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1. C. officinale, (Linn.) officinal or common Hound's-tongue. Engl. Bot. t. 921.

Locality. Waste grounds, and by road-sides especially on chalk. B. Fl. June, July. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In all the Districts. Whole plant downy and very soft to the touch, dull green, with a fetid smell like that of mice. Stem 18 inches to 2 feet high. Rootleaves tapering at each end on long footstalks. Flowers dull crimson. Fruit depressed, rough, with hooked prickles.


Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

Name. From cor, the heart, and ago, to bring; thence corrupted into Borago or more directly from borrach, Celtic, a courageous or noble person.

1. B. officinalis, (Linn.) common Borage. Engl. Bot. t. 36.

Locality. Waste ground and rubbish heaps, occasionally; but like other biennials very uncertain. B. Fl. June, July. Area, 1, 2. 3. 4. 5. I do not consider this plant as truly wild in Wilts, although it occasionally occurs in small quantity in the districts. Flowers numerous, in terminal drooping bunches, very beautiful; Corolla an inch broad, of a most brilliant blue; pink in the bud. The supposed invigorating qualities of this plant which gave rise to the name, are now discredited. It forms an ingredient with wine, water, lemon, and sugar, in a favourite English drink, called a cool tankard.

Linn. Cl. v. Ord i.

Name. A word used by Pliny; from (lukos) a wolf, and (opsis), appearance; from a supposed resemblance in the flowers.

1. L. arvensis, (Linn.) corn-field or small Bugloss. Engl. Bot. t. 938.

Locality. In corn-fields, waste ground, and on dry banks, especially where the soil is light and sandy. A. Fl. June, July. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Not common in the County.

South Division.

1. South-east District, "Neighbourhood of Salisbury, James Hussey.

2. South Middle District, "Westbury," Mrs. Overbury. 3. South-west District," Corsley," Miss Griffith. "Warminster," Mr. Wheeler.

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Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

North Division.

4. North-west District, Corn-fields at South Wraxhall, Spye Park, and Bromham. "Nash Hill near Sandy Lane," Dr. R. C. Prior.


5. North-east District, Corn-fields at Purton, Marden, and Lydiard. "Great Bedwyn," Mr. William Bartlett. "Corn-fields near New Mill," Flor. Marlb. Whole plant very hispid; hairs or bristles seated on a white, callous base. Flowers small bright blue; differing from those of Anchusa in the curvature of the tube.

Name. From (sumphuo) to grow together, in allusion to its healing qualities. Comfrey according to Dr. Prior, from the Latin word Confirma, to strengthen.

1. S. officinale (Linn.) common Comfrey. Engl. Bot. t. 817. Locality. By the sides of the Avon, streams, and ditches, and other moist places. P. Fl. May, June. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Very common and generally distributed throughout Wilts. Leaves between egg-shaped and spear-shaped, very decurrent, and winging the upper part of the stem; finely hairy. Corolla usually of a yellowish white, sometimes purple; this last variety is the S. patens of Dr. Sibthorp, and is not unfrequent. It has a different aspect, but seems to have no positive characters to separate it from the typical form.

[“S. asperrimum, (Bieb.) Rough Comfrey, Curtis Bot. Mag. t. 929, occurs in a hedge near Granham farm (North-east District). Formerly cultivated." Flor Marlb.]1

1Some few years since S. asperrimum was found growing in some plenty in the Oakford Valley near "The Rocks," just on the borders of Wilts, where I am informed it was introduced by the late Mr. Horlock, as fodder for cattle. The field being now ploughed up and drained, this plant has not been observed for several seasons past. T. B. F.


Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

Name. From echis, (Gr.) a viper; because this or some allied plant was supposed to be an effectual remedy against the bite of that animal. Bugloss is from the Greek (bous), an ox, and (glossa), a tongue; in allusion to the roughness and shape of the leaf resembling the tongue of an ox.

1. E. vulgare, (Linn.) common Viper's Bugloss. Engl. Bot. t. 181. E. Italicum, Huds.: E. B. t. 208. (not L.)

Locality. On old walls, and on rubbish; also in fields and waste ground, especially on a sandy or gravelly soil. B. Fl. June, July. Area, 1. 3. 4. 5.


South Division.

1. South-east District, "Corn-fields not unfrequent, especially about Alderbury," Dr. Maton. Nat. Hist. Wilts. "Neighbourhood of Salisbury," Mr. James Hussey. "Clarendon Wood," Major Smith.

3. South-west District, "Warminster," Mr. Wheeler. "Corsley," Miss Griffith.

North Division.

4. North-west District, Quarries at Conkwell, Box, Kingsdown, and South Wraxhall. In the lane leading from Colerne to Slaughterford. On banks by the side of the road from Sandy Lane to Lacock, also near Kington St. Michael and Draycot.

5. North-east District, "Railway near Ivy's Farm" Flor. Marlb. "Great Bedwyn," Mr. William Bartlett. Rather a local plant throughout Wilts. Whole plant rough, with prickly bristles, arising from callous points or bulbs, intermixed with smaller hairs. Corolla large, and very beautiful, of a fine red before it expands, afterwards of a brilliant blue, occasionally white. It varies much in the comparative length of calyx, corolla and stamens. The E. Italicum, found by the late Mr. Sole on Kingsdown (North-west District), was only a white flowered variety of E. vulgare. This latter variety has been sometimes mistaken for E. Italicum of Linnæus, a species which has probably never been found wild in Britain.

Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

Name. From Pulmo, the lungs; from the use formerly made of this and other Boraginaceae in pulmonary affections. In the present instance, the spotted leaves, resembling the lungs, were the principal recommendation.

1. P. officinalis, (Linn.) common Lungwort, Jerusalem Cows-lips. Engl. Bot. t. 118, (excluding the root-leaves, which belong to P. angustifolia).

Locality. In woods and thickets. P. Fl. April, May. Area, 4. *

North Division.

4. North-west District. In Stocky Lane, Brombam; but have always considered it an outcast from the garden at Nonsuch, which is separated from it only by a hedge. "In a shady lane about a mile from Bromham," Mr. Norris, (Withering Bot. Arr.) Possibly this and the first locality may be the same. About 1 foot high. Stem-leaves all more or less ovate; lower ones petiolate, upper ones sessile; all with short hairs and frequently spotted. Corolla reddish or flesh-coloured in the bud, changing as soon as expanded to violet blue; tube whitish, a little longer than the calyx. There is a variety with white flowers, not unfrequent in gardens.


Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

Name. From (lithos), a stone, and (sperma), a seed; from its very hard shining seeds or achenes. The English Gromwell has a similar origin in Celtic: graun, a seed, and mil, a stone.

1. L. officinale, (Linn.) common Gromwell. Engl. Bot. t. 134. Locality. Dry waste, and uncultivated places, and among rubbish. P. Fl. June, August. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In all the Districts, but not a very common plant in Wilts. Whole plant rough, with erect, appressed, rigid and tuberculated bristles. Flowers pale yellow. Nuts gray, highly polished, and of a stony hardness, seldom more than 2 or 3 ripening in each calyx. The seeds, which resemble minature eggs of porcelain, would from the stony hardness of the

shell or testa be long in vegetating, were not the latter endued with the faculty of spontaneously falling to pieces, and so exposing the embryo to the action of air and moisture.

2. L. arvense, (Linn.) Corn Gromwell, or Bastard Alkanet. Engl. Bot. t. 123.

Locality. Corn-fields, and dry waste cultivated ground, chiefly on clay. A. Fl. May, July. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. More frequent than the preceding. Leaves of a brighter green and rather more hairy, without transverse veins or ribs. Corollas white. Calycine segments thrice as long as the fruit. Nuts brown, polished, curiously wrinkled and pitted, usually all perfected.

Linn. Cl. v. Ord. i.

Name. From (mus, muos,) Gr. a mouse, and (ous, otos,) Gr. an ear; in allusion to the supposed resemblance to the leaves; hence the English name Mouse-ear. The name Scorpion-grass refers to the form of the inflorescence, which in this plant and its allies resembles the folding of the Scorpion's tail.

1. M. palustris, (With,) marsh Scorpion-grass, or Forget-me-not. Engl. Bot. t. 1973. St. 42, 2.

Locality. Banks of the Avon, Canal, also in clean rivulets, and ditches common. P. Fl. June, August. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Generally distributed. Plant light green, with a somewhat greasy lustre; about 1 foot high. Flowers among the largest of our species, bright blue, with a yellow eye, and a small white ray at the base of each segment. This most elegant plant, the Forget-me-not, considered to be the emblem of affection in almost every part of Europe, is the most distinct and best known example of its genus, though too long confounded with other common species. The perennial creeping roots, shining green herbage, and enamelled blossoms, are all strikingly characteristic.

2. M. cæspitosa, (Schultz.) tufted Water Scorpion-grass; from cæspes, a sod or turf. Borr. in Engl. Bot. Suppl. t. 2661. St. 42, 7. Locality. In ditches, marshes, and wet places, on clay and bog. B. Fl. June, July. Area,

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