Page images

species. When first developed it is of a pale yellow, but very soon assuming in every part, a dingy purplish brown colour. One to one foot and a half high, leafless. Flowers in a long spike. Stigma of two distant yellow lobes. Anthers white when dry.

2. O. minor, (Sutt.) lesser Broom-rape. Engl. Bot. t. 422. Locality. Parasitical chiefly on Trifolium pratense, the crops of which it often completely over-runs. A. Fl. June, July.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

In all the Districts, and not uncommon throughout Wilts. A very variable plant in size and colour, often not more than 4 or 5 inches, at other times more than a foot and a half in height; usually of a dingy purplish brown or bluish colour. Corolla tinged with violet in its upper part, downy, with several strong purple ribs. Stamens more or less hairy in their lower part. Anthers yellow when dry. Stigma bilobed, lobes purple. It varies according to station and the plant it affects. I have seen some of the clover-fields in the county completely infested with this species.

O. barbata Engl.

3. O. Hed'eræ, (Duby) Ivy Broom-rape. Bot. Suppl. t. 2859, not Poir.

Locality. Parasitical upon Ivy, in moist shady woods, and on walls and banks. P. Fl. June, July. Area,** 3. * *

South Division.

3. South-west District, On Ivy in the Rectory garden at Bishopstrowe. Cop-heap," Mr. R. C. Griffith.


The only localities at present recorded in the county for this species, which may possibly be only a variety of the last (O. minor). Stems purplish, about one foot high. This is best distinguished from the last by its yellow stigma, cleft only two thirds down instead of to the base. Anthers fuscous, rather paler when dry.

O, elatior, (Sutt.) Engl. Bot. t. 568. O. major (L.) Fries. has been reported to have been found in the county. I have not as yet seen specimens, and should be obliged to any botanist for Wiltshire examples of this species, with O. Hed'eræ. O. elatior should be looked for upon Centaurea Scabiosa, chiefly on balks in open chalky fields.

Linn. Cl. xiv., Ord. ii.

Name. From (lathraios), concealed; in allusion to the plant growing in much concealed places. Toothwort, from the scales of the root much resembling teeth in form and colour.

1. L. squamaria, (Linn.) scaly-rooted Toothwort. Squamaria is a Latin substantive formed from squama, signifying a scale, and is applied to this plant in reference to its roots, which are covered with scales. G. E. Smith, S. Kent. t. 3.

Locality. Parasitical on the roots of trees especially hazel, in damp shady places. Besides the hazel it grows on the oak, ash, beech, and elm. P. Fl. April, May. Area, 1. * 3. 4. 5.

South Division.

1. South-east District, "Plantations near Trafalgar Park," Dr. Maton and Major Smith. "Brickworth Park," Rev. E. Simms. "Woods at Clarendon," Bot. Guide.

3. South-west District," Woods at Ashcombe," Mr. James Hussey. North Division.

4. North-west District, Rudlow and Box. "Collet's Bottom, near Corsham," Dr. R. C. Prior.

5. North-east District, "Granham copses, and copses on White Horse Down; "" "Pewsey and Tottenham," Flor. Marlb. "Great Bedwyn," Mr. William Bartlett.

A singular parasitic plant closely allied to the Broom-rapes, but the flowers more regular. Whole plant succulent, with many fleshy tooth-like scales. Flowers in a long unilateral spike, flesh-coloured or bluish. Bractea's broadly ovate. This plant like Melampyrum turns quite black in drying, or on exposure to the air soon after being gathered. See a valuable paper on the structure and growth of this plant by J. E. Bowman Esq., in Linn. Trans. v. xvi., p. 2, accompanied by a beautiful plate.

Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

The name appears to be a corruption of the word Barbascum, on

account of the bearded or shaggy and downy surface of the leaves in most of the species.

1. V. Thapsus, (Linn.) Great Mullein, High-taper. The specific name of Thapsus has been derived from Thapsus in Africa, near which place it is said to have formerly abounded. Engl. Bot. t. 549. V. Schraderi Koch.

Locality. Roadsides, hedge-banks, waste places, in calcareous sandy and gravelly soils; also in newly cut copses. B. Fl. July, August. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Recorded in all the Districts. Stem 4 to 5 feet high, angular, winged. Leaves thick, excessively woolly, ovate or oblong. Flowers handsome, golden yellow; three of the stamens hairy; the two longer ones glabrous. The tomentum or down on all the species will, on examination under a microscope, be found to be composed of innumerable stellate hairs.

2. V. nigrum, (Linn.) Dark Mullein. Engl. Bot. t. 59.

Locality. Waste ground and banks, on dry gravel or chalk. P. Fl. July, August. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

South Division.

1. South-east District, "Roadsides between Salisbury and Milford," Dr. Maton. Nat. Hist. Wilts. "Landford," E. Simms.


2. South Middle District, Sparingly on Salisbury Plain. 3. South-west District, "Lanes about Odstock and Nunton; "Between Charlton and Downton, also Berwick St. John," Major Smith.

[ocr errors]

North Division.

4. North-west District, "Corn-fields on the road to Colerne," Flor. Bath. "Ford," Mr. C. E. Broome. "North Wraxhall by the roadside going from Chippenham to Marshfield, and in the village abundant," Dr. Prior. Wats. Bot. Guide.

5. North-east District, "West Woods," Flor. Marlb.

In all the Districts but local. Leaves nearly glabrous, dark green. Flowers in clusters, on the almost-simple long spike. Corolla rather large yellow. Stamens with bright purple hairs.

V. Blattaria, (Linn.) Engl. Bot. t. 393, is stated to have been

found in lanes between Downton and Charlton, (South-west District) by Dr. Maton, Nat. Hist. Wilts. It would be desirable to have this station again verified, as it at present rests on old authority. I have never seen this species in a locality which could be considered truly wild.

Linn. Cl. xiv. Ord. ii.

Name. From digitus, a finger; its flowers resembling the finger of a glove, (and hence sometimes called finger-flower); so named by Fuchsius, after its German designation.

1. D. purpurea, (Linn.) purple Foxglove. Engl. Bot. t.


Locality. Hedge-banks, woods, and sides of hills, on a gravelly or sandy soil. B. Fl. June August. Area 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

South Division.

1. South-east District, "In birch woods near Winterslow, and by the side of the hill, leading from Downton to Redlynch," Dr. Maton, Nat. Hist. Wilts. "Plentifully at Langford on the chalk formation," Rev. E. Simms.

2. South Middle District, Woods round Drew's Pond, Devizes. The white variety occurs here.

3. South-west District, In woods at Longleat and Stourton.

North Division.

4. North-west District, Woods at Spye Park and Bowood. "Bowden Hill," Flor. Bath.

5. North-east District "In the neighbourhood of Great Bedwyn," Mr. William Bartlett.

A local plant in Wilts, and occurring but sparingly in those Districts recorded for it. Stem solitary, 3 or 4 feet high, downy, terminating in a raceme of large pendulous flowers. Leaves downy, rugged, and deeply veined. Corolla campanulate, the tube an inch and a half long, of a rich purplish crimson, elegantly speckled, and hairy within; rarely white. The most stately and beautiful of our herbaceous plants; and one that has obtained great reputation as a medicine.


Linn. Cl. xiv. Ord. ii.

Name. Antirrhinon or Anarrhinon is a word used by Pliny; derived probably from (anti), resembling, and (rhin), a nose, in allusion to the form of the flowers.

1. A. majus, (Linn.) great Snapdragon. Engl. Bot. t. 129. Locality. Naturalized on walls and old buildings; frequently the out-cast of neighbouring gardens, not very common. P. Fl. July, September. Area 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

In all the Districts. Flowers large, on short pedicles, imbricated in dense terminal racemes. Corolla various shades of purple red, rose-colour, or white; in all cases with a bright yellow downy palate when pressed laterally between the thumb and finger it gapes, closing again when the pressure is removed; hence the vulgar name, which is, however, equally applicable to the genus Linaria.

2. A. Orontium, (Linn.) lesser Snap-dragon; (orontion) is an old Greek name. The ripe capsule, viewed in front, bears a strong resemblance to the face of an animal. Engl. Bot. t. 1155.

Locality. In cultivated fields amongst corn, and dry waste places, on sandy, gravelly, or chalky soils. A. Fl. July, August, Area, 1. 3. 4. *


South Division.

1. South-east District, "Corn-fields in chalky soils about Downton," Dr. Maton. Nat. Hist. Wilts. "Amesbury," Dr. Southby. 3. South-west District, "Corn-fields between Downton and Charlton," Major Smith. "Warminster," Mr. Wheeler.

North Division.

4. North-west District, Corn-fields at Spye Park, Bromham, and Sandridge. "Corn-fields near the George Inn, Sandy Lane,"

Flor. Bath.

Not frequent in Wilts, and as yet unrecorded in Districts 2 and 5. An erect, annual, seldom above a foot high, much more slender than A. majus, with narrower leaves. Flowers rose-colour, with yellow palate; remarkable for the great proportional length of the calyx, whose linear segments equalling the corolla when first expanded soon extend far beyond it.

« PreviousContinue »