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23; xviii. 10; xix. 9), and it was probably used in both ways, according to its size.

That this instrument was really a harp, is now very generally denied; some writers on the subject conclude that it was a kind of guitar, and there is little room to doubt that this instrument was known to the Hebrews, and probably in use among them. It has been suggested, however, by the editor of the Pictorial Bible (on Ps. xliii. 4) that the lyre, in some of its various kinds, was denoted by the word kinnor; and subsequent inquiry has tended to establish this conclusion as firmly perhaps as the nature of the subject admits.

247. [Egyptian figures of lyres. 1, 2, played without, and 3, 4, with the plectrum; 4 is the supposed Hebrew lyre.]

2. The NEBEL is the next instrument which requires attention. The word is rendered 'psaltery' in the Authorized Version. As to when this instrument was invented, and when it came into use among the Hebrews, nothing can be determined with certainty. The first mention of it is in the reign of Saul (1 Sam. x. 5), and from that time forward we continue to meet with it in the Old Testament. The use of the instrument prevailed particularly in the public worship of God. It was played upon by several persons in the grand procession at the removal of the ark (1 Chron. xv. 16; xvi. 5); and in the final organization of the temple music it was entrusted to the families of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (1 Chron. xxv. 1-7). Out of the worship of God, it was employed at festivals and for luxurious purposes (Amos vi. 5). In the manufacture of this instrument a constant increase of splendour was exhibited. The first we meet with were made simply of the wood of the berosh (2 Sam. vi. 5; 1 Chron. xiii. 8), others of the rarer algum tree (1 Kings x. 12; 2 Chron. ix. 11); and some perhaps of metal (Joseph. Antiq. i. 8. 3), unless the last is to be understood of particular parts of the in


Conjectures respecting the probable form of this instrument have been exceedingly various. Passing by the eccentric notion that the nebel was a kind of bagpipe, we may assume from the evident tendency of the Scriptural intimations, and from the general bearing of other authorities, that

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248. [Egyptian triangular instruments.]

We are, however, far from thinking that the nebel was always of this shape. It appears to us to be a general name for several of the larger stringed instruments of the harp kind, and also to denote, in a more special sense, one particular sort. In fact we have the names of several instruments which are generally conceived to be i ferent varieties of the nebel. One of these kinds, if not the principal kind, or the one most frequently denoted by the word, was the ancient harp, agreeing more or less with that represented in the Egyptian monuments.


249. [Grand Egyptian harps.]

3. ASOR occurs as an instrument in only a few places, and never but in connection with the nebel This has given rise to the conjecture that the two instruments may have differed from each other only in the number of their strings, or the openings at the bottom. We see no reason to dissent from this conclusion.

4. GITTITH is a word which occurs in the titles to Ps. viii., lxxxi., lxxxiv., and is generally supposed to denote a musical instrument. From the name it has been supposed to be an instrument which David brought from Gath; and it has been inferred from Isa. xvi. 10, that it was in particular use at the vintage season. If an instrument of music, it is remarkable that it does not occur in the list of the instruments assigned by David to the temple musicians; nor even in that list which appears in verses 1 and 2 of Ps. lxxxi., in the title of which it is found. The

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250. [Bow-shaped Egyptian instruments.]

7. The PESANTERIN is the psaltery of the Greeks: it occurs only in Dan. iii. 7, 10, 15, where it is supposed to represent the Hebrew nebel.

8. The word MACHALATH, which occurs in the titles of Ps. liii. and lxxxviii., is supposed by Gesenius and others to denote a kind of lute or guitar, which instrument others find in the minnim above noticed. There can be little doubt that the Hebrews were in possession of instruments of this kind, although we cannot say with certainty that these are the precise words by which they are denoted.



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251. [Egyptian Instruments of the Lute kind.] II. WIND INSTRUMENTS.-There is, happily, less difficulty with respect to instruments of this class than with respect to stringed instruments. The most ordinary division of these is into trumpets and pipes, of which the Hebrews had both, and of various kinds.

1. The word KEREN, 'horn,' sometimes, but not often, occurs as the name of a musical instrument (Josh. vi. 5; 1 Chron. xxv. 5; Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15). Of natural horns, and of instruments in the shape of horns, the antiquity and general use are evinced by every extensive collection of antiquities. It is admitted that natural horns were at first used, and that they at length came to be


imitated in metal, but were still called horns. This use and application of the word are illustrated in our cornet.' It is generally conceived that rams' horns were the instruments used by the early Hebrews; and these are, indeed, expressly named in our own and many other versions, as the instruments used at the noted siege of Jericho (Josh. vi. 5); and the horns are those of the ram which Josephus assigns to the soldiers of Gideon (Antiq. v. 6. 5; comp. Judg. vii. 16).

2. The name SHOPHAR, which is a far more common word than keren, is rendered 'trumpet' in the Authorized Version. This name seems, first, to denote horns of the straighter kind, including, probably, those of neat cattle, and all the instruments which were eventually made in imitation of and in improvement upon such horns.

It is, however, difficult to draw a distinction between it and the keren, seeing that the words are sometimes used synonymously. Upon the whole, we may take the shophar, however distinguished from the keren, to have been that kind of horn or horn-shaped trumpet which was best known to the Hebrews. The name shophar means bright

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or clear, and the instrument may be conceived to have been so called from its clear and shrill sound, just as we call an instrument a 'clarion,' and speak of a musical tone as brilliant' or 'clear. In the service of God this shophar or trumpet was only employed in making announcements, and for calling the people together in the time of the holy solemnities, of war, of rebellion, or of any other great occasion (Exod. xix. 13; Num. x. 10; Judg. iii. 7; 1 Sam. xiii. 3; xv. 10; 2 Chron. xv. 14; Isa. xviii. 3).

3. The CHATZOZERAH was the straight trumpet, different from the shophar, which was more or less bent like a horn. There has been various speculation on the name; but we are disposed to assent to the conclusion of Gesenius, that it is an onomatopoetic word, imitating the broken pulselike sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Among the Israelites these trumpets were a divine regulation, Moses having been expressly directed how to make them (Num. x. 2). They were of pure beaten silver, but the particular form does not appear in Scripture. They are figured, however, on the arch of Titus, among the other spoils of the Jewish Temple (Fig. 5, No. 252), and they correspond with the description which Josephus. who, as a priest, could not in this matter


be mistaken, has given: Moses,' he says, 'invented a kind of trumpet of silver; in length it was little less than a cubit, and it was somewhat thicker than a pipe; its opening was oblong, so as to permit blowing on it with the mouth; at the lower end it had the form of a bell, like the horn.' The tone of this trumpet, or rather the noise made by blowing on it, was very variable, and is distinguished by different terms in Scripture.

4. JOBEL. There has been much speculation concerning the term, and it seems now to be agreed that the word does not denote a separate instrument, but is an epithet applied to the trumpets with which the jubilees were proclaimed, i. e. the jubilee-trumpet;' and as the same trumpets were used for signals and alarms, the alarmtrumpet, the alarm-horn.' This name for the sound of music is supposed to be derived from Jubal, the inventor of instruments of music.

Wind instruments of softer sound next require attention. The first and principal of these is the 5. CHALIL, the meaning of which is bored through, denotes a pipe, perforated and furnished with holes. There are but five places where it occurs in the Old Testament (1 Sam. x. 5; 1 Kings i. 40; Isa. v. 12; xxx. 29; Jer. xlviii. 36); but would seem to have come rather late into use among the Hebrews, and probably had a foreign origin. The passages to which we have referred will indicate the use of this instrument or class

253. [Egyptian reed-pipes.]

of instruments; but of the form we can only guess by reference to those of the ancient Egyptians, which are very similar to those still in use in Western Asia. The pipe is, however, rarely introduced in the Egyptian sculptures, and does not seem to have been held in much estimation. The principal are the single and double pipes. The single pipe of the Greeks is allowed to have been introduced from Egypt, from which the Jews probably had theirs. It was a straight tube, without any increase at the mouth, and when played was held with both hands. It was usually of moderate length, about eighteen inches, but occasionally less, and sometimes so exceedingly long, and the holes so low that the player was obliged to extend his arms to the utmost. Some had three holes, others four, and actual specimens made of common reed have been found."

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tubes, of equal or unequal lengths, having a common mouth-piece, and each played with the corresponding hand. They were distinguished as the right and left pipes, and the latter, having but few holes and emitting a deep sound, served as a base; the other had more holes and gave a sharp sound: this pipe is still used in Palestine.


From the references which have been given it will be seen that the pipe was, among the Jews, chiefly consecrated to joy and pleasure. So much was this the case that in the time of Judas Maccabæus the Jews complained that joy was taken from Jacob, and the pipe with the harp ceased' (1 Macc. iii. 45). It was particularly used to enliven the periodical journeys to Jerusalem to attend the great festivals (Isa. xxx. 29); and this custom of enlivening with music the tedium of travelling is common in the East at this day. Athenæus tells us of a plaintive pipe which was in use among the Phoenicians. This serves to illustrate Matt. ix. 23, where our Saviour, finding the flute-players with the dead daughter of the ruler, orders them away, because the damsel was not dead; and in this we also recognise the regulation of the Jews, that every one, however poor he might be, should have at least two pipes at the death of his wife.

6. The word MISHROKITHA occurs four times in Daniel (ch. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15), but nowhere else, and appears to be the Chaldæan name for the flute with two reeds, of which we have already spoken.


7. UGAB is the word rendered 'organ' in our version. This and the kinnor are the instruments whose invention is ascribed to Jubal (Gen. iv. 21), and higher antiquity cannot therefore be claimed for any instrument. There are only three other places in which it is mentioned in the Old Testament; two in the book of Job (xxi. 12; xxx. 31), and one in the Psalms (cl. 4). The name is taken from the term organon, employed by the Septuagint, which simply denotes a double or manifold pipe; and hence in particular the Pandæan or shepherd's pipe, which is at this day called a mouth organ' among ourselves. Formerly it was called simply organ,' and 'mouth' has been added to distinguish it from the comparatively modern instrument which has usurped The the more simple designation of organ.' Pandaan pipe is an instrument of such antiquity that the profane writers do not know to whom to ascribe it. This antiquity corresponds with the Scriptural intimation concerning the ugab, and justifies us in seeking for the syrinx among the more ancient instruments of the Orientals, especially as it is still common in Western Asia. Niebuhr saw it in the hands of a peasant at Cairo; and Russell says that the syring or Pan's pipe is still a festival instrument in Syria; it is known also in the city, but very few performers can sound it tolerably well. The higher notes are clear and pleasing, but the longer reeds are apt, like the dervise flute, to make a hissing sound, though blown by a good player. The number of reeds of which the syrinx is composed varies in different instruments from five to twenty-three.' The classical syrinx is usually said to have had seven reeds, but we find some in the monuments with a greater number, and the shepherd of Theocritus had one of nine reeds.


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