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A list of tradesmen's Copper Tokens, struck in the town and county of
1. Obverse, Cornelius Launder (arms) - Reverse, in Alfreton, 1663.
2. Ob. Robert Wright (device, a bee-hive)-Rev. of Alfreton, 1668 (device, a
1. Ob. Thomas Baguley-Rev. in Ashburne.
2. Ob. William Brunt-Rev. in Ashburne, 1671 (W B.)
3. Ob. William Froggat (arms)-Rev. in Ashburne, 1664.
4. Ob. Daniel Mosley-Rev. in Ashburne, 1669 (DM.)
5. Ob. Richard Watson (arms)-Rev. in Ashburne, 1663 (his halfpenny.)
6. Ob. Marie Sleigh (arms)-Rev. in Ashburne (her halfpenny.)
1. Ob. John Dickens of- Rev. Backwell, 1669.
2. Ob. Thomas Grammer (arms) —Rev. in Backwell, Darbyshire (TM) BELPER............ 1. Ob. Joseph Clarke at (a crown)-Rev. Belpar lane end (J. C.) 2. Ob. James Jackson of (arms)-Rev. Belpar (his halfpenny.)
BIRCHOVER 1. Ob. Humph. Smith in (HE) Birchover, Derb.-Rev. his halfpenny (P)
BOLSOVER......... 1. Ob. Richard Southworth (arms)-Rev. in Boulsover, 1667 (his halfpenny.)
Chapel-en-le-Frith 1. Ob. Nicholas Smith (16†71)—Rev. in Chapell Frith
His NS &
CHESTERFIELD... 1. Ob. Richard Clarke at the-Rev. Angell in Chesterfield (RA)
2. Ob. James Dutton (device, a lion)-Rev. in Chesterfield, 1666.
3. Ob. William Millnes-Rev. in Chesterfield, 1667.
4. Ob. Thomas Radford in (arms)-Rev. Chesterfield, 1666.
6. Ob. Richard Wood-Rev. of Chesterfield (RW.)
CRICH............... 1. Ob. Thomas Lowe of-Rev. Critche, butcher, 1669.
1. Ob. John Dunnidge (arms)-Rev. (ID) in Darby, 1663.
2. Ob. Thomas Beebye (arms)-Rev. in Darby, 1664 (his halfpenny.)
3. Ob. Benjamin Smedley (arms)- Rev. in Derby, 1664 (his halfpenny.)
4. Ob. Richard Bakewell, of Derby (his halfpenny) 1666-Rev. "Good morrow
5. Ob. Richard Biggin, in Darby (their halfpenny)- Richard Lister, 1666.
6. Ob. Edward Denty (lady's head with a bonnet)-Rev. in Darby, 1667 (his
7. Ob. George Southern (his halfpenny)— Rev. in Derby, 1667 (G.M.)
8. Ob. John Bancroft-Rev. in Derby, 1667 (his halfpenny.)
9. Ob. Richard Cordin (arms)-Rev. in Derby, 1667, (his halfpenny.)
10. Ob. Joseph Moore (his halfpenny)-Rev. in Derby, 1667 (1. M.)
11. Ob. Luke Neyld, in Darby, 1667 (a harp in base)-Rev. Morat, a Turk's
12. An octagonal one of the same.
13. Ob. James Palmer (a flower)-Rev. in Darbie (his halfpenny) 1667.
14. Ob. Henry Moore (his halfpenny)— Rev. (H.E.) in Derbie, 1668.
15. Ob. Thomas More (a device)-Rev. (his halfpenny) in Derbie.
16. Ob. George Blagrave (hand holding a sceptre) 1663-Rev. in Derby, his
17. Ob. Thomas Lockhart, 1668-Rev. shoemaker at Darby (his halfpenny.)
18. Ob. Thomas Brooks-Rev. in Derby, 1668 (bis halfpenny.)
19. Ob. William Dawson-Rev. dier in Darby, 1669 (his halfpenny.)
20. Ob. Robert Fearbrother (his halfpenny)-Rev. in Derby, 1669 (his arms.)
21. Ob. Robert Litchford-Rev. in Derby, 1669 (his halfpenny.)
22. Ob. William Newcomb, "Touch not mine anointed"-Rev. "Doc my pro.
DORE............... 1. Ob. Robert Unwen, in (hammer and pincers)-Rev. Dore in Darbyshire
1. Ob. John Bate, 1666 (arms)-Rev. of Dronfield.
DUFFIELD......... 1. Ob. Dorothy Rossington in-Rev. Duffield neare Darbye, 1669.
ECKINGTON..... 1. Ob. Henry Hazlehurst-Rev. in Eckington (16)
HARTINGTON 1. Ob. Thomas Bateman, 1670-Rev. in Hartington (arms.)
HIGHAM........... 1. Ob. Edward Parkes (ER)- -Rev. in Higham.
2. Ob. John Lowe of Higham, butcher, 1669-Rev. his halfpenny (arms.) REPTON............ 1. Ob. Matthew Wilkinson (a crown)-Rev. of Repton, 1671 (see Gent's. Mag.
STONEY MIDDLETON 1. Ob. Dennis Ragg (f.f.f.)-Rev. Stoni Middleton, 1670.
TIDESWELL ...... 1. Ob. Robert Bagshaw-Rev. in Tidswell, 1667 (RS.)
2 Ob. Edward Ashe (arms)-Rev. in Tidswell, 1667.
3. Ob. William Ashe in Tidswell, 1670-Rev. his halfpenny (W. A.)
5. Ob. Richard Middleton (his halfpenny)-Rev. in Tydswall, 1669 (†).
WINSTER ........ 1. Ob. Ralph Bowers (arms)—Rev. in Winster, 1666 (RE)
1. Ob. John Booth (arms)-Rev. in Wirksworth (IB.)
Ob. Thomas Wigley (TW)-Rev. in Wirksworth (arms.)
Ob. Anthony Kempe, in (royal arms)—Rev. Wirksworth, 1666 (AK.)
4. Ob. Peter Coulborn, in (arms)- Rev. Wirkesworth, his halfpenny (PC.) 5. Ob. Richard Heape (arms)-Rev. in Wirksworth (RH.)
YOLGRAVE......... 1. Ob. Robert Birds (arms)-Rev. in Youlgrave (RB)
HIGH PEAK...... 1. Ob. High Peak coal mines (arms)—Rev. in Darbyshire (a crest.)
We cannot conclude this chapter without noticing the frequently urged benefited by question relative to the effects of manufacturing enterprise upon the interests of the agriculturists; particularly as this county combines and intermingles those interests more closely than almost any other district of the realm. We may safely admit, that farming has been a less profitable pursuit, than the many species of manufactures carried on in Derbyshire; and it is also probable that the land-owners in this neighbourhood are more affected in their interests by manufactures than by general commerce; but, it is equally certain that the profits of manufacture, together with the accumulating population which is drawn around it, must have a tendency to stimulate agricultural industry. Agriculture has, undoubtedly, obtained many very substantial advantages from the proximity of enterprising capitalists, and we need only to point out the north-western district of the High Peak, where agricultural improvements would not have been known, had not the streams in its barren and mountainous declivities invited manufacturers to render their waters subservient to the purpose of the powerful machinery which gradually arose upon their banks. It has also been observed, that when men of commercial and manufacturing pursuits engage in agriculture, they soon acquire sufficient experience to enable them to carry into effect very considerable plans of draining or irrigation and of other modes of meliorating the land and of rendering it more generally productive, than would have ever entered into the imagination of the habitual or regularly bred farmer. In a word, we may venture to assert, that these interests which are often thought to be in conflict, have, in reality, a mutual accordance with each other.
Antiquities: British remains; Castle-hill Barrows, Arbelows; Roo-Tor rocks, Graned Tor and other Tors, Nine Ladies, Rocking-stones, Robin Hood's mark, &c. Celts, &c.-Roman antiquities, camps, stations, coins, &c. Ancient, Saxon, Danish and other remains.
THE antiquities of any country or district are those vestiges of its earlier Antiquities. inhabitants, by the investigation of which, much of their origin, their manners and their superstition may be discovered. They aid the labours of the historian, and serve, frequently, either to corroborate or confute the voice of popular tradition or the legends of the poets. In Derbyshire there are many of these important memorials, but it will be our business to describe them and to leave their critical examination to others. Of those that are to be ascribed to a period antecedent to the invasion of this island by the Romans under the command of Cæsar, there are remains probably belonging to the worship and interment of the Britons, the earliest inhabitants of this island known to authenticated history.
At Pilsbury, in Hartington parish, in a deep valley on the banks of the Castle-hill Dove, in a field called Castle-Hills, are some ancient remains deserving of Barrows. notice. On the east side is a sharp natural ridge of rocks, which in one part rises to the height of seven or eihht yards, bearing some resemblance to a sugar loaf. Adjoining to this is a raised bank, inclosing an area of about sixty yards from north to south, and forty from east to west; and having a barrow near its western side, about forty yards in diameter. Southward of the barrow is a second bank, forming a square of nearly thirty yards each way.
A large barrow is to be seen on a high eminence called Wolf's-cote hill, Wolf's-cote in Hartington parish; and upon the common which extends ten miles in Hill Barthe direction of north and south, are many barrows, generally situate on the highest points of ground. Near Brassington there is a remarkable low or barrow, called Mining low, having a number of vaults carried round Mining its circumference, several of them now exposed to sight. During the time of the enclosure, a quantity of human bones were found on the moor. Between two and three miles north-east of Newhaven, at a little distance beyond the Roman road from Buxton to Little Chester, is one of the most remarkable monuments of antiquity in Derbyshire. This is the ARBOR-LOW Arbor-Low or Arbelows, a Druidical circle, surrounded by a ditch and vallum. Its situation, though considerably elevated, is not so high as some eminences in the neighbouring country; yet it commands an extensive view, especially to the north-east. The area, encompassed by the ditch, is about fifty yards in diameter, and of a circular form; though, from a little declination of the ground towards the north, it appears somewhat elliptical, when viewed from particular points. The stones which compose the circle are rough and unhewn masses of limestone, apparently thirty in number; but this cannot be determined with certainty, as several are broken. Most
CHAP. 6. of them are from six to eight feet in length, and three or four broad in the Arbor-Low widest part; their thickness is more variable, and their respective shapes or Arbelows are different. They all lie on the ground, and generally in an oblique position; but the opinion that has prevailed, of the narrowest end of each being pointed towards the centre, in order to represent the rays of the sun, and prove that luminary to have been the object of worship, must have arisen from inaccurate observation: for they almost as frequently point towards the ditch as otherwise. Whether they ever stood upright, as most of the stones of Druidical circles do, is an enquiry not easy to determine; though Mr. Pilkington was informed, that a very old man living in Middleton, remembered, when a boy, to have seen them standing obliquely upon one end. This secondary kind of evidence does not seem entitled to much credit, as the view of the stones themselves, and their relative situations, are almost demonstrative of the contrary. Within the circle are some smaller stones, scattered irregularly; and near the centre are three larger ones, erroneously supposed to have once formed a cromlech.
The width of the ditch, which immediately surrounds the area on which the stones are placed, is about six yards; the height of the bank or vallum, on the inside, is from six to eight yards; but this varies throughout the whole circumference, which on the top is nearly two hundred and seventy yards. The vallum seems to have been formed of the earth thrown up from the ditch. To the enclosed area are two entrances, each of the width of ten or twelve yards; and opening on the north and south. On the east side of the southern entrance is a large barrow, standing in the same line of circumference as the vallum, but wholly detached, excepting at the bottom. This barrow was opened in June, 1782, by H. Rooke, esq. and the horns of a stag were discovered in it:* and June 1, 1824, by Mr. Samuel Mitchell of Sheffield, and the engraving here inserted is copied from an accurate drawing made by that gentleman.
About the distance of half a mile from Arbor-low, to the west, is another
Pilkington's View of Derbyshire, Vol. II. page 461.
large barrow, called End-low, in which ashes and burnt bones have been found. From this, numerous barrows may be seen on the distant emi- End-Low. nences; and in some of them, urns, human bones, ashes, and other memorials of the customs of remote ages, have been discovered. The names of several places in this neighbourhood are also indicative of antiquity, though the places themselves are now of little account; as Aldwark, five miles south of Arbor-low, on the Roman road from Buxton to Little Chester; Aldport, on another ancient way leading from Aldwark towards Bakewell, and some others.
Near to Wardlow, a barrow was examined in the year 1759, by the Rev. Mr. Evat of Ashford. There were discovered in it about seventeen Human human bodies. These appeared to have been laid on the surface of the ground, upon long flat stones. They were enclosed by two side walls, and the head and breast of each were protected from the incumbent weight of stone by a flat one laid over that part of the top. Two bodies near the middle of the barrow were walled up and covered from head to foot, in the form of a long chest, with a stone cover to each. Jaw bones, teeth, &c. were found undecayed, but none of the larger ones of the body. The low was thirty-two yards in diameter and five feet high. The coffins were two feet deep, and the complete ones seven feet six inches long.
At the summit of the eminence which rises above the little village of CHELMORTON, there are two considerable barrows, within a short distance Barrows at of each other. The circumference of the largest is nearly eighty yards; that of the smallest about seventy: on the top of both is a circular cavity or bason. A barrow, about the size of the former of those now mentioned, described by Pilkington, as being situate about a quarter of a mile northeast from Chelmorton, was opened in the year 1782, by some labouring men who were searching for stone to build a walled fence in a neighbouring field. "After removing a thin covering of moss and soil from the lower extremity of the mount or barrow, they discovered a kind of breastwork, or regular wall of single stones, formed without mortar. Not apprehensive of meeting with any thing extraordinary beyond this wall, they proceeded with their work, but were soon surprised with the sight of several human bodies. They found that the wall was at the end of a cell or coffin, in which the bodies had been deposited. The breadth of the cell within was two feet; but its depth was not fully ascertained, though supposed to bodies disbe about a yard. The sides consisted of stones about eight inches thick and two feet wide; they were placed on their edge, and formed a kind of partition: the stones used for the covering were from one to three inches thick, but not larger.
"Though some of the stones and a small quantity of the soil had fallen into the vault, yet several human bodies or skeletons might be clearly distinguished, lying at full length, with their heads towards the centre of the mount. The bones had never been disturbed, and were apparently united at the different joints, but by the slightest motion were found to be entirely loose and unconnected: upon examination, they were discovered to be remarkably strong and sound; the ribs, in particular, were so little decayed, that they would easily bend without breaking. Those who saw the bones, thought that they were uncommonly large; and it was imagined that the