Appletons' Cyclopędia of Applied Mechanics: A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering and the Mechanical Arts, Volume 1

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Park Benjamin
D. Appleton, 1878

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Page 509 - Every body continues in a state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force impressed upon it.
Page 541 - Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Motion, and Chemicalaffinity, are all convertible material affections ; assuming either as the cause, one of the others will be the effect : thus heat may be said to produce electricity, electricity to produce heat; magnetism to produce electricity, electricity magnetism ; and so of the rest.
Page 61 - Zinc may be added to pot-metal in very small quantity, but when the zinc becomes a considerable amount, the copper takes up the zinc, forming a kind of brass, and leaves the lead at liberty, and which, in great measure, separates in cooling. Zinc and lead are also very indisposed to mix alone, although a little arsenic assists their union by " killing
Page 513 - Newton generalized the law of attraction into a statement that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which varies directly as the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them; and he thence deduced the law of attraction for spherical shells of constant density.
Page 551 - ... recede a distance apart, which can be regulated. These motions or vibrations are made to follow one another at such a rate that the effect of the light produced is continuous ; for, as is well known, when flashes of light follow one another at a rate greater than 25 to 30 per second, the effect produced is that of a continuous light. The...
Page 618 - O' will, when such a connecting pipe has been applied, furnish the supply cylinder independently of other external communication, and the acting medium will perform a continuous circuit through the machine under this arrangement, the operation being in other respects as before described. It is evident that the several parts composing the improved engine may be arranged in various ways, and that the external form thereof may be greatly changed whilst its principle of operation remains substantially...
Page 303 - ... coating to the iron. This portion of the work has been executed with scrupulous care, so as to render it unnecessary on the part of those who exercise a surveillance over the structure to examine it. The repainting of the cables every two or three years, will insure their duration for a long period. Where the cables rest on the saddles, their size is increased at two points by introducing short wires and thus forming swells, which fit into corresponding recesses of the casting. Between these...
Page 620 - By the motion of these interior vessels, which are filled with non-conducting substances, the air to be operated upon is moved from one end of the exterior vessel to the other, and as one end is kept at a high temperature, and the other as cold as possible, when the air is brought to the hot end it becomes heated, and has its pressure increased ; and when it is brought to the cold end, its heat and pressure are diminished.
Page 621 - ... than itself. Instead of this, therefore, the air is made to pass from the hot to the cold end of the air-vessel through a multitude of narrow passages, whose temperature is at first nearly as great as that of the hot air, but gradually declines till it becomes nearly as low as the coldest part of the air-vessel. Now as every body by contact will give out heat to one that is colder than itself, the air, when it enters the narrow passages, must give out a portion of its heat, even to the hottest...
Page 244 - C., about 4280° Fahr., these bricks will last four weeks in the roof of an ordinary furnace, and in that time will be reduced, by abrasion of the flame, and dust, and slightly from chipping, from 9 to 2 inches. The bricks conduct the heat so badly, that at this temperature, which is a bright white heat on the inside of the furnace, it is only just warm on the outside. Ordinarily, the bricks seem to be fluxed away by the dust, which circulates with the gases. In the Siemens furnace, where there is...

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