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command (comp. Ps. vi. 6).

Reuben rent his clothes upon finding Joseph gone (Gen. xxxvii. 29), and uttered lamentations (ver. 30). Jacob rends his clothes and puts sackcloth upon his loins, and mourns for his son many days; his sons and his daughters rise up to comfort him, and he gives utterance to his grief; thus his father wept for him' (Gen. xxxvii. 34, 35). Joseph's brothers rend their clothes (Gen. xliv. 13); and this act, as expressive of grief or horror, occurs in multitudes of passages down to the last age of the Jewish empire (Acts xiv. 14). Scarcely less numerous are the references to sackcloth on the loins as an expression of mourning; we have even lying in sackcloth (1 Kings xxi. 27), and sack- | cloth upon both man and beast at Nineveh (Jonah iii. 8). Joseph's brethren fell to the ground before him in token of grief (Gen. xliv. 14); and this, or lying or sitting on the ground, was a common token of mourning (comp. Ps. xxxv. 14; 1 Sam. xxv. 24; Isa. iii. 26; xlvii. 1; Ezek. xxvi. 16, &c.). The next incident in the history of the subject is the mourning for Jacob by the Egyptians, which was conducted, no doubt, by professional mourners during threescore and ten days (Gen. 1. 3), called the days of mourning (ver. 4), though most likely that computation includes the process of embalming. It seems to have amounted to a royal mourning, doubtless out of regard to Joseph. The mourning for Joseph's father was renewed by Joseph's command, with a very great and sore lamentation, upon the funeral cavalcade having arrived in Canaan, and continued seven days (ver. 10). When the children of Israel (B C. 1491) mourned under the threat of the divine displeasure, they did not put on their ornaments (Exod. xxxiii. 4; comp. Joel ii. 16; Ezek. xxiv. 17). At the giving of the law the modes of mourning were regulated by several enactments. It was forbidden the Jews to make cuttings in their flesh for the dead (Lev. xix. 28). The ancient Egyptians, according to Herodotus, did not cut themselves (ii. 61); it was a Syrian custom, as appears from the votaries of Baal (1 Kings xviii. 28); nor were the Jews allowed to make any baldness between their eyes for the dead (Deut. xiv. 1). The priests were forbidden to uncover the head in mourning (Lev. x. 6), or to rend their clothes, or to contract the ceremonial defilement involved in mourning except for their nearest kindred (Lev. xxi. 1, 4); but the high-priest was entirely forbidden to do so even for his father or his mother (ver. 11), and so was the Nazarite (Num. vi. 7). These prohibitions respecting the head and the beard (Lev. xix. 27) seem to have been restricted to funeral occasions, as the customs referred to were lawfully practised on other sorrowful events (comp. Ezra ix. 3; Job i. 20; Isa. xxii. 12; Jer. vii. 29; Micah i. 16). Even the food eaten by mourners was considered unclean (comp. Deut. xxvi. 14, with Hos. ix. 4; Ezek. xxiv. 17). The Jews were commanded to afflict their souls on the day of atonement (Lev. xxiii. 27), and at the Feast of Trumpets (Num. xxix. 7). All the house of Israel mourned for Aaron thirty days (Num. xx. 29). The Israelites wept for Moses thirty days, called the days of weeping and mourning for Moses (Deut. xxxiv. 8; B.C. 1451). Joshua and the elders of Israel put dust upon their heads at the defeat of Ai, and fasted (Josh. vii. 6), as did the eleven tribes


after the defeat at Gibeah, and wept (Judg. xx. 26), as did all the Israelites at the command of Joshua, on which occasion it is said they drew water and poured it out before the Lord' (1 Sam. vii. 6; comp. Ps. xxii. 14). The prophet Joel commanded a fast as part of a national mourning. A fast is proclaimed to all the inhabitants or visitors at Jerusalem (Jer. xxxvi. 9; comp. Zech. vii. 5). Fasting is practised at Nineveh as part of a public humiliation (Jonah iii. 5). In our Lord's language, to fast' and to mourn' are the same thing (Matt. ix. 15). Public humiliations attended with religious assemblies and prayers (Joel ii. 16, 17); with fasts (Isa. lviii. 3); see all these united (1 Macc. iii. 44, 47, 48). The first complete description of mourning for the dead occurs in 2 Sam. iii. 31, 35. Elegies were composed by the prophets on several disastrous occasions (Ezek. xxvi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-36: Amos v. 1, &c.). In Ps. xxxv., which is ascribed to David, there is a description of the humiliations practised by the friends of the sick, in order to procure their recovery. Samuel is honoured with a public mourning by the Israelites (1 Sam. xxv. 1), B.C. 1058. Upon the death of Saul, David wrote an elegy (2 Sam. i. 17-27). This, like that upon the death of Abner, seems to be a poetical description of the character of the departed, like the dirge for an Egyptian king. Lifting up the hands seems to have been an expression of grief (Ps. cxli. 2; Lam. i. 17; Ezra ix. 5). Messengers were sent to condole with survivors; thus David sent such to Hanun, king of Ammon, upon the death of his father (2 Sam. x. 1, 2); Many of the Jews came to comfort Martha and Mary' (John xi. 19); A great company of women attended our Lord to the cross, bewailing and lamenting him' (Luke xxiii. 27); Much people' were with the widow of Nain (Luke vii. 12). Indeed, if persons met a funeral procession they were expected to join it—a custom which is thought to illustrate St. Paul's words,

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Weep with them that weep' (Rom. xii. 15). Ashes were often laid on the head in token of mourning; thus Tamar put ashes on her head, rent her garment, and laid her hand upon her head, and went on crying' (2 Sam. xiii. 19, 20; comp. Isa. Ixi. 3; 2 Esdras ix. 38). They even wallowed in ashes (Ezek. xxvii. 30). Mourning apparel is first mentioned in 2 Sam. xiv. 2, where it appears that the wearer did not anoint himself with oil (comp. Matt. vi. 17). The first reference to hired mourners occurs in Eccles. xii. 5, 'The mourners go about the streets.' They are certainly alluded to in Jer. ix. 17-20, the mourning women' (probably widows, comp. Ps. Ixxviii. 64; Acts ix. 39). Another reference to them occurs in 2 Chron. xxxv. 25. The greater number of the mourners in ancient Egypt were women, as in the modern East. In the following cut (No. 245) mourners, all females, are shown casting dust upon their heads before the mummy of a man. Mourning for the dead was conducted in a tumultuous manner; they also wept and wailed greatly (Mark v. 38). Even devout men made great lamentations (Acts viii. 2).

Among other signs of mourning they shaved the head, and even tore off the hair (Amos viii. 10; Micah i. 16; Isa. xv. 2; xxii. 12; Jer. vii. 29). Ezra plucked off the hair of his head and or his beard (Ezra ix. 3; Joseph. Antiq. xvi. 7. 5).




The Jews went up to the house-tops to mourn | pearance common to the Latin nations, no par(Isa. xv. 2, 3; xxii. 1); and so did the Moabites

245. [Egyptian Mourners-ashes on Head.]

(Jer. xlviii. 37, 38; Judith viii. 5). They also made cuttings in their hands (Jer. xlviii. 37, 38); they smote upon the thigh (Jer. xxxi. 19; Ezek. xxi. 12); on the breast (Nahum ii. 7; Luke xviii. 13; xxiii. 48); they smote both hands together (Num. xxiv. 10), stamped with the foot (Ezek. vi. 11), bowed down the head (Lam. ii. 10), covered the lips (Micah iii. 7), the face (2 Sam. xix. 4), and the head (2 Sam. xv. 30), and went barefoot (2 Sam. xv. 30). Neighbours and friends provided food for the mourners (2 Sam. iii. 35; Jer. xvi. 7; comp. Ezek. xxiv. 17); this was

246. [Wail with Tabrets, &c.]

called 'the bread of bitterness,' the cup of consolation.' In later times the Jews had a custom of giving bread to the poor, at funerals, and leaving it for their use at tombs and graves. Women went to tombs to indulge their grief (John xi. 31); anniversary mournings (1 Esdras i. 22).

MOUSE. The word occurs where, it seems, the nomenclature in modern zoology would point out two species of distinct genera (Lev. xi. 29; 1 Sam. vi. 4, 5, 11, 18; Isa. lxvi. 17). It is likely that the Hebrews extended the acceptation of the word achbar, in the same manner as was the familiar custom of the Greeks, and still more of the Romans, who included within their term mus several species, such as shrews, stoats, &c. In the above texts, all in 1 Sam. vi. apparently refer to the short-tailed field-mouse, which is still the most destructive animal to the harvests of Syria, and is most likely the species noticed in antiquity and during the crusades; for, had they been jerboas in shape and resembled miniature kangaroos, we would expect William of Tyre to have mentioned the peculiar form of the destroyers, which was then unknown to Western Europe; whereas, they being of species or ap

ticulars were required. But in Leviticus and Isaiah, where the mouse is declared an unclean animal, the species most accessible and likely to invite the appetite of nations who, like the Arabs, were apt to covet all kinds of animals, even when expressly forbidden, were, no doubt, the hamster and the dormouse; and both are still eaten in common with the jerboa, by the Bedouins, who are but too often driven to extremity by actual want of food.

MOUTH. The ordinary applications of this word, common to all languages, require no explanation; but the following somewhat peculiar uses may be noted: Heavy-mouthed,' that is, slow of speech, and so translated in Exod. iv. 10; smooth mouth' (Ps. xxvi. 28), that is, a flattering mouth; so also a mouth of deceit' (Ps. cix. 2). The following are also remarkable phrases: To speak with one mouth to mouth, that is, in without the intervention of an person,

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interpreter (Num. xii. 8; comp. 1 Kings viii. 15; Jer. xxxii. 4). With one mouth,' that is, with one voice or consent (Josh. ix. 2; 1 Kings xxii. 13; 2 Chron. xviii. 12). With the whole mouth,' that is, with the utmost strength of voice (Job xix. 16; Ps. lxvi. 17). To put words into one's mouth,' that is, to suggest what one shall say (Exod. iv. 15; Num. xxii. 38; xxiii. 5, 12; 2 Sam. xiv. 19, &c.). To be in one's mouth,' is to be often spoken of, as a law, &c. (Exod. xiii. 9; comp. Ps. v. 10; xxxviii. 15). To lay the hand upon the mouth,' is to be silent (Judg. xviii. 19; Job xxi. 5; xl. 4; comp. Prov. xxx. 32), just as we lay the finger on the mouth to enjoin silence. To write from the mouth of any one is to do so from his dictation (Jer. xxxvi. 4, 27, 32; xlv. 1).

The mouth, as the organ of speech, also signifies the words that proceed out of it, which in the sacred style are the same as commands and actions. Hence, for a person or thing to come out of the mouth of another is to be constituted or commanded to become an agent or minister under a superior power: this is frequent in the Revelations (Rev. xvi. 13, 14; i. 16; xi. 4, 5; xii. 15; ix. 19). The term mouth is not only applied to a speech or words, but to the speaker (Exod. iv. 16; Jer. xv. 19), in which sense it has a near equivalent in our expression 'mouthpiece.'

MUSIC. It seems probable that music is the oldest of all the fine arts. It is more than any other an immediate work of nature. Hence we find it among all nations, even those which are totally ignorant of every other art. Some instruments of music are in Scripture named even before the deluge, as being invented by Jubal, one of Cain's descendants (Gen. iv. 21); and some will regard this as confirmed by the common opinion of the Orientals. Chardin relates that the Persians and Arabians call musicians and singers Kayne, or descendants from Cain.' The instruments invented by Jubal seem to have remained in use after the flood, or at least the names were still in use, and occur in the latest books of the Old Testament. Music, in practical use, is almost constantly mentioned in connection with the song and the dance (Gen. xxxi. 27; Exod. xv. 20), and was doubtless employed to elevate the former and regulate the latter. Women

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especially are seen to have employed it in this connection from the earliest times (Exod. xv. 20; Judg. xi. 34; 1 Sam. xviii. 6). At a later period we trace the appearance of foreign girls in Palestine, as in Greece and Italy, who visited the towns like the Bayaderes of the present day (Isa. xxiii. 16). Music was also through all periods used in social meetings, and in public rejoicings (1 Kings i. 40; Isa. v. 12; xiv. 11; xxiv. 8; Amos vi. 5; Hag. v. 14; 1 Macc. ix. 39; Judith iii. 8). By David music was variously and conspicuously connected with the temple worship (1 Chron. xxv. 1); in particular, the Levites, in their several choirs, performed their music divided into different classes at the great sacrifices (2 Chron. xxix. 25; xxx. 21; XXXV. 15). The prophets also appear to have regarded music as necessary to their services (1 Sam. x. 5); and they used it sometimes for the purpose, apparently, of bringing their minds into the frame suited for prophetic inspirations (2 Kings iii. 15). In the case of David playing before Saul, we have marked and interesting evidence that the effect of music in soothing the perturbations of a disordered intellect was well known among the Hebrews (1 Sam. xvi. 16).

With respect to the nature of the Hebrew music, it was doubtless of the same essential character as that of other ancient nations, and of all the present Oriental nations; consisting not so much in harmony (in the modern sense of the term) as in unison or melody.


names of other songs according to which these were to be sung [PSALMS].

The allusions to music in the Scriptures are so incidental and concise, that it will never be possible to form out of them a complete or connected view of the state of musical science among the ancient Hebrews. The little knowledge which has been realized on the subject has been obtained chiefly through the patient labours and minute investigations of Calmet, Forkel, Pfeiffer, Jahn, Winer, De Wette, and other authors.

It is less difficult to determine the general character of the Hebrew instruments of music, than to identify the particular instruments which are named in the Hebrew Scriptures. We see certain instruments different from our own in use among the modern Orientals, and we infer that the Hebrew instruments were probably not unlike these. When, however, we endeavour to identify with these a particular instrument named by the Hebrews, our difficulty begins; because the Hebrew names are seldom to be recognised in those which they now bear, and because the Scripture affords us little information respecting the form of the instruments which it mentions. The matter naturally arranges itself under the following heads

I. Stringed Instruments.
II. Wind Instruments.

III. Instruments of Percussion. I.-1. At the head of the STRINGED INSTRUMENTS we must place the kinnor, which is renThe old, the young, maidens, &c., appear to dered 'harp' in the Authorized Version. The have sung one part. The instruments by which, invention and first use of this instrument are in singing, this melody was accompanied, occu- ascribed to Jubal (Gen. iv. 21); and Laban pied the part of a sustained base; and, if we are names it among the instruments which should disposed to apply in this case what Niebuhr has have celebrated the departure of his son-in-law told us, the beauty of the concerts consisted in (Gen. xxxi. 27). In the first ages the kinnor was this-that other persons repeated the music which consecrated to joy and exultation; hence the had just been sung, three, four, or five notes, frequency of its use by David and others in lower or higher. Such, for instance, was the praise of the Divine Majesty. It is thought concert which Miriam held with her musical probable that the instrument received some imfellows, and to which the "toph,' or tabret, fur-provements from David (comp. Amos ví. 5). In nished the continued base. To this mode of bringing back the ark of the covenant (1 Chron. performance belongs the 24th Psalm, which rests xvi. 5), as well as afterwards, at the consecration altogether upon the varied representation; in of the temple, the kinnor was assigned to players like manner, also, the 20th and 21st Psalms. of known eminence, chiefly of the family of JeThis was all the change it admitted; and al- duthun (1 Chron. xxv. 3). The sorrowing Jews though it is very possible that this monotonous, of the captivity, far removed from their own land or rather unisonous music, might not be interest- and the shadow of the sanctuary, hung their ing to ears tuned to musical progressions, modu-kinnors upon the willows by the waters of Babylations, and cadences, there is something in it lon, and refused to sing the songs of Zion in a with which the Orientals are well pleased. strange land (Ps. cxxxvii. 2). Many other pasA music of this description could easily dis-sages of similar purport might be adduced in pense with the compositions which mark the time by notes; and the Hebrews do not appear to have known anything of musical notation; for that the accents served that purpose is a position which yet remains to be proved. At the best the accent must have been a very imperfect instrument for this purpose, however high its antiquity.

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order to fix the uses of an instrument, the name of which occurs so often in the Hebrew Scrip tures. They mostly indicate occasions of joy, such as jubilees and festivals. Of the instrument itself the Scripture affords us little further information than that it was composed of the sounding parts of good wood, and furnished with strings. David made it of the berosh wood [BEROSH]; Solomon of the more costly algum (2 Sam. vi. 5; 2 Kings x. 12); and Josephus mentions some composed of the mixed metal called electrum. He also asserts that it was furnished with ten strings, and played with a plectrum (Antiq. vii. 12. 3); which however is not understood to imply that it never had any other number of strings, or was always played with the plectrum. David certainly played it with the hand (1 Sam. xvi.


23; xviii. 10; xix. 9), and it was probably used in both ways, according to its size.

That this instrument was really a harp, is now very generally denied; some writers on the subject conclude that it was a kind of guitar, and there is little room to doubt that this instrument was known to the Hebrews, and probably in use among them. It has been suggested, however, by the editor of the Pictorial Bible (on Ps. xliii. 4) that the lyre, in some of its various kinds, was denoted by the word kinnor; and subsequent inquiry has tended to establish this conclusion as firmly perhaps as the nature of the subject admits.

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247. [Egyptian figures of lyres. 1, 2, played without, and 3, 4, with the plectrum; 4 is the supposed Hebrew lyre.]

2. The NEBEL is the next instrument which requires attention. The word is rendered 'psaltery' in the Authorized Version. As to when this instrument was invented, and when it came into use among the Hebrews, nothing can be determined with certainty. The first mention of it is in the reign of Saul (1 Sam. x. 5), and from that time forward we continue to meet with it in the Old Testament. The use of the instrument prevailed particularly in the public worship of God. It was played upon by several persons in the grand procession at the removal of the ark (1 Chron. xv. 16; xvi. 5); and in the final organization of the temple music it was entrusted to the families of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (1 Chron. xxv. 1-7). Out of the worship of God, it was employed at festivals and for luxurious purposes (Amos vi. 5). In the manufacture of this instrument a constant increase of splendour was exhibited. The first we meet with were made simply of the wood of the berosh (2 Sam. vi. 5; 1 Chron. xiii. 8), others of the rarer algum tree (1 Kings x. 12; 2 Chron. ix. 11); and some perhaps of metal (Joseph. Antiq. i. 8. 3), unless the last is to be understood of particular parts of the in


Conjectures respecting the probable form of this instrument have been exceedingly various. Passing by the eccentric notion that the nebel was a kind of bagpipe, we may assume from the evident tendency of the Scriptural intimations, and from the general bearing of other authorities, that

248. [Egyptian triangular instruments.]

We are, however, far from thinking that the nebel was always of this shape. It appears to us to be a general name for several of the larger stringed instruments of the harp kind, and also to denote, in a more special sense, one particular sort. In fact we have the names of several instruments which are generally conceived to be ferent varieties of the nebel. One of these kinds, if not the principal kind, or the one most frequently denoted by the word, was the ancient harp, agreeing more or less with that represented in the Egyptian monuments.


249. [Grand Egyptian harps.]

3. ASOR occurs as an instrument in only a few places, and never but in connection with the nebel This has given rise to the conjecture that the two instruments may have differed from each other only in the number of their strings, or the openings at the bottom. We see no reason to dissent from this conclusion.

4. GITTITH is a word which occurs in the titles to Ps. viii., lxxxi., lxxxiv., and is generally supposed to denote a musical instrument. From the name it has been supposed to be an instrument which David brought from Gath; and it has been inferred from Isa. xvi. 10, that it was in particular use at the vintage season. If an instrument of music, it is remarkable that it does not occur in the list of the instruments assigned by David to the temple musicians; nor even in that list which appears in verses 1 and 2 of Ps. lxxxi., in the title of which it is found. The

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supposition of Gesenius, that it is a general name | for a stringed instrument, obviates this difficulty. 5. The word MINNIM, which occurs in Ps. xlv. 8, and cl. 4, is supposed by some to denote a stringed instrument, but it seems merely a poetical allusion to the strings of any instrument.

6. The SABECA is the instrument rendered 'sackbut,' in Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15. It seems to have been a species of harp or lyre, and, as some think, was only a species of the nebel, distinguished by the number of its strings.

250. [Bow-shaped Egyptian instruments.]

7. The PESANTERIN is the psaltery of the Greeks: it occurs only in Dan. iii. 7, 10, 15, where it is supposed to represent the Hebrew nebel.

8. The word MACHALATH, which occurs in the titles of Ps. liii. and lxxxviii., is supposed by Gesenius and others to denote a kind of lute or guitar, which instrument others find in the minnim above noticed. There can be little doubt that the Hebrews were in possession of instruments of this kind, although we cannot say with certainty that these are the precise words by which they are denoted.



imitated in metal, but were still called horns. This use and application of the word are illustrated in our cornet.' It is generally conceived that rams' horns were the instruments used by the early Hebrews; and these are, indeed, expressly named in our own and many other versions, as the instruments used at the noted siege of Jericho (Josh. vi. 5); and the horns are those of the ram which Josephus assigns to the soldiers of Gideon (Antiq. v. 6. 5; comp. Judg. vii. 16).

2. The name SHOPHAR, which is a far more common word than keren, is rendered 'trumpet' in the Authorized Version. This name seems, first, to denote horns of the straighter kind, including, probably, those of neat cattle, and all the instruments which were eventually made in imitation of and in improvement upon such horns. It is, however, difficult to draw a distinction between it and the keren, seeing that the words are sometimes used synonymously. Upon the whole, we may take the shophur, however distinguished from the keren, to have been that kind of horn or horn-shaped trumpet which was best known to the Hebrews. The name shophar means bright



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251. [Egyptian Instruments of the Lute kind.] II. WIND INSTRUMENTS.-There is, happily, less difficulty with respect to instruments of this class than with respect to stringed instruments. The most ordinary division of these is into trumpets and pipes, of which the Hebrews had both, and of various kinds.

1. The word KEREN, 'horn,' sometimes, but not often, occurs as the name of a musical instrument (Josh. vi. 5; 1 Chron. xxv. 5; Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15). Of natural horns, and of instruments in the shape of horns, the antiquity and general use are evinced by every extensive collection of antiquities. It is admitted that natural horns were at first used, and that they at length came to be

252. [1, 2, 3, 4, Ancient horns and curved trumpets; 5, straight trumpet; 6, pipe.]

or clear, and the instrument may be conceived to have been so called from its clear and shrill sound, just as we call an instrument a 'clarion,' and speak of a musical tone as brilliant' or 'clear.' In the service of God this shophar or trumpet was only employed in making announcements, and for calling the people together in the time of the holy solemnities, of war, of rebellion, or of any other great occasion (Exod. xix. 13; Num. x. 10; Judg. iii. 7; 1 Sam. xiii. 3; xv. 10; 2 Chron. xv. 14; Isa. xviii. 3).

3. The CHATZOZERAH was the straight trumpet, different from the shophar, which was more or less bent like a horn. There has been various speculation on the name; but we are disposed to assent to the conclusion of Gesenius, that it is an onomatopoetic word, imitating the broken pulselike sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Among the Israelites these trumpets were a divine regulation, Moses having been expressly directed how to make them (Num. x. 2). They were of pure beaten silver, but the particular form does not appear in Scripture. They are figured, however, on the arch of Titus, among the other spoils of the Jewish Temple (Fig. 5, No. 252), and they correspond with the description which Josephus, who, as a priest, could not in this matter

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