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ILLUSTRATED BY TWENTY MAPS,
BY GEORGE W. FITCH.
MAPS ON A NEW AND UNIFORM SYSTEM OF SCALES, CONSTRUCTED EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK,
BY G. WOOLWORTH COLTON.
J. H. COLTON AND COMPANY,
Νο 172 WILLIAM STREET.
SHELDON, BLAKEMAN AND CO., 115 NASSAU STREET.
BOSTON PHILLIPS, SAMPSON AND COMPANY, 13 WINTER STREET.
THE favor with which the public have received the author's Modern School Geography, and the frequent calls for a work constructed on the same general plan, but so modified as to suit the capacities of a younger class of pupils, has led to the preparation of the present volume.
The following are some of its characteristics:
THE INDUCTIVE METHOD of teaching has been pursued, wherever the nature of the subject would admit of its use. For examples of this, see lessons on the Races of Men, pages 16 and 17; also on Government, page 19.
THE DEFINITIONS are brief, and expressed in plain, short words. They are faithfully and beautifully illustrated by pictures and diagrams, the one being designed to show the objects defined, as they appear in nature; the other, as they are represented
THE MAPS are new, having been specially drawn for this work. In their preparation, reference has been had to strict accuracy, distinctness of lettering, boldness of outline, and beauty of execution. They are not crowded with superfluous matter, every thing not needed for present use having been carefully excluded. As far as practicable, a uniform system of scales has been adopted. For instance, the several sections of the United States are exhibited on the same scale, or a simple multiple of the same. By this means the juvenile learner may readily compare map with map and state with state, and thus not only avoid misconception, but, by an act of simple observation, acquire a more accurate and permanent idea of the relative size of the several states than he could possibly attain by any other process. Numbers soon fade from the memory; but impressions taken in through the medium of the eye are not easily effaced. The absence of this feature. in all preceding elementary treatises, has been regarded by intelligent teachers as an essential defect, and its presence here will, doubtless, be duly appreciated. THE MAP QUESTIONS are arranged with reference to utility and convenience. They are printed in a large, clear type, easy to read, and agreeable to the eye. They are always placed in such relation to the maps as to require no turning of leaves. The several natural divisions, as islands, capes, etc., are systematically classified, each being arranged under its appropriate nead, and proceeding in regular succession from some prominent point on the map. The questions often convey useful information, which the pupil can not fail to have in mind while studying the map. To illustrate: What town on the Penobscot River, noted for its trade in lumber? thus, at first view, associating in the mind of the child a fact characteristic of the locality. The answers to the questions are short, not requiring the learner to repeat long lists of names.
THE EXERCISES ON THE MAP, following the questions, are especially designed for reviews; but are so constructed as to be eminently serviceable in connection with outline maps.
BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS of the several States and countries follow the maps on which they are found. These may be used, or omitted, at the option of the teacher. The principal attention of the class of pupils for whom this work is designed, should, doubtless, be given to the study of maps, as being the department of geography best suited to their capacities. The author's experience, however, has convinced him that exclusive attention to map-studies seldom fails to weary the youthful learner, and he has for this reason adopted the above arrangement as a profitable means of relaxation to the pupil. The descriptive matter is arranged according to a uniform plan. Thus, in the general description of North America, its geographical position, climate, surface, soil, animals, etc., are each considered in their natural order.
REVIEW LESSONS Occur at convenient intervals among the definitions, being condensed statements of the preceding matter,
THE ENGRAVINGS are designed for use as well as ornament. They illustrate the text, convey important information in a pleasing manner, and tend to cultivate, in the youthful learner, a correct taste for the beautiful in nature and art.
It may be remarked, in conclusion, that the author's highest endeavor has been to adapt this work to the capacity of beginners. Simplicity and methodical arrangement have, therefore, been regarded as the chief requisite. It is believed that the intrinsic interest of the subject, if properly presented, will render it sufficiently attractive, without the aid of childish discourse, or the association of irrelevant particulars.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-six, by J. H. COLTON AND COMPANY, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.
If you were asked to point toward the North, how would you do it?
I would look at a compass, and point the same way the needle does.
Could you do this without a compass ?
How would that assist you?
The sun rises in the East, and sets in the West.
If you stand with your right side toward the East, where will the West be?
On my left.
Where will the North be?
Where will the South be?
Look at the diagram above, and tell me what the point between North and East is called? What is that between East and South? What is that between South and West? What is that between West and North ?
What does Hemi mean?
What, then, is a HEMISPHERE?
Half of a globe or half of any round body.
What does Hemisphere mean, when used in geography?
It means one half of the earth, or a map of one half of the earth.
How is the earth generally supposed to be divided in reference to Hemispheres?
Into two, called the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
Answer the following questions from the map on the opposite page :
What land in the northern part of the Western Hemisphere ?
What, in the southern part?
What land in the Eastern Hemisphere extends farthest east?