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ton, in the Co. of Wilts, Esq., and Penelope his wife, daughter of Richard Champneys of Orchardleigh, in the Co. of Somerset, Esq. Born in this parish the 21st of June, 1646; went to sea very young, made many voyages to the West Indies, and visited most other parts of the known world. In the year 1676, he did the Dutch signal service by burning and destroying several French ships at Petit Guavas, for which he was generously rewarded by the Lords of the Admiralty. In 1680, the Royal African Company sent him to Cabo Corso Castle, their agent General, and chief Governor of the Gold coast of Africa. In 1685, he was elected elder Brother of the Trinity House of Deptford Strond, to the poor of which Corporation he was a good Benefactor. In 1689, he was made Commissioner of the Transport Office, and in 1691, appointed one of the principal Officers and Commissioners of the Navy. He laid the foundation and finished the Buildings of Her Majesty's Dockyard near Plymouth, where he died the 24th of May, 1708, and lies interred near this place."

The Greenhills were from remote antiquity substantial yeomen, residing at Steeple Ashton, Wilts. The name occurs in the parish register as early as 1561.

John Greenhill of Steeple Ashton.

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The arms which Henry Greenhill of Steeple Ashton assumed and his descendants continued, were disclaimed at the Herald's Visitation at Salisbury, in 1623. These arms, impaled with Abbot,

The arms on his monument shew that his wife's name was "Eardley." He was no doubt the same Henry Greenhill to whom a ring was given at Pepy's funeral p. 120.

once in the Council House, Salisbury, are now in the drawing room of Mr. George Benson in the Close.

John Greenhill the painter, was a pupil of Sir Peter Lely, and is said to have excited by his talents the jealousy of his master. He painted portraits of several of the eminent men of his time. His portrait of Bishop Seth Ward, said to be a noble picture, is in the Council House at Salisbury. It was painted in 1673. His portrait of the philosopher John Locke, has been engraved in Lord King's memoirs of Locke. He also painted Lord Shaftesbury when Lord Chancellor, in 1672. There is an etching by him of his younger brother Henry, dated 1667, in the British Museum, and there is a portrait of John Greenhill, painted by himself, bequeathed to Dulwich College by William Cartwright, of whom there is also a portrait there by the same artist. This portrait of John Greenhill is engraved in Dallaway's Edition of Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting. Sir Peter Lely is said to have settled £40 a year on John Greenhill's widow, of whom nothing is known. The painter appears to have been of dissipated habits. He was found in a kennel in Long Acre, and died in the night of May 19th, 1676. His father, John, was at one time engaged in the East India trade, and his Uncle Joshua Greenhill, described as a merchant and soldier, died at Balasore in the East Indies, in 1652. (See History of Salisbury, in Hoare's Modern Wilts).

Henry Greenhill, an officer in the Navy, had a 15s. ring at the funeral of Samuel Pepys the Diarist.

Near this monument is a black marble slab, sculptured with the coat of arms of Greenhill, thus inscribed :

"Here lieth interred the body of Henry Greenhill, Esq. who departed this life the 24th of May, 1708, aged 62 years."

Before the repairs in the south aisle, this slab was nearly covered by the floor of a pew. It was originally placed over only a part of the brick grave in which the body lies. It was moved a little towards the west, that it might be seen in the aisle, and still covers as much of the grave as it did originally. Henry Greenhill left £25 to the poor of the parish, and an account of the distribution of it is given in the old Churchwarden's book. He was connected

with the Poticarys, which accounts for his being born and buried at Stockton. The Greenhills of Steeple Ashton bore the same arms, and may have been connected with a family of that name, who owned the manor of Hide in Abbots' Langley, in the County of Herts. Henry Greenhill, of Greenhill in the parish of Harrow on the Hill, Middlesex, purchased the manor of Hide, and died seized of it in 1655; and it descended to his posterity. (Chauncey's Herts, Vol. 2, p. 337).

Over the south door are two small marble slabs to the memory of two daughters of Mr. William Wansboro Pinchard, who both died unmarried.

In an arched recess under the window at the west end of the south wall is the recumbent effigy of the foundress of this aisle, (as is supposed,) of which an account has already been given. On the west side of the wall which separates the nave and chancel, is a very handsome monument, executed in Caen stone, by Mr. Osmond of Salisbury, and erected a few years since, by Harry Biggs, Esq., to the deceased members of his family. It is in the decorated style of Gothic, richly ornamented. In the gable are the family arms, and the slab is thus inscribed :—

"Sacred to the memory of Henry Biggs, Esq., who died March 31st, 1800, aged 77 years.

Also of Diana his wife, who died June 30th, 1818, aged 89 years.

Also of Margaretta Anne, eldest daughter of Harry Biggs, Esq., only son of Henry and Diana Biggs, born Oct. 11th, 1819.

Also of Mary Anne, wife of Henry Godolphin Biggs, Esq., and second daughter of William Wyndham, Esq., of Dinton, born Jan. 23rd, 1798; died Feb. 12th, 1838.

Also of Arthur William Biggs, Major of 7th Hussars, youngest son of Harry Biggs, Esq., born Aug. 9th, 1804; died Nov. 2nd, 1840."

The dark coloured stone under the tower arch (which was removed into the church-yard in 1849, when the tower arch was restored), is an ancient coffin lid of Purbeck marble, the upper side turned down. It was examined in 1846. The upper end has been broken off through the head of the cross, which appeared to have been formed of circles. The edge of the stone is widely chamfered between two beads. It is unfortunately too much injured to be restored.

(To be continued.).


On the Ancient Use of a small Clay Cup, found near Coughton in Warwicksire,


By the Rev. A. H. WINNINGTON INGRAM, F.G.S., Hon. Canon.

HE cup represented in its actual size, plate I., fig. 1, was found four feet below the surface in a gravel-pit on the bank of the river Arrow, near the village of Coughton, Warwickshire. It is of rude workmanship, and made of coarse gritty pottery, projecting at the sides into three ears perforated with holes, through which some ligament has doubtless been inserted for the convenience of carrying or suspending it. I dismiss the idea that it was employed as a drinking vessel because its cavity, only 1 inch in depth, seems too shallow to favour that supposition. The opinion which I have formed concerning its use after comparing it with the stone vessels, plate I., figs. 2, 3, placed in my hands at Edinburgh by the courtesy of Mr. Macculloch, the Curator of the Museum of Antiquaries of Scotland where they are preserved, is, that it, and the hollowed stone, plate I., fig. 4, found in Aberdeenshire, and clay cups of a similar depth of cavity, and diameter of orifice, such as the vessels called incense cups, a specimen of which found also in Aberdeenshire, is represented plate I., fig 5, serve for the purpose of containing pigment which was mingled in them by the primitive races of our island, with a view to staining their bodies. The custom of body-painting in Britain in ancient times, seems to have extended to both sexes. Cæsar (Com. V. 14.), informs us that the Britons dyed their bodies with woad to give themselves a bluish colour and become more terrible in battle. Pliny, (Nat. Hist. xxii., 2) writes, "There is a plant in Gaul called by the name

of Glastum. With this both matrons and girls in Britain are in the habit of staining their bodies all over when they take part in the performance of certain sacred rites." So the North American Indians stain their faces with red paint before battle.

"And they stood there on the meadow
With their weapons and their war gear,
Painted like the leaves of Autumn,

Painted like the sky of morning."—Hiawatha I.

And after the combat, they

"Washed the war paint from their faces."—Hiawatha I.

The same Indians, before they engage in certain dances, put white clay on their bodies. And the New Zealand Chief coloured his skin with red ochre to make himself smart for the reception of strangers.

The observations of Cæsar and Pliny, confirmed by the analogous customs of modern uncivilized races indicate then that body-painting must have been a frequent process with the early inhabitants of our island. It is therefore a natural supposition that a cup in which to mingle war paint would form part of a warrior's kit on a hostile expedition, and one to contain ornamental body paint would be among the articles of toilet used by Britons of both sexes in their huts or wigwams. Of such a character were, doubtless, the two stone pots, plate I., figs 2, 3, discovered in a Picts house at the bay of Skaill Orkney; for of these the oblong one, fig. 2 actually contained red pigment, and the angular one, fig. 3 exhibited manifest traces of its contents having been once of a similar nature. No one will be surprised then that acquaintance with such a discovery should have suggested to the writer of this paper the supposition that the use of the Coughton cup and the so called incense cups might have been the same as that of the stone pots of Orkney, with this exception, that through the perforated ears of the Coughton cup, and the pairs of holes in the incense cups, which Sir Richard C. Hoare, who gave that name to those vessels, probably supposed were draught holes to cause the incense to burn freely, might have been inserted some ligament for the purpose of the suspension of those articles to the person, or to the walls of the habitation of the early

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