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CHAP. 2. is a considerable mass of chert in a lime quarry. On Masson hill, and on the Over-Haddon pastures, the superficial beds of the second limestone are converted into chert; the upper part being curiously and regularly cracked. All the entrochial beds, in the second limestone, are subject in places to interrupting masses of white chert or china stone. Of this there is a remarkable quarry, north-east of Bonsal church, called the Stebben bed; and this is found to cover beds of black marble, of different degrees of consistency, extending down Monsal dale to Longsdon and Tideswell.-The upper beds of the third limestone are often dark coloured, and contain layers of black chert in nodules. Like other limestone, parts of its strata seem converted into white chert or china stone. The black chert is seldom applied to any specific purpose, and very seldom used for the repair of roads. The loose porous blocks, which have cavities generally occurring from the decomposition of organised substances, are denominated screwstones. These are used for burrs. At Alport, near Yolgrave, the decomposition of the tufa assumes the character of chert, but it wants some of its serviceable qualities as a china stone.—The china clay is derived from the chert. It is of a beautiful white colour. The flints are brought by canals from the limestone and chalk districts.
List of Free or BuildingStone Quar
Freestone. The freestones, or those capable of being broken or hewn with equal ease, or nearly, in any direction, for use, and thence often called building stone, or ashler (in distinction from beddy stone, flags or paviers, and slate or tile stones, which will split only in one direction, or canks, which are too hard and brittle to be cut) are in this district all silicious or sand stones, except occasional beds in some quarries of the limestone strata, and the tufa of Matlock bath, &c. used in buildings there and at Alport, &c.
The following is a list of FREE or BUILDING-STONE QUARRIES or Delphs in Derbyshire.
Abbey-dale (Park bank) in Norton, 4th grit rock | Brimmington N, 8th grit; and W (Wildens
Alton in Wirksworth, shale grit
Ashover E, 1st grit: W (Amber-hill or slack)
Bakewell-edge, E of the town, shale grit
Beighton S, 12th grit
Belper N (Weir, and New Swinney) 1st grit
Belph in Whitwell, white lime, in yellow L.
Bramley-moor, W SW of Eckington, 9th grit
Breadsall Moor N NE, salmon-coloured grit
mill) 8th grit
Bull-bridge in Crich, shale grit: by Cromford
Butterley in Ashover (Raven's nest tor) shale
Buxton NW (Corbar quarry) shale grit
Callow (Hascar side) in Wirksworth, shale grit
Chapel Milltown in ditto, shale grit: rail-way
Hopping-hill in Duffield, 1st grit
Killis Farm (Highwood) in Horsley, coarse 3rd
King's-Newton in Melbourn, grit, in red marl
Langley (Kirk) N, grit, in red marl
Little Eaton NW (Iron's wood) 1st grit: and
Morley Moor, NW of the town, salmon-colour-
Morton,m. S, grit
Overton (Gregory) in Ashover, 1st grit
Pilhough, near Great Rowsley, shale grit
Raworth in Glossop, 4th grit
Repton, m. SE, and two-thirds m. W, grit, in
Rowlee in Hope Woodlands (Crookston Tor)
Shirland, 12th grit
Shirley, grit, in red marl
Shuttlewood Common [Nunnery] in Bolsover,
Simondley E, in Glossop, 2nd grit
South Winfield [Town, and Cobourn] 4th grit
Stanley S, in Spondon, grit
Stanton by Bridge [N] coarse grit; and [SE]
Stanton by Dale E, salmon-coloured grit, and
Stanton Moor, near Winster, 1st grit
Stretton [Bear] near Higham, 10th grit
Ticknall [E, in Repton P.] grit, in red clay
Weston on Trent [NW of Church] grit, in red
Willesley, 4 m. S, grit, in red clay
The following is a list of STONE SAW-MILLS in this County.
Lea Wharf, near Cromford E [by water]
At the quarry at Lea wood, blocks of building stone are sold at 6d. per Building foot cube: at Belper it is sold at 8d.; and at the Priory, near Breadsall, Stone. at 10d. This last is a very fine grit: it is considered the best stone in England for solidity, and for being wholly free from clay; it will also stand fire better than any other. The other prices in the county are stated to be, 7d. per cubic foot at Duffield bank; 5d. at Little Eaton; and generally 6d. at Hathersage, Ashover, &c.
Ashford, at W end of the town [by water]
Several gritstone and sandstone rocks, in the coal district, have argilla
List of Free
or BuildingStone Quar
List of Stone
List of Flag Stone Quarries.
ceous cements; but the fourth gritstone rock produces an excellent building stone when pursued to a proper depth below the surface. The stone from the yellow limestone strata is generally very durable, and so is that from the fourth lime. The shale freestone will stand the weather tolerably well, and in some quarries, this is variegated with concentric streaks of an orangecolour or dingy red, so as to have a pleasing effect. Chimney-pieces are sometimes made of this stone from Callow quarry, Hascar side, and are incorrectly called marble.
List of Slate
Paviers' flags or layers.-There are flat beds of stone which naturally split up or rise in the quarry, so plane and flat, as to serve for foot-paths, yards, out-houses, and even dwelling houses; these are called flag-beds. Very little labour, and often none, is applied to the facing of them. The following are the principal delphs or quarries of this description:
Abney in Hope, shale grit
Ash-gate in Brampton, 7th grit [waved]
Glossop NE [the Low, and Charles Lane] 1st grit
Grass-hill SE in Hasland, in 12th coal, shale
Harston S, in Matlock [White Tor] shale grit
Monyash NE [High Low] 1st lime, entrochi
Tapton SE, near Brimmington, 5th grit
At these quarries, the price of paviers' flags, squared, is from 1s. to 20d.
per superficial foot.
Among the quarries which furnish natural pavier-stones, those of the fourth grit rock are most perfect. Some few of these stones are adapted for grave-stones, mile-stones, &c.
Slates or tile-stones.—Most of the grey slate of this district abounds with Tile-Stones. mica in minute plates, forming layers at the joints where the stone most
readily parts. In numerous instances these joints are remarkably plane and smooth, but in others the surface of the slates is marked with waves and curves. The principal slate quarries or delphs are the following:
Unthank W, near Holmsfield, 4th grit
Whittle [Crowther] in Glossop, 3rd grit
Wingerworth W [Bole hill] 4th grit
Chinley [Churn] near Chapel-en-le-Frith, 2nd
Eyam Woodlands [Wet Wivens] shale grit
Loco-lane S, in North Winfield, grit
Matlock W, 1st grit
Nether Padley NE[S of the Robin Hood] 2nd grit Thornsett in Glossop, 3rd grit
Raworth in Glossop, 4th grit
Stoke in Hope, shale grit
Beeley SE [Moor] 1st grit, coarse
Bolsover NW [Nunnery] on Shuttlewood com-
Bradway in Norton [Hempyard-lane] 6th grit, whitening
Breadsall NNE [Moor] salmon-coloured, middling
Tansley SW, in Matlock, 1st grit
Buxton NW [Corbar] shale grit, fine
Unthank W, near Holmsfield, 4th grit
Whitfield in Glossop, 1st grit
Glossop E [near Moss-lee] 1st grit, coarse
Whittington N [Swineslait] 9th grit [waved]
Slate is sold by the rood, or in quantities sufficient to roof in 44 square Prices of yards. The price varies from 54s. to 70s. per rood. At Cobourn quarry, in South Winfield park, there is a sort of eaves-slating, which is sold at 1s. per yard; and these slates run nearly on an average one yard in height. ―There are lamellar gritstone of this class, capable of sustaining intense heat; these are formed into round plates called pye, pot, or lump stones, and are used in the iron forges. Larger stones of the same nature are also prepared for the purpose of baking oat cakes upon, called bake stones. At Cobourn quarry, and at Pentrich common quarry, ridge stones are prepared, sawed out like an angular trough. Of the freestone, there are made at the quarries, stack posts and caps for forming rick-stands.* The most perfect freestones are required for making cisterns or troughs. A particular bed of the first grit rock is found porous at Stanton in the Peak, and at Birchover on Stanton moor, well adapted for filtering cisterns.
Several of the gritstone rocks, interposed between the coal measures, contain beds of uniform and sharp grit, the cement of which, though hard and firm, does not fill the interstices between the particles or grains of silex. These are used for making grindstones for the use of cutlers, edgetool makers, &c. These grindstones form a considerable export by the canals of Derbyshire. The large coarse grindstones, made at Gregory quarry in Overton, have been in great demand. The following are the quarries where grindstones are made:
Ashover NW [Hill quarry] 2nd grit, middling | Little Eaton NE [Common] salmon-coloured, List of middling; and NW [Iron's wood] 1st grit,
Milford, S of Belper, 1st grit, coarse
Ridgeway SW, in Eckington [Lum-delph] 7th
Stanley S, in Spondon, fine
Stanton by Dale E, middling
Stanton in the Peak N [Moor] near Winster, 1st
List of Slate
• At Morley moor quarry, at 2s. 1d. to 2s. 8d. At Stanton-by-Bridge, 3s. 6d. per pair.
At Morley moor quarry, grindstones are made from 18 inches to four
feet in diameter, at about 40s. per ton.
Some particular beds of gritstone furnish whetstones and scythe-stones, Whetstones and Scythe of which very considerable quantities are sent into the southern counties, Stones. from within a few miles north-east of Derby. The best scythe-stones are made at Hunger-hill, Belper; Birchover, near Winster; Breadsall; Coxbench; Darley moor; Duffield bank; Heage; Holbrook; Horsley; Little
CHAP. 2. Eaton ;* Melbourn; and Morley moor.-At Alton in Ashover, considerable numbers of scythe sticks are made, by collecting the sharp grit sand, and gluing it on to flat pieces of wood. Similar scythe sticks are made at Melbourn.-Whetstones of a close fine and sharp grit are made at Alton, Bolsover, Codnor, Heage, Pentrich, Sandy-brook near Ashbourn, and Woodthorpe. The more compact specimens of the ironstone from Codnor and Woodthorpe are called hones.
Cank stones are found in the coal districts, and are very serviceable for making and repairing roads.
Quartz crystals.-Semi-transparent grains of quartz, or imperfect crystals of that substance, from three quarters of an inch in diameter to minute atoms, which the eye unassisted by glasses can scarcely perceive, enter into the composition of the numerous grit rocks and stone beds of this district. At the lime quarries, Mill-town, Ashover, cavities or tick-holes are frequent in the first limestone rock, which are lined with hexagonal, pyramidical quartz crystals: similar crystals have been found at Matlock and at Tideswell.
The Derbyshire diamonds are small detached and perfect crystals of colourless quartz, of an hexagonal prism, terminated by pyramids, and others are of a light rose colour. They are occasionally found at Bakewell, Brassington common, Buxton, Castleton, and near Priestcliff, Millers dale.
Chalcedony, hornblende, jasper, zeolite and terra-verte have been found imbedded in toadstone; and onyxes have been found near Bakewell.
Calcareous concretions are found in vast abundance in almost every part Concretions. of the Peak, there being hardly a single cavern but what is lined with incrustations of this kind, and which assume almost every possible form, and are resplendent with an amazing variety of colours. The transparent calcareous spar is astonishingly variable in appearance; yet, when minutely examined, is discovered to originate wholly from one form, the rhombic; though its various combinations can hardly be enumerated. Mr. Bergman observes, that they consist of a tessara, or oblique parallelopiped, all the planes of which are rhombs of such a kind, that the obtuse angles are equal to 101 degrees, and the acute to 78 degrees. Crystals of the most opposite form may be produced by a compound accumulation of similar parallelograms. The primitive rhomb is rarely found: it is generally on a dark bituminous limestone, with pearl spar and selenite; the primitive rhomb passing into numerous modifications: the following are among its varieties. Dog's tooth spar, forming double hexagonal pyramids, joined base to base. Hexagonal crystals of spar, terminating with pyramids of the primitive rhomb: others, terminating with the primitive rhomb truncated, and with the lenticular pyramid; others with a variety of terminations, forming pyramids, with three, six, twelve, fifteen, and more faces : hexagonal prisms of a high topaz colour, terminating variously: fibrous and mamellated spar: macles, or twin crystals; some exceedingly rare, and greatly diversified: opaque, snow-white spar, crystallized in double hexagonal pyramids, joined at their bases: rose-coloured spar, amorphous : stalactites, presenting a variety of beautiful colours, with the appearance of
* At Little Eaton, the Scythe-stones are sold at from 10s. to 12s. per long hundred.