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Natural productions of Derbyshire. Observations. Plants: beasts: birds: fishes: reptiles and insects.

CHAP. 3.

THE distinguishing natural feature of this county is to be sought in its Natural geographical and geological aspect; the diversities of which have been the Productions. subject of the preceding chapters. In its vegetative, animated and intellectual characteristics, there cannot be expected to exist many very decided peculiarities; and consequently, in speaking of plants, beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles and insects of Derbyshire, our observations must be liable to be regarded either as too general or too confined. There are undoubtedly varieties in both the botanical and zoological productions of every district, and many of these varieties, as they exist in this county, have been traced and pointed out by intelligent inquirers. Some beautiful flowers are found in abundance among the rugged grit and limestone rocks of the Peak, which seldom are met with in equal perfection elsewhere; around the dreary hills that encompass Middleton, violets are in greater profusion than the common daisy, and there is a species of the Orchis which is said to be known only to our northern valleys. Among the reptiles and birds, some peculiarities, not, however, sufficiently marked, have been noticed; but considerable doubt attaches to such notices, and the natural history of the county is still open to very considerable research.


With respect to the elegant and interesting pursuits of the botanist, there Observacan scarcely be a field of richer diversity than Derbyshire, where, as we have already seen, the aspect of the county is varied with rocky eminences and deep valleys, with plains, and with the gentle undulations of the red marl hills and cavities in the southern district. The soil varies also, and the climate of the High Peak differs from that of the Low Peak, which differs still more from that which is experienced on the banks of the Trent. Hence the flora of Derbyshire must embrace a variety of species, while the individual plants will also be found to vary in colour, in size and in beauty.

"In botany," says an amiable writer, "all is elegance and delight. Its pleasures spring up under our feet, and as we pursue them, reward us with health and serene satisfaction. None but the most foolish or depraved could derive any thing from it, but what is beautiful, or pollute its lovely scenery with unamiable or unhallowed images.

"Whether we walk forth in the early spring, when the ruby tips of the hawthorn-bush give the first sign of its approaching vegetation; or a little later, when the violet welcomes us with its scent, and the primrose with its beauty; whether we contemplate, in succession, all the profuse flowery treasures of the summer, or the more hidden secrets of nature, at the season when fruits and seeds are forming-the most familiar objects, like old friends, will always afford us something to study and to admire, while new discoveries will awake a train of new ideas. The yellow blossoms of the morning, that fold up their delicate leaves as the day advances; others that

CHAP. 3. court and sustain the full blaze of noon; and the pale night scented tribe, which diffuse their sweet fragrance towards evening, will all please in their turn. The more we study the works of the Creator, the more their wisdom, beauty and harmony become manifest, even to our limited apprehensions; and while we admire, it is impossible not to adore.

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"Soft roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and flowers,

In mingled clouds to HIM, whose sun exalts,
Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints !"

In giving the following extensive catalogue of plants and flowers, we beg to acknowledge ourselves debtors, and return our thanks to Mrs. Lucy Hardcastle of Derby, and Mrs. Margaret Stoven of Newbold near Chesterfield; the former lady so highly talented in discovering and delineating the beautiful characteristics of the floreal region, the latter so eminent for her complete and scientific botanic collections.

The following lines, hitherto in manuscript in the album of a young lady of Derby, will not be considered inappropriate as an introduction to a list of plants and flowers.

"Bring, bring me flowers,- bring flowers of every shade : —

Blue hyacinths that emulate the sky,

And gold crysanthemums that never fade,
And amaranths, that tho' they bleeding lie,
Retain unstained their brightness as they die,
And silvery lilies, proud because they're pure,
And the arm'd rose, that rudeness doth defy,
And rich anémones, that still immure

Their beauties from the breeze, till of its fervour sure.

"Bring, bring me flowers, fair Fancy, bring me flowers,
Emblems of those these album-leaves may grace!
Let there be none that the dark blight devours,
Let there be none that cankerous spots deface-
None-none, that with their odours foul debase
The wreathe they're wove in: let there not be one,
That like the proud blue bind-weed, would embrace
The loftiest, loveliest stems, and leave undone
Even the lily pure, that it hath over-run.

"O let not one, with fraudful beauty, bear,
Like aconite, its venom in its scent;

Let all be honest, though not all be fair :
And let the humble with the rich be blent!

I would not miss the hare-bell there, though bent
With morning dew like tears;-the violet

So widely sweet, though with its shade content :
And who the meadow daisy would forget,

That glistens o'er green fields, like pearls in emerald set ?"





1 MONANDRIA...... One stamen...

Two stamens


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Three stamens...

Four stamens (all of the same length)
Five stamens

Six stamens (all of the same length)
Seven stamens.

Eight stamens...............................................

Nine stamens

8 OCTANDRIA ......
10 DECANDRIA ......
12 ICOSANDRIA...... Twenty stamens (fixed upon the calyx).
13 POLYANDRIA..... Many stamens (fixed to the receptacle)
f Four stamens, two of them longer.
14 DYDYNAMIA ............... pistil. Flowers ringent....

Ten stamens

Twelve stamens, or more (fixed to the

Strawberry, Thorn
Poppy, Buttercups
Foxglove, Deadnettle
Stock Gilliflower, Wall-

Six stamens, four of them longer.
pistil. Flowers cruciform.....
16 MONADELPHIA.. Threads united at bottom, but separate at top Mallow, Cranesbill
17 DIADELPHIA..... Threads in two sets. Flowers butterfly-shaped Pea, Clover
St. John's Wort
18 POLYADELPHIA Threads in three or more sets.....
Anthers united. Five stamens. One pistil. Į Dandelion, Daisy,
Flowers compound.....
20 GYNANDRIA ....... Stamens upon the pistil.
21 MONOECIA......


{Stamens and pistils in separate flowers,


upon same 22 DIOECIA......... Stamens and pistils distinct, on different plants Hop, Willow 23 POLYGAMIA Stamens only, others pistils only, others both Orach 24 CRYPTOGAMIA... Flowers inconspicuous....

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Familiar Examples.

Mare's tail, Wa. Starwort
Speedwell, Brooklime
Grasses, Crocuses
Teasel, Plantain
Honeysuckle, Primrose
Harebell, Snowdrop
Mezereon, Willowherb
Flowering Rush
Pink, Stitchwort

the} Houseleek

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REFERENCE, A annual, P perennial, B biennial, S septennial, &c.


Chara vulgaris, common chara, stonewort, pools, July, a petal
hispida, prickly chara, pools, July to August, a petal
flexilis, smooth chara, pools, July to August, a petal
Aphanes arvensis, parsley piert, cultivated land
Hippuris vulgaris, mare's tail, ditches, May, a petal


Callitriche aquatica, stargrass or starwort, ditches, April to October, white
verna, water chickweed, ditches, March to October.

Ligustrum vulgare, privet, hedges, May to June, white

Flaxinus excelsior, ash, woods, April to May, a petal, abundant on limestone rocks
Veronica arvensis, wall speedwell, old walls, May, blue, Derby

officinalis, male speedwell, or fuellen, barren ground, May to June, blue, Matlock alpina, alpine speedwell, high situations, July to August, blue, on Masson moun

tain, Matlock

serpyllifolia, smooth speedwell, or Paul's betony, meadows and pastures, May to
June, blue, P. Derby and Pinxton
Beccabunga, brooklime speedwell, rivers, July, blue, P. wet ditches and small run-
ning streams, Chester green

Anagallis, water speedwell, marshes, July, blue, P. Kedleston, South Normanton,

common in wet ditches

scutellata, narrow leaved speedwell, marshes, July to August, flesh coloured, P.
near Derby, in ditches on the Ashbourn road and Allestree
montana, mountain speedwell, madwort, or stalked speedwell, woods, April to June,
blue, Nutwood, Darley, near Derby

Veronica Chemædrys, wild germander speedwell, meadows and pastures, May, blue, com. agestris, procumbent germander speedwell, or chickweed, cultivated land and rubbish, April to October, blue, A. Derby

hederifolia, ivy leaved speedwell, or henbit, corn fields and rubbish, April to Oct. blue, A. in the plantations at Markeaton, near Derby Pinguicula vulgaris, butterwort, bogs, May to June, violet, P. Mack worth Utricularia vulgaris, hooded water milfoil, stagnant water, July, yellow

Lycopsis europæus, water horehound, river banks, July to August, white, P. Derby, Pinx

ton, South Normanton, &c.

Salvia pratensis, meadow clary, dry pastures, July, violet, P. Crich, near Hallowes

verbenaca, wild clary, dry pastures, June to October, violet, found often in church
yards. Ray says this plant was made use of as an instance of Popish
superstition, on account, perhaps, of its use in medicine

Circæa Lutetiana, enchanter's night shade, shady places, June to July, reddish, Matlock
bath, Quarndon well, Newton wood, Sutton spring, &c.

alpina, alpine night shade, mountains, July to August, reddish, Matlock, Lover's

walk Verbena officinalis, vervain, roadsides, July, purple.


Anthoxanthum odoratum, sweet scented vernal grass, meadows and pastures, May, about
Derby, common.


Valeriana dioica, small or marsh valerian, moist meadows, June to July, flesh coloured, in
a meadow at Thornhill farm, near Derby

officinalis, great wild valerian, moist meadows, June to July, flesh coloured, on
the banks of the Derwent, near Derby

locusta, common salad lettuce valerian, corn fields, April to May, blue, in a corn
field near Quarndon

fœdia olitoria, strong scented garden valerian
dentata, oval fruited valerian, June to July, purple

Crocus vernus, spring crocus, meadows, March, yellow, in the Holmes and Old Meadows,

near Derby

nudiflorus, naked flowering crocus, meadows, October, violet, in the Holmes and
Siddals, near Derby

Iris Pseudacorus, yellow flag, flower de luce or water flag, moist places, July, yellow, on the banks of the Derwent near the old silk mill, Derby

fætidissima, stinking gladdon, shady places, June to July, lead colour
Nardus stricta, small mat grass, heaths, July, common
Schænus Mariscus, prickly bog rush, bogs, July to August
nigricans, black-headed bog rush, bogs, June

Cyperus longus, sweet cyprus or English galingale, ditches, July
Scirpus palustris, club rush, marshes, June to July

caespitosus, dwarf rush, heaths, July, near a sheet of water in Allestree park
fluitans, floating club rush, heaths, July to August, shallow waters

lacustris, bull rush, rivers, July, common about Derby

setaceus, least club rush, wet ground, July to August

triqueter, triangular club rush, marshes, August, wet pastures near Derby

sylvaticus, millet cyprus grass, July, moist shady places

Eriophorum angustifolium, many-headed cotton grass, meadows, March, Dovedale, meadows

near Wirksworth

vaginatum, hare's tail rush, moss crops, or single headed cotton grass, April,
Eastmoor, Dovedale

polystachion, moss crops or cotton grass, April, Dovedale.


Phalaris arenaria, sand canary grass, meadows and pastures, June

arundinacea, reed canary grass, lanes, July, banks of rivers and moist places,


Phleum bocheneri, purple stalked cat's tail grass, meadows and pastures, August

pratense, common cat's tail grass, meadows and pastures, June to October, stem
grows to the height of six feet

nodosum, bulbous jointed cat's tail grass, meadows and pastures, June to October Alopecurus pratensis, meadow fox tail grass, meadows and pastures, May

agrestis, slender fox tail grass, in wet arable land, July

geniculatus, jointed fox tail grass, wet meadows, July, in shallow waters fre


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Milium effusum, millet grass, moist shady places, June to July, mountains, common
paradoxum, black seeded mellet grass
Agrostis palustris, marsh bent-grass, arable land

canina, awnless brown bent grass, wet pastures and peat bogs, July

vinealis, short bearded bent, moist pastures

vulgaris, common bent, dry pastures, on road sides

alba, marsh bent, or white couch, marshes, the root will perforate a potatoe
panacea, bearded bent grass, September

nigra, black couch grass, in cold clayey arable land

stolomifera, creeping bent grass, moist meadows, July to August Aira cristata, crested hair grass, dry pastures, July to August

aquatica, water hair grass, shallow waters, May to June caespitosa, turfy hair grass, moist places, June to July flexuosa, waved mountain grass, heaths, July

præcox, early hair grass, dry commons, May to June
caryophyllea, silver hair grass, sandy pastures, May to June

Holcus lanatus, woolly soft grass, meadows and pastures, June to July
mollis, creeping soft grass, corn fields and hedges, July to August
avenaceus, tall oat-like soft grass, meadows and pastures
odoratus repens, sweet scented soft grass, June
Melica uniflora, wood melic grass, groves, May to June

cærulea, purple melic soft grass, mountains, August nutans, mountain melic grass, mountains, June to July ciliata, ciliated melic grass, meadows and pastures, July Glyceria aquatica, water glyceria

fluitans, floating glyceria

Poa aquatica, reed meadow grass, ditches, sides of rivers and canals, grows six feet high,


distans, reflexed meadow grass, sandy meadows, July

procumbens, procumbent sea meadow grass, July to August rigida, rigid meadow grass, lime rocks, June

compressa, flat stalked meadow grass, walls, July to August

alpina, alpine meadow grass, mountains, July

annua, annual meadow grass, March to November, foot paths and gravel walks

nemoralis, wood meadow grass, woods, June

cæsia, sea-green meadow grass, mountains, June to July

fertilis, fertile meadow grass, meadows, June

trivialis, rough stalked meadow grass, meadows and pastures, June

nervata, nerved meadow grass, meadows and pastures, June

subcærulea, blue meadow grass, meadows and pastures, June

pratensis, smooth stalked meadow grass, meadows and pastures, June Briza minor, small quaking grass, corn fields, July

media, quaking grass, meadows and pastures, June to July

Dactylis glomerata, round headed cock's foot grass, meadows, June to August
glaucescons, glaucous cock's foot grass, meadows, June to August
variegatæ, striped cock's foot grass, meadows, June to August
Cynosurus cristatus, crested dog's tail grass, pastures, July
Festuca ovina, sheep's fescue grass, heaths and high pastures, June

ovina tenuis, slender sheep's fescue grass, dry pastures, June
vivipara, viviparous fescue grass, limestone hills, July
duriuscula, hard fescue grass, meadows and pastures, July
rubra, creeping fescue grass, meadows and pastures
bromoides, bromelike fescue grass, dry pastures, June
myurus, capon's tail fescue grass, walls and dry pastures, June
dumetorum, wood fescue grass, woods, hedges and thickets, July
gigantea, giant fescue grass, meadows and pastures, July
foliacea, rye grass like fescue grass, moist pastures, June to July
pratensis, meadow fescue grass, meadows and pastures, June to July
elatior fertilis, tall fertile fescue grass, moist meadows, June to July
pinnata, pinnated fescue, moist meadows, June to July

Bromus secalinus, smooth rye brome grass, corn fields, July, culm three feet high, the seed

is called long tail by farmers when in their corn samples
multiflorus, many flowering brome grass, corn fields, July
mollis, soft annual brome grass, walls and meadows, June
racemosus, smooth brome grass, meadows and pastures, June
asper, hairy stalked brome grass, moist shady places, July
sterilis, barren brome grass, rubbish, June to July

arvensis, meadow brome grass, corn fields and meadows, July
giganteus, tall brome grass, moist hedges and meadows, July

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