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where, from the indications observed on the previous day, coinciding as they did with the constans opinio on the point, it was reasonable to suppose the road ran. The first section made, just south of the hill, proved the correctness of the inferences which led to it. A very few strokes of the spade revealed the original ditch which bounded the road on the north, while the corresponding ditch on the south was found at a distance the width of the road here of 18 feet. At this spot it is proved that the road passed the hill at a distanec of 30 yards south from its foot. Eight other sections, two further east, the others more to the west, all in the curve of the road, served to connect it with the straight and unquestioned portion to the west. In some of these sections, where the inclination of the surface was greater, only one ditch or pit was found, all the material having been taken from one side. In some of the sections there seemed to be double ditches, side by side, one or two feet apart. In another to the westward, where the ground is level, no ditch was found, but the material appeared to have been scooped up from the adjoining surface. The length traced by means of the sections, is 477 yards.
On the whole there can now remain no reasonable doubt but that the Society have settled the question as to the course of the Roman Road, near Silbury. In its progress eastwards it must be crossed by the existing Turnpike Road, within a few yards. As it passes over the infant Kennet, and up the next hill, it is not to be traced; though coins are found in great numbers at a spot, where a certain irregularity in the surface marks what may be the site of a dwelling of some kind.
The excavations were continued under the direction ofthe Rev. A. C. Smith, on the 24th, and in digging near the section farthest to the east, the workmen found alarge hole some twelve feet in length, by eight or nine in width. It contained a variety of what may be considered little better than rubbish, in fact a Roman "Kitchen-midden;" but taken together, the objects are not uninstructive, and prove that some Roman dwelling place must have for some time existed in the immediate neighbourhood. The following remains were found:-three small bronze coins; one of
Valentinian I., struck at Lyons, with the inscription [DN VALENTINIANUS P. F. AVG GLORIA ROMANORUM, in field o F I. I. In exergue LVG P. S. (A.D. 364-375); one of Constans I.,' the other was illegible; an iron Stylus, (of which an engraving is given); part of a pair of shears; several large headed nails, and other pieces of iron; two or three fragments of fine Samian ware, and several of the softer, imitation Samian; part of the rim of a fine black drinking cup of Castor ware; portions of three mortaria, for grinding or triturating, one of red, the others of pale yellow ware; pieces of at least eighty vessels of ordinary types and of coarse ware, all Roman, including dishes, amphora, vases, cooking vessels, &c., &c.; pieces of thick earthen tile, and of stone tile from the Coal-measures, or Old red-sandstone, two of which had been used as whetstones; the broken handle of a large amphora, worn down by having been used as a muller; some bits of common bituminous coal, of inferior quality. With these were an abundance of the bones of Ox, Deer, Sheep, Horse, Boar; and shells of the common oyster.
There was also a portion of a human palatal bone, with one molar tooth attached to it. The occurrence of this bone must have been accidental, as there were no traces of a burial on the spot.
It is probable that further excavations may discover the exact position of the road to the eastward. The Society report their progress thus far, and hope to be able to continue the work early in the coming spring.
Iron Stylus. (Actual size.)
The Rev. D. M. Clerk has favoured us with the following account of this coin :-"It is a third brass coin of Constans I., the youngest son of Constantine (the Great) and Fausta. If, as I suspect, the LO on the reverse means London, it must have been struck after the death of his brother Constantine, (A.D. 340) and between that date and 350, the year of his own death. I believe (from the reverse) that it was struck to commemorate his victory over his brother, and therefore in (about) the year 340 or 341. The description might be as follows;
Coins found at Crowood.
HE following note has been received from Mr. H. R. Seymour of Crowood.
A number of Coins were found last month on my estate, and thinking the matter may be of sufficient interest for a place in the Archæological Magazine, I shall give an account of them.
The coins, were found by a boy under the stem of an oak tree, which had been cut a short time previously, and apparently the coins had been disturbed by the men in cutting the tree, as three were found by a woodman one morning as he was going to his work, and his boy the next morning found one or two more above ground, and on a further search he came on the lot 280 in number, consisting of half-crowns, shillings and sixpences, of the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I., viz:-of Elizabeth, 100, of James I., 33, of Charles I., 147., total 280, and weighing 35 ounces. They are much worn, and I am informed are of no value, beyond their weight in silver. They were found in a wood called Lovers' Coppice, in a hole a few yards to the left of an old foot path, which used to lead from Ramsbury to Aldbourne, and on a bank dividing the two parishes of Ramsbury and Aldbourne."
Ancient Timber House at Potterne.
HE ancient house, of which a photograph is given in this number, is one of those interesting examples of domestic architecture, yearly becoming more and more rare. The uniform appearance of the frontage has been destroyed by the division of the entire
O. Laurelled head of Constans, inscription FL. IVLCONSTNS NOB. R. Two soldiers standing with shield and spears, between them the labarum, with the sacred monogram of Christ. Inscription GLORIA EXERCITVs, beneath, M (?, Moneta) P (Percussa) LO (Londinio). The Nobilis' on the obverse presents some slight difficulty, as this would have been his title before his fathers death."
building into separate cottages, but enough remains to give us a very complete notion of an ancient Hostelry, built no doubt for the convenience of the several persons visiting the place on various accounts, at the time when Potterne could boast of being the occasional residence of its prebendary, the Bishop of Sarum. The decorated barge boards of the gables would mark it as of a little later date than the tower of the parish church; which is itself manifestly later than the rest of the church; and there seems originally to have been a lofty hall in the old house, with timber roof on corbels, and open to the top of the building, but now, divided into separate floors.
Many years since it was used as an Inn; and persons now living recollect its ancient sign "The White Horse," having been discovered in one of the garrets. There was also at the front door "an upping-stock," cut out of a single block of oak, a very usual appendage to country Inns, and perhaps also specially useful in those days when travellers carried their apparel and goods in ponderous saddle-bags; or their unreasonable tarrying at Potterne White Horse, may have presented obstacles to their comfortable mounting, but for the convenient help the upping-stock supplied.
Donations to the Museum and Library,
The Society have to acknowledge with thanks the following Donations.
From Capt. PICKWICK, Frankleigh:-A Roman bill, very similar to that found at the Romano-British Station at Baydon, Wilts.
From Mr. J. ELLEN:-A collection of the Roman Coins found at Easterton.
H. BULL, Printer and Publisher, Devizes.