaks of the existence of many antichrists; whence we
residence of the Syrian kings, and afterwards became the capital of the Roman provinces in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and Alexandria, among the cities of the empire, and was little inferior in size and splendour to the latter. Its suburb Daphne was celebrated for its grove and fountains, its asylum and temple were dedicated to Apollo and Diana. It was very populous; within 150 years after its erection the Jews slew 100,000 persons in it in one day. In the time of Chrysostom the population was computed at 200,000, of whom one-half, or even a greater proportion, were professors of Christianity. Cicero speaks of the city as distinguished by men of learning and the cultivation of the arts. A multitude of Jews resided in it. Seleucus Nicator granted them the rights of citizenship, and placed them on a perfect equality with the other inhabitants. These privileges were continued to them by Vespasian and Titus. Antioch is called libera by Pliny, having obtained from Pompey the privilege of being governed by its own laws.
The Christian faith was introduced at an early period into Antioch, and with great success (Acts xi. 19. 21, 24). The name Christians' was here first applied to its professors (Acts xi. 26) Antioch soon became a central point for the diffusion of Christianity among the Gentiles, and maintained for several centuries a high rank in the Christian world. A controversy which arose between certain Jewish believers from Jerusalem and the Gentile converts at Antioch respecting the permanent obligation of the right of circumcision was the occasion of the first apostolic council or convention (Acts xv.). Antioch was the scene of the early labours of the apostle Paul, and the place whence he set forth on his first missionary labours (Acts xi. 26; xiii. 2). Ignatius
As the ecclesiastical system became gradually assimilated to the political, the churches in those cities which held the highest civil rank assumed a corresponding superiority in relation to other Christian communities. Such was the case at Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch, and, in the course of time, at Constantinople and Jerusalem, where the term Exarch was applied to the resident bishop, but shortly exchanged for that of Patriarch. At the present time there are three prelates in Syria who claim the title of patriarchs of Antioch, namely: (1) the patriarch of the Greek church; (2) of the Syrian Monophysites; (3) of the Maronites.
Few cities have undergone and survived greater vicissitudes and disasters than Antioch. In A.D. 260 Sapor, the Persian king, surprised and pillaged it, and multitudes of the inhabitants were slain or sold as slaves. It has been frequently brought to the verge of utter ruin by earthquakes; by that of A.D. 526 no less than 250,000 persons were destroyed, the population being swelled by an influx of strangers to the festival of the Ascension. The emperor Justinian gave forty-five centenaries of gold (180,000l.) to restore the city. Scarcely had it resumed its ancient splendour (A.D. 540) when it was again taken and delivered to the flames by Chosroes. In A.D. 658 it was captured by the Saracens. In A.D. 975 it was retaken by Nicephoras Phocas. In A.D. 1080 the son of the governor Philaretus betrayed it into the hands of Soliman. Seventeen years after the Duke of Normandy entered it at the head of 300,000 Crusaders; but as the citadel still held out, the victors were in their turn besieged by a fresh host under Kerboga and twentyeight emirs, which at last gave way to their desperate valour. In A.D. 1268 Antioch was occnpied and ruined by Boadocbar or Bibars, sultan of Egypt and Syria; this first seat of the Christian name being dispeopled by the slaughter of 17,000 persons, and the captivity of 100,000. About the middle of the fifteenth century the three patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem convoked a synod, and renounced all connection with the Latin church.
Antioch at present belongs to the Pashalic of Haleb (Aleppo), and bears the name of Antakia. The inhabitants are said to have amounted to twenty thousand before the earthquake of 1822, which destroyed four or five thousand. The present town stands on scarcely one-third of the area enclosed by the ancient wall, of which the line may be easily traced.
2. ANTIOCH in (or near) Pisidia, being a border city, was considered at different times as belonging to different provinces. It was founded by Seleucus Nicanor, and its first inhabitants were from Magnesia on the Mæander. After the defeat of Antiochus (III.) the Great by the Romans, it came into the possession of Eumenes, king of Pergamus, and was afterwards transferred to Amyntas. On his death the Romans made it the seat of a proconsular government, and invested it with the privileges of immunity from taxes and a municipal constitution similar to that of the Italian towns. When Paul and Barnabas visited this city (Acts xiii. 14), they