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Jungermannia pulcherrima, cochleariforme, near Hathersage
epiphylla, broad-leaved star-tip, wet rocks
bidentata, clover star-tip, moist rocks and ditch banks
sphaerocephala, powdered star-tip, wet rocks

complanata, flat star-tip, trunks of trees, frequent
resupinata, curled star-tip, wet rocks
dilatata, scaly star-tip, trunks of trees

Marchantia polymorpha, stone liverwort, sides of wells and rivulets
conica, conic livergreen,

Lichen botryoides, clustered lichen

incanus, powdery lichen, hedge banks and trunks of trees
physodes, inflated lichen, trunks of birch trees

parietinus, yellow wall lichen, walls and trees, frequent
pyxidatus, cup lichen, hedge banks and heaths
deformis, mishapen lichen

cocciferus, scarlet cupped lichen, heaths

rangiferinus, reindeer lichen, bogs, Breadsall moor
uncialis, short lichen, heaths

birtus, rough lichen, trees and posts

farinaceus, mealy lichen, apple and sloe trees
fraxinus, wrinkled lichen, trunks of timber trees
fastigiatus, high pointed lichen

perlatus, broad lichen

caninus, grey ground liverwort, hedge banks and woods. Recommended by Dr.
Mead to prevent madness, after the bite of a mad dog
sulphureus, sulphur-coloured lichen, walls
scriptus, lettered lichen, trunks of young trees
canescens, hoary lichen, trunks of aged trees and walls
ater, black-cupped lichen, walls and trees, frequent
concentricus, concentric lichen,

niger, black lichen, limestone

cornicopioides, radiated lichen, Breadsall moor

fusco ater, black-knobbed lichen, on the bark of young pear trees
fagineus, white lichen, bark of beech and other trees

immersus, sunk lichen, walls

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pallescens, pale lichen, walls and trunks of trees
psora, scabby lichen, on stones

candelarius, yellow lichen, rocks, pales, trunks of trees, and on a wall near Cox


stellarius, starry lichen, bark of trees, near Coxbench

olivaceus, olive-coloured lichen, trunks of apple and sycamore trees

cornutus, horned lichen, heaths, frequent on Breadsall moor
digitatus, branched scarlet-headed lichen, moist heaths and roots
plicatus, stringy lichen, oak trees

floridus, flowering lichen, on a wall between Derby and Coxberch
prunastri, ragged hoary lichen, old plum trees and old pales

ciliaris, hairy lichen, apple and elm trees

tenellus, slender lichen, apple trees

caperatus, rose lichen, trees, pales and stones, Coxbench. It is used to dye woollen of an orange colour

lactæus, milky lichen, frequent


Agaricus campestris, common mushroom, dry meadows and pastures

Agaricus Cantharellus, yellow champignon

deliciosus, saffron-juiced agaric, fir plantations, very rare
orcades, fairy-ring agaric, upland pastures

giganteus, great agaric, [four to fourteen inches diameter]
terreus, dirt-coloured agaric, meadows and woods

dentatus, orange agaric, meadows, pastures, parks and forests

integer, crimson agaric, pastures, common

caseus, cream-cheese agaric, groves

procerus, tall agaric, hedge banks and dry pastures

muscarius, fly agaric, borders of pools
Listeri, bitter agaric

necator, deadly agaric, borders of pools
piperatus, pepper agaric, fir plantations
latus, broad agaric, borders of pools
floccosus, shag agaric, woods

fascicularis, clustered agaric, near decayed timber, in clusters, very frequent

cumulatus, crowded agaric, hedge banks, frequent

cineacreus, ash-coloured agaric, dunghills and meadows

ovatus, egg agaric, hedge banks and woods

semi-ovatus, half egg-shaped agaric, dunghills and pastures
semi-globatus, hemispherical agaric, pastures, frequent
plicatilis, plaited agario, decayed roots

campanulatus, bell agaric, woods and pastures, common
varius, variable agaric, roots of trees
stercoreus, stinking agaric, cow pastures
æruginosus, verdigris agaric, in groves
araneosus, cobweb agaric, plantations
clypeatus, long-stalked agaric, plantations
cæspitosus, turf-springing agaric, side of pools
castaneus, chesnut agaric, plantations
calyciformis, cup-shaped agaric, groves
eburneus, ivory agaric, pastures, common
fulvus, tawny agaric, pastures

farinaceus, mealy agaric, parks

fusco-flavus, yellowish brown-coloured agaric, parks
lacer, lacerated agaric

livido-purpureus, bluish or purple-coloured agaric, wet ground, near pools

nemoralis, wood agaric, moist woods and coppices
subcærulus, azure-coloured agaric, fir plantations

violaceus, violet agaric, groves

ardosiaceus, black-stalked agaric, birch plantations

velutipes, velvet-stalked agaric, foot of decayed posts, in clusters

lateralis, short-stalked agaric, decayed trees and posts

quercinus, stemless oak agaric, decayed trees and posts, common Boletus flavus, yellow boletus

aurantiacus, orange boletus, frequent

squamosus, honey-comb boletus, trunks of ash trees
versicolor, striped boletus, trunks of decayed trees and posts
igniarius, touchwood boletus, trunks of cherry trees
Helvella mitra, mitre mushroom
Peziza cochleata, wreathed peziza, birch plantations
coccinea, the shelly peziza

Phallus impudicus, stinking morel, shady hedge banks
Clavaria Hypoxylon, horned club top, rotten sticks, common
ophioglossoides, black club top, road sides
pistillaris, hollow club top

muscoides, yellow pointed club top

Lycoperdon Bovista, great puff-ball, drained peaty ground

It must needs afford unspeakable satisfaction to the inquisitive mind, that all the doubts and uncertainty which, after the most diligent investigation, for a long time perplexed the naturalist, concerning the origin of fairy rings, are at length dispelled. This curious phænomenon, so much the object of superstition in the days of our forefathers, and which by some eminent modern philosophers have been attributed to the effect of lightning, is now indubitably proved to be caused by fungi, the spawn of which is destructive to grass and herbage, in general.

Any one who shall attend to the spot where incipient bare or brown rings are first visible, may satisfy himself of the truth of this opinion, by examining the soil at the depth of two or three inches: he will find it replete with these fungi, in miniature. They appear in the form of a whitish powder, and are a curious object for the microscope.

The formation of fairy rings are not confined to this species. The A. Giganteus, A. Terreus and others, are capable of producing the sanic effects. See Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1791, page 1085.


Lycoperdon equinum, horse puff-ball
stellatum, star puff-ball, hedge banks
Sphæria scripta, lettered sphæria, on the trunks of trees
tremelloides, red-knobbed sphæria, rotten sticks
tuberculosa, knobbed sphæria, dried hazel sticks.

-There lives and works

A soul in all things, and that soul is God;

He marks the bounds which winter may not pass,
And blunts his pointed fury; in its case,
Russet and rude, folds up the tender germe
Uninjured, with inimitable art;

And ere one flowery season fades and dies,
Designs the blooming wonders of the next. Cowper.





THE HORSE, Equus Caballus.-Tail and mane, with long hair, ears short, erect, colour various, viz. chestnut, bay, grey, white, black, brown, &c.

Of all the animals which man has subjugated to his purposes, the horse is the most noble and most useful. The breeds of this noble animal were different half a century ago in this county to what they are at the present time. At that period a small and light description of horses was bred in the northern part of the county for the purposes of carrying limestone, lead ore, calamine, and coal to distant places, through roads almost impassable by wheel carriages, and their agility in ascending and descending the steep mountains, with heavy burdens on their backs, was remarkable. Since the roads that intersect the county in every part, and more particularly in the mountainous district, (where the materials for roadmaking are so excellent) have been so universally improved, a more easy way of conveying such heavy materials has been adopted, by the use of one-horse carts and other wheel carriages. In the southern part of the county, and the Hundred of Scarsdale, the breed of horses were formerly of the heavier kind; furnishing the London market with excellent dray horses. Since the establishment of a cavalry force in this county, the yeomen have been induced to put their heavy brood mares to thorough-bred horses, to produce animals useful for the purposes of the saddle as well as for agriculture; by this means a race of animals have been produced, combining activity with strength, suitable for the husbandman, the carriage, the road and the field. The sort generally preferred for draught is the heavy black breed, having the greatest weight and strength; but some of the brown and other colours, have doubtless more action and energy of motion, and are to be preferred in all cases where despatch is more the object than strength. Horses that are accustomed to the hills, which are used for the saddle, when pursuing the hounds, will run full speed along the side of a precipice, or directly down the steepest declivities. It is said that those which have been long used to the country, will ascend any precipice that can be climbed by man. For size and beauty, the English horses are superior to those of every other country, and are capable of performing what no others ever could attain to. By a judicious mixture of the several kinds, and by our superior management, they excel the Arabian in size and swiftness, are more durable than the Barb, and more hardy than the Persian. An ordinary racer will go at the rate of a mile in two minutes, and we had one instance in the famous Childers, of much greater rapidity; he having frequently been known to move above eighty-two feet and a half in a second, or almost a mile in one minute; and he has run round the course at Newmarket, which is little less than four miles, in six minutes and forty seconds.

Sir Henry Harpur at one time kept a valuable stud of race horses at Swarkstone-Lows; amongst the most celebrated, we may notice Jason, Furyband, Pilot, Juniper, (which we are informed won ten gold cups, and was never beaten) Dairymaid, Trueblue, Young Goldfinder, &c. Though we cannot now boast of any superior breed of race horses being kept in this county, several noblemen and gentlemen have valuable hunters and carriage horses. The Duke of Devonshire has given every encouragement to his tenantry to induce them to improve the breed of their horses, by keeping thorough-bred stallions for them at Chatsworth.

The following gentlemen have recently obtained the Agricultural Societies' prizes, for having the best stallions, brood mares, and stock of their kinds. Thorough bred stallion, Mr. Stacye; cart-kind, Mr. Ward; brood mares and stock, Mr. Sampson, Mr. Reid Denham, Mr. Royston, Mr. Hardwick, &c.

THE ASS, Equus Asinus.—Ears long, flaccid, a black cross on the top of the shoulders; generally of a brown and dark brown colour.

This animal, says a modern writer, finds its value in the revolutions of time, being now

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kept by many respectable families for the use of young ladies and gentlemen. Several of these useful creatures are used in this county for various purposes; some in the mines, others to carry milk, earthenware, coals, &c. Were the race of horses to cease to exist, that of the serviceable, but too frequently ill-used ass, would soon acquire no trifling value. When well kept he is a handsome animal, stronger in proportion and more hardy than the horse, and has the additional advantages, of being less subject to disease, and capable of living upon very humble fare. It is only in the article of water that he can be said to be dainty, of that he will drink only the clearest. His stupidity is too often caused by ill-usage. He is four years in coming to perfection, and lives from twenty to thirty years; he seldom lies down to sleep unless greatly fatigued.

THE OX, Bos Taurus.-The neat cattle of this county are principally of the improved short-horned kind, and rather large and handsome; the cows have the property of becoming fat in a short time; their size is various, weighing from nine to twelve score the quarter. As the dairy is of the greatest importance to many of the Derbyshire farmers, the quantity and quality of milk is also attended to. It has been questioned whether the original long-horned, for the which the late Mr. Princep of Croxall, and the late Eusebius Horton, esq. of Catton, were so famous, or the present improved short-horned, produced by W. B. Thomas, esq. of High Fields, and William Smith, esq. of Swarkstone-Lows and Dishley, have the advantage in this respect; the latter for their beautiful symmetry and other good qualities, have now the decided preference in this county. Great praise is due to several noblemen and gentlemen of the county; some for the considerable pains they have taken, and the serious expenses incurred to improve the breed of stock; and others for the encouragement and interest they have taken, and the desire they have had to behold on their estates, kine equal, if not superior, to any in the kingdom. The desired object has been attained, as will be more particularly seen from the portraits of stock, given in the chapter on agriculture; and it may be justly questioned whether any other district in England, of the same extent, can furnish so large a number of cows, equally distinguished for their beautiful symmetry and other qualities. In proof of their superiority, they have obtained the prizes at the Smithfield cattle shows; and of their great value and excellence, some idea may be formed from the prices obtained for them by the different breeders, viz. Mr. Thomas's heifer, Daffodil, when twenty-one months old, sold for 60 guineas, as a show beast; and his celebrated bull, called Charles the second, obtained the prize, given by the board of agriculture, in 1821; at Mr. Smith's stock sales, his cows have sold as high as 150 guineas, heifers 100 and upwards.

Besides the two spirited gentlemen already named, we may insert amongst the first-rate breeders, the Earl of Chesterfield; Sir George Crewe, bart.; Sir George Sitwell, bart.; Rev. Richard Whinfield, of Heanor; Rev. C. H. R. Rodes; Abraham Hoskins, esq.; Samuel Rowland, esq. Derby; Mr. Turner; Mr. Heywood of Brimington; William Jessop, esq. of Butterley hall, &c. Mr. Wilson of Stenson still has a herd of pure long-horned neat cattle, which he has bred from the celebrated stock of the late Mr. Horton of Catton.

The short-horned breed are of various colours, size and weight; large, producing well to the pail, and weighing when full grown and fat, the cows ten to twelve score the quarter, and the oxen twelve to fifteen score; they are well-formed, disposed to fatten, and handle sleek and well, with great weight in the more valuable joints, and the cows are of singular and beautiful appearance. The cow has seldom more than one calf at a time, and goes about nine months. There is scarcely a part of this animal that is not useful to mankind; and of late years, benefit has been derived even from one of its diseases, by the introduction of vaccine inoculation, an antidote for that horrible and deadly disorder the small pox. The Derby fortnightly Smithfield market is generally well supplied with fat stock, and is of great utility to the grazier, and of some benefit to the butcher. Though a large number of cattle is annually bred in this county, it is supposed that they are not sufficient for the use of the inhabitants. Many are brought every year from Ireland, Scotland, Lancashire and Yorkshire, and sold to the Derbyshire graziers. Many Kyloe oxen enjoy the sweet herbage of our meadows. This is a Scotch breed of cattle, chiefly of a black colour, with thick hides, much silky hair, and large horns. They fatten well, and often attain to a great size.

THE WOODLAND SHEEP, Ovis Aries.-Horns compressed, rough and hollow, simple, spiral, turning outwards; face grey or black, legs of the same colour, wool short and fine: Woodland sheep improve in pasture. Large flocks of these are kept in the Woodlands and on the Moors.

THE NEW LEICESTERSHIRE SHEEP.-Face and legs white, wool longer, but fine in staple, hornless, fine in bone, thick, compact, inclined to fatten, quiet in pasture.

THE MERINO OR ANDALUSIA SHEEP.-Looser and lighter made, longer and less compact, twirling horns, wool silky, extremely fine. Spanish sheep.

Sheep on the northern and southern part of this county are very different. Those on the Leicestershire border resemble the sheep of that county for weight, size, and fleece; the carcass, when full grown and fat, weighs from 25 to 40 lbs. per quarter; some have been slaughtered from Mr. Smith's flock, of Swarkstone-Lows and Dishley, weighing 62 lbs. the quarter. In the centre, to the north-east and west of the county, they are somewhat smaller. In the High Peak they weigh from 14 to 20 lbs. per quarter, those fed on the gritstone land being

about 3lbs. lighter than those pastured on the limestone tracts. The fleece of the former are also much lighter and thinner than the others. This difference in the quantity and quality of the wool may be owing to the quality of the food, or to the particular breed of the animal. The large flocks of the two latter kinds of sheep, that range the mountains and extensive tracts of moorland in the High Peak hundred, constitute the principal riches of the farmers in the northern extremity of the county, and furnish the Manchester and Sheffield markets with the best of mutton. At five years old they are considered to be at their prime. Mr. Hutchinson, in his tour, gives us a long story about the attachment of the Woodland sheep to their native pastures. He says, one found its way back after having been driven beyond the city of London. No country produces finer sheep, with larger fleeces, or better adapted for the business of the clothier, than England. Those of Spain have confessedly finer fleeces, and we generally require some of their wool to work up with our own; but the weight of a Spanish fleece is much inferior to one of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, or Lincolnshire. The Spanish or Merino breed has been introduced into this county, and the fleece is found to retain its primitive fineness. The most celebrated amongst the breeders in Derbyshire are William Smith, esq. of Swarkstone-Lows and Dishley; Thomas Hassal, esq. of Hartshorn; W. B. Thomas, esq. of High Fields; Mr. Samuel Beardsley, of Kirk Ireton; Mr. Birkett, Mr. Webster, &c.

Sir George Crewe, bart. for several years kept a flock of south downs, he has now changed them for the Portland sheep, which answer well; and what is remarkable, I am told they will breed twice a year; several of these ewes were suckling their lambs when I visited Calke park, on the 22nd of January, 1829. S. Glover.

THE GOAT, Caper Hircus.-Horns hollow, erect, bending backwards, body covered with long hair, and long beard; domesticated.

The few goats kept in Derbyshire now, are principally to be found in the stable-yards of noblemen, gentlemen, and coach proprietors, where a number of horses are kept; though they were formerly as much attended to as any of the animals which have been mentioned. Among the endowments of Beauchief abbey, recited in a charter of Henry the Fourth, we find a grant of pasture land for forty cows and two bulls, ten mares, eighty sheep, thirty swine and forty goats. From so large a proportion of goats, it may be presumed, that they were very numerous in this part of the kingdom. The goat is naturally possessed of more instinct than sheep, and is stronger, swifter and more courageous. Lively, playful and capricious, it does not easily submit to be confined, but chooses its own pastures, delights in climbing precipices or the heathy mountain, and the shrubby rock is more suited to its taste than the cultivated field; its favourite food consists of the tops of boughs, or the tender bark of young trees. It leaps with the utmost ease and security amongst the most frightful crags. Nature has in some measure fitted it for traversing these declivities; the hoof being hollow underneath, with sharp edges, so that it could walk securely on the ridge of a house. Sensible of kindness and caresses, the goat easily attaches itself to man, and being an hardy animal, and easily sustained, it is in the mountainous districts chiefly the property of the indigent. In the highlands of Scotland, these animals constitute the chief riches of the hardy natives, and supply them with the few indulgences their situation permits them to enjoy. The milk of the goat is sweet, nourishing and medicinal; this the highlanders eat with oaten bread, and convert a part of it into butter and cheese; and the skins, which are soft, clean and wholesome, form their beds.

THE STAG, RED DEER OR HART, Cervus Elaphus.-Horns round, branched, and turned backwards. A few are kept in parks; but their ferocity in the rutting-season has caused their numbers to be reduced.

This animal is formed to embellish the forest and animate the solitude of nature. His graceful make, his airy motion, and the ample branched horns that adorn his head, added to his size, strength and swiftness, render him one of the most elegant, if not one of the most useful of quadrupeds. This species of animal, now almost, if not quite extinct in this county, at one period inhabited the Peak forest, and an extensive tract of land (formerly well wooded) in great numbers. This forest was anciently called De alto Pecco, and included the parishes of Castleton, Chapel or Boden, Glossop and Hope in this county; and Mottram in Langdon dale, in the county of Cheshire. was stocked with red deer, which by tradition are reported to have sometimes traversed the country so low as Ashford-in-the-Water. Most of the deer perished in a great snow about the time of James the First, and the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Many petrified horns have been found in the limestone tracts. The fine branching horns of this animal still ornament the halls of our ancient nobility and gentry, which may be considered a further proof that stags were once common in this county.

THE FALLOW DEER, Cervus Dama.-Horns compressed, branched, turned backwards, and broad at the extremities.

In the noblemen and gentlemen's parks in this county, there are two varieties of the Fallow Deer; the beautiful spotted kind, originally brought from Bengal, and the deep brown sort, introduced from Norway by James the First. In form and disposition they resemble the stag, but are smaller, less robust, and instead of branched and round, have broad and palmated

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