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rate and private acts of worship they assumed the position which, according to their modes of doing homage or showing respect, seemed to them the most suitable to their present feelings or objects. It would appear, however, that some form of kneeling was most usual in private devotions (1 Kings viii. 54; Ezra ix. 5; Dan. vi. 10; 2 Chron. vi. 13).
STANDING in public prayer is still the practice of the Jews. This posture was adopted from the synagogue by the primitive Christians; and is still maintained by the Oriental Churches. This appears, from their monuments, to have been the custom also among the ancient Persians
and Egyptians, although the latter certainly sometimes kneeled before their gods. In the Moslem worship, four of the nine positions (cut 66, figs. 1, 2, 4, 8) are standing ones; and that posture which is repeated in three out of these four (2, 4, 8), may be pointed out as the proper Oriental posture of reverential standing, with folded hands. It is the posture in which people stand before kings and great men.
While in this attitude of worship, the hands were sometimes stretched forth towards heaven in supplication or invocation (1 Kings viii. 22; 2 Chron. vi. 12, 29; Isa. i. 15). This was per
haps not so much the conventional posture (1 in the Moslem series), as the more natural posture of standing adoration with outspread hands, which we observe on the Egyptian monuments. The uplifting of one hand (the right) only in taking an oath was so common, that to say, 'I have lifted up my hand,' was equivalent to I
have sworn' (Gen. xiv. 22; comp. xli. 44; Deut. xxxii. 40). This posture was also common among other ancient nations; and we find examples of it in the sculptures of Persia (fig. 1) and Rome (fig. 2).
KNEELING is very often described as a posture of worship (1 Kings viii. 54; Ezra ix. 5; Dan. vi. 10; 2 Chron. vi. 13; comp. 1 Kings xix. 18; Luke xxii. 41; Acts vii. 60). This is still an Oriental custom, and three forms of it occur (5, 6, 9) in the Moslem devotions. It was also in use, although not very frequent, among the ancient Egyptians; who likewise, as well as the Hebrews (Exod. xxxiv. 8; 2 Chron. xxix. 29; Isa. i. 15), sometimes prostrated themselves upon the ground. The usual mode of prostration among the Hebrews by which they expressed the most intense humiliation, was by bringing not only the body but the head to the ground.
The ordinary mode of prostration at the present time, and probably anciently, is that shown in one of the postures of Moslem worship (5), in which the body is not thrown flat upon the ground, but rests upon the knees, arms, and head. In order to express devotion, sorrow, compunction, or humiliation, the Israelites threw dust upon their heads (Josh. vii. 6; Job ii. 12; Lam. ii. 10; Ezek. xxiv. 7; Rev. xviii. 19), as was done also by the ancient Egyptians, and is still done by the modern Orientals. Under similar circumstances it was usual to smite the breast (Luke xviii. 13). This was also a prac
tice among the Egyptians, and the monuments at Thebes exhibit persons engaged in this act while they kneel upon one knee.
In 1 Chron. xvii. 16 we are told that 'David the king came and sat before the Lord,' and in that posture gave utterance to eloquent prayer.
or rather thanksgiving, which the sequel of the chapter contains. Those unacquainted with Fastern manners are surprised at this. But there is a mode of sitting in the East which is highly respectful and even reverential. It is that which occurs in the Moslem forms of worship (9). The person first kneels, and then sits tack upon his heels. Attention is also paid to the position of the hands, which they cross, fold, or hide in the opposite sleeves. The variety of this formal sitting, which the following figure
represents, is highly respectful. The prophet Elijah must have been in this or some other similar posture when he inclined himself so much forward in prayer that his head almost touched his knees (1 Kings xviii. 42).
SUPPLICATION, when addressed externally to man, cannot possibly be exhibited in any other forms than those which are used in supplication to God. Uplifted hands, kneeling, prostration, are common to both. On the Egyptian monuments, suppliant captives, of different nations, are represented as kneeling or standing with outspread hands. Prostration, or falling at the feet of a person, is often mentioned in Scripture as
an act of supplication or of reverence, or of both (1 Sam. xxv. 24; 2 Kings iv. 37; Esth. viii. 3; Matt. xviii. 29; xxviii. 9; Mark v. 22, Luke viii. 41; John xi. 32; Acts x. 25). Sometimes in this posture, or with the knees bent as before indicated, the Orientals bring their forehead to the ground, and before resuming an erect position either kiss the earth, or the feet, or border of the garment of the king or prince before whom they are allowed to appear. There is no doubt that a similar practice existed among the Jews (Matt. ix. 20; Luke vii. 38, 45). Kissing the hand of another as a mark of affectionate respect, we do not remember as distinctly mentioned in Scripture. But as the Jews had the other forms of Oriental salutation, we may conclude that they had this also, although it does not happen to have been specially noticed. Kissing one's own hand is mentioned as early as the time of Job (xxxi. 27), as an act of homage to the heavenly bodies. It was properly a salutation, and as such an act of adoration to them. The Romans in like manner kissed their hands
as they passed the temples or statues of their gods [ADORATION].
It appears from 1 Sam. x. 1; 1 Kings xix. 18; Ps. ii. 12; that there was a peculiar kiss of homage, the character of which is not indicated. It was probably that kiss upon the forehead expressive of high respect which was formerly, if not now, in use among the Bedouins.
BOWING.-In the Scriptures there are different words descriptive of various postures of respectful bowing; as to incline or how down the head, to bend down the body very low, to bend the knee, also to bless. These terms indicate a conformity with the existing usages of the East, in which the modes of bowing are equally diversified, and, in all likelihood, the same. These are-1. touching the lips and the forehead with
the right hand, with or without an inclination of the head or of the body, and with or without previously touching the ground; 2. placing the right hand upon the breast, with or without an inclination of the head or of the body; 3. bending the body very low, with folded arms; 4. bending the body and resting the hands on the knees: this is one of the postures of prayer, and is indicative of the highest respect in the presence of kings and princes.
It appears to have been usual for a person to receive a blessing in a kneeling posture. We know also that the person who gave the blessing laid his hands upon the head of the person blessed (Gen. xlviii. 14). This is exactly the case at the present day in the East, and a picture of the existing custom would furnish a perfect illustration of the patriarchal form of blessing. This may be perceived from the annexed engraving.
AVA (2 Kings xvii. 24), also IVAH (2 Kings xviii. 34; xix. 13; Isa. xxxvii. 13), the capital of a small monarchical state conquered by the Assyrians, and from which king Shalmaneser sent colonies into Samaria. It is most probable that Ava was a Syrian or Mesopotamian town, of which no trace can now be found either in ancient writers or in the Oriental topographers.
AVEN, a plain, the plain of the sun,' of Damascene Syria (Amos i. 5). It is usually supposed to be the same as the plain of Baalbec, or
valley of Baal, where there was a magnificent temple dedicated to the sun.
AUGUSTUS (venerable), the title assumed by Octavius, who, after his adoption by Julius Cæsar, took the name of Octavianus (i.e. ErOctavius), according to the Roman fashion; and was the first peacefully acknowledged emperor of Rome. He was emperor at the birth and during half the lifetime of our Lord; but his name has no connection with Scriptural events, and occurs only once (Luke ii. 1) in the New Testament.
A'VIM, called also AVITES and HIVITES, a people descended from Canaan (Gen. x. 17), who originally occupied the southernmost portion of that territory in Palestine along the Mediterranean coast, which the Caphtorim or Philistines afterwards possessed (Deut. ii. 23). As the territory of the Avim is mentioned in Josh. xiii. 3, in addition to the five Philistine states, it would appear that it was not included in theirs, and that the expulsion of the Avim was by a Philistine invasion prior to that by which the five principalities were founded. The territory began at Gaza, and extended southward to the river of Egypt' (Deut. ii. 23), forming what was the sole Philistine kingdom of Gerar in the time of Abraham, when we do not hear of any other Philistine states. There were then Avim, or Hivites, at Shechem (Gen. xxxiv. 2), and we afterwards find them also at Gibeon (Josh. ix. 7), and beyond the Jordan, at the foot of Mount Hermon (Josh. xi. 3); but we have no means of knowing whether these were original settlements of the Avim, or were formed out of the fragments of the nation which the Philistines expelled from southern Palestine. The original country of the Avim is called Hazerim in Deut. ii. 23 [GERAR; PHILISTINES].
AWL. The Hebrew word which denotes an awl or other instrument for boring a small hole, occurs in Exod. xxi. 6; Deut. xv. 17. Considering that the Israelites had at that time recently withdrawn from their long sojourn in Egypt,
that in 1 Kings v. 7 it denotes the axe of a stonemason, is by no means conclusive. The first text supposes a case of the head slipping from the helve in felling a tree. This would suggest that it was shaped like fig. 3, which is just the same instrument as our common hatchet, and appears to have been applied by the ancient Egyptians to the same general use as with us. 2. matzad, which occur only in Isa. xliv. 12; and Jer. x. 3. From these passages it appears to have been a lighter implement than the former, or a kind of adze, used for fashioning or carving wood into shape; it was probably, therefore, like figs. 4 to 7, which the Egyptians employed for this purpose. The differences of form and size, as indicated in the figures, appear to have been determined with reference to light or heavy work: fig. 3 is a finer carving-tool. 3. qardom; this is the commonest name for an axe or hatchet. It is this of which we read in Judg. ix. 48; Ps. Ixxiv. 5; 1 Sam. xiii. 20, 21; Jer. xlvi. 22. It appears to have been more exclusively employed than the garzen for felling trees, and had therefore probably a heavier head. In one of the
Egyptian sculptures the inhabitants of Lebanon are represented as felling pine-trees with axes like fig. 1. As the one used by the Egyptians for the same purpose was also of this shape, there is little doubt that it was also in use among the Hebrews.
The word rendered 'axe' in 2 Kings vi. 5 is literally iron;' but as an axe is certainly intended, the passage is valuable as showing that the axe-heads among the Hebrews were of iron. Those which have been found in Egypt are of bronze, which was very anciently and generally used for the purpose.
AZARI'AH (whom Jehovah aids), a very common name among the Hebrews, and hence borne by a considerable number of persons mentioned in Scripture.
1. AZARIAH, a high-priest (1 Chron. vi. 9), perhaps the same with Amariah, who lived under Jehoshaphat king of Judah (2 Chron. xix. 11), about B.C. 896.
2. AZARIAH, son of Johanan, a high-priest (1 Chron. vi. 10), whom some suppose the same
as Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, who was killed B.C. 840 (2 Chron. xxiv. 20-22).
3. AZARIAH, the high-priest who opposed king Uzziah in offering incense to Jehovah (2 Chron. xxvi. 17).
erected to Baal (1 Kings xvi. 32; 2 Kings iii. 2). The altars were generally on heights, as the summits of hills or the roofs of houses (Jer. xix. 5; xxxii. 29). His priesthood were a very numerous body ( Kings xviii. 19), and were divided into the two classes of prophets and of priests (2 Kings x. 19). As to the rites by which he was worshipped, there is most frequent mention of incense being offered to him (2 Kings xxiii. 5), but also of bullocks being sacrificed (1 Kings xviii. 26), and even of children, as to Moloch (Jer. xix. 5). According to the description in 1 Kings xviii., the priests, during the sacrifice, danced about the altar, and, when their prayers were not answered, cut themselves with knives until the blood flowed. We also read of homage paid to him by bowing the knee, and by kissing his image (1 Kings xix. 18), and that his worshippers used to swear by his name (Jer. xii. 16).
4. AZARIAH, a high-priest in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxi. 10).
5. AZARIAH, the father of Seraiah, who was the last high-priest before the Captivity (1 Chron. vi. 14).
6. ÁZARIAH, son of the high-priest Zadok; but it is uncertain if he succeeded his father (1 Kings iv. 2).
7. AZARIAH, captain of King Solomon's guards (1 Kings iv. 5).
8. AZARIAH, otherwise called Uzziah, king of Judah [UZZIAH].
9. AZARIAH, a prophet who met king Asa on his return from a great victory over the Cushite king Zerah (2 Chron. xxiii. 1) [Asa].
10. AZARIAH, a person to whom the highpriest Jehoiada made known the secret of the existence of the young prince Joash, and who assisted in placing him on the throne (2 Chron. XV. 1).
As to the power of nature which was adored under the form of the Tyrian Baal, many of the passages above cited show evidently that it was one of the heavenly bodies; or, if we admit that resemblance between the Babylonian and Persian religions which Munter assumes, not one of the heavenly bodies really, but the astral spirit residing in one of them; and the same line of induction as that which is pursued in the case of Ashtoreth, his female counterpart, leads to the conclusion that it was the sun.
2. BA'AL BE'RITH, covenant-lord (Judg. ix. 4), is the name of a god worshipped by the people of Shechem (Judg. viii. 33; ix. 4, 46).
3. BAA'L PE'OR appears to have been properly the idol of the Moabites (Num. xxv. 1-9; Deut. iv. 3; Jos. xxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 28; Hos. ix. 10); but also of the Midianites (Num. xxxi. 15, 16).
It is the common opinion that this god was worshipped by obscene rites. The utmost, however, that the passages in which this god is named express, is the fact that the Israelites received this idolatry from the women of Moab, and were led away to eat of their sacrifices (cf. Ps. cvi. 28); but it is very possible for that sex to have been the means of seducing them into the adoption of their worship, without the idol
BA'AL (lord, master). As the idolatrous nations of the Syro-Arabian race had several gods, this word, by means of some accessory distinc-atry itself being of an obscene kind. It is also tion, became applicable as a name to many different deities.
remarkable that so few authors are agreed even as to the general character of these rites. Most Jewish authorities represent his worship to have consisted of rites which are filthy in the extreme, but not lascivious. With regard to the origin of the term Peor, it is supposed to have been the original name of the mountain; and Baal Peor to be the designation of the god worshipped there. Some identify this god with CHEMOSH.
4. BA'ALZE BUB (fly lord) occurs in 2 Kings i. 2-16, as the god of the Philistines at Ekron, whose oracle Ahaziah sent to consult. There is much diversity of opinion as to the signification of this name, according as authors consider the title to be one of honour, as used by his worshippers, or one of contempt.
11. AZARIAH, one of the two sons of king Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xxi. 2).
12. AZARIAH, one of the proud men' who rebuked Jeremiah for advising the people that remained in Palestine, after the expatriation to Babylon, not to retire into Egypt; and who took the prophet himself and Baruch along with them to that country (Jer. xliii. 2-7).
13. AZARIAH, the Chaldæan name of Abednego, one of Daniel's three friends who were cast into the fiery furnace (Dan. i. 7; iii. 9).
AZZAH, a mode of spelling the Hebrew name which is elsewhere rendered Gaza. The name occurs in this form in Deut. ii. 23; Jer. xxv. 20; which last clearly shows that Gaza is intended.
1. BAAL (with the definite article, Judg. ii. 13; Jer. xix. 5; xxxix. 35; Rom. xi. 4) is appropriated to the chief male divinity of the Phonicians, the principal seat of whose worship was at Tyre. The idolatrous Israelites adopted the worship of this god (almost always in conjunction with that of Ashtoreth) in the period of the Judges (Judg. ii. 13); they continued it in the reigns of Ahaz and Manasseh, kings of Judah (2 Chron. xxviii. 2; 2 Kings xxi. 3); and, among the kings of Israel, especially in the reign of Ahab, who, partly through the influence of his wife, the daughter of the Sidonian king Ethbaal, appears to have made a systematic attempt to suppress the worship of God altogether, and to substitute that of Baal in its stead (1 Kings xvi. 31); and in that of Hosea (2 Kings xvii. 16), although Jehu and Jehoiada once severally destroyed the temples and priesthood of the idol (2 Kings x. 18, sq.; xi. 18).
We read of altars, images, and temples
The analogy of classical idolatry would lead us to conclude that all these Baals are only the same god under various modifications of attributes and emblems: but the scanty notices to which we owe all our knowledge of Syro-Arabian idolatry do not furnish data for any decided opinion on this subject.
BAAL is often found as the first element of compound names of places. In this case, Gesenius thinks that it seldom, if ever, has any reference to the god of that name; but that it denotes the place which possesses, which is the abode of the thing signified by the latter half of the compound.
BA'ALAH, BAALE-JUDAH, KIRJATH-BAAL KIRJATH JEARIM].
BAALAH (Josh. xv. 29), BALAH (Josh. xix. 3), BILHAH (1 Chron. iv. 29), a town in the tribe of Simeon, usually confounded with Baalath; but, as the latter was in Dan and this in Simeon, they would appear to have been distinct.
BA'ALATH, a town in the tribe of Dan (Josh. xix. 44), apparently the same that was afterwards rebuilt by Solomon (1 Kings ix. 18). BA'ALATH-BEER, probably the same as the Baal of Chron. iv. 33-a city of Simeon;
this valley runs a small stream, divided into numberless rills for irrigation. The place is in N. lat. 34° 1' 30", and E. long. 36° 11", distant 109 geogr. miles from Palmyra, and 38 from Tripoli. Its origin appears to be lost in the most remote antiquity, and the historical notices of it are very scanty. In the absence of more positive information we can only conjecture that its situation on the high-road of commerce between f'yre, Palmyra, and the farther East, must have contributed largely to the wealth and magnificence which it manifestly attained. It is mentioned under the name of Heliopolis by Josephus, and also by Pliny. From the reverses of Roman coins we learn that Heliopolis was constituted a colony by Julius Cæsar; that it was the seat of Roman garrison in the time of Augustus. Some of the coins of later date contain curious representations of the temple.
called also Ramath-Negeb, or Southern Ramath (Josh. xix. 8; comp. 1 Sam. xxx. 27).
BA'AL-GAD, a city in the valley of Lebanon under Mount Hermon '(Josh. xi. 17; xii. 7). We are also informed that among those parts of Palestine which were unsubdued by the Hebrews at the death of Joshua, was all Lebanon towards the sun-rising, from Baal-gad, under Mount Hermon, unto the entering into Hamath' (Josh. xiii 5). This position of Baal-Gad is not unfavourable to the conclusion which some have reached, that it is no other than the place which, from a temple consecrated to the sun, that stood there, was called by the Greeks Heliopolis, i. e city of the sun; and which the natives called and still call Baalbek, a word apparently of the same meaning.
Baalbek is pleasantly situated on the lowest declivity of Anti-Libanus, at the opening of a small valley into the plain El-Bekaa. Through
After the age of Constantine the splendid temples of Baalbek were probably consigned to neglect and decay, unless indeed, as some appearances indicate, they were then consecrated to Christian worship. From the accounts of Oriental writers Baalbek seems to have continued a place of importance down to the time of the Moslem invasion of Syria. They describe it as one of the most splendid of Syrian cities, enriched with stately palaces, adorned with monuments of ancient times, and abounding with trees, fountains, and whatever contributes to luxurious enjoyment. On the advance of the Moslems, it was reported to the emperor Heraclius as protected by a citadel of great strength, and well able to sustain a siege. After the capture of Damascus it was regularly invested by the Moslems, and-containing an overflowing population, amply supplied with provisions and military stores-it made a courageous defence, but