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Fig. 22.-Iron Bill Hook, Tre Ceiri (Arch. Camb., 1904)


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Fig. 23. Plan of Pen y Gaer (Arch. Camb., 1906)

400 FEET


between Cardigan Bay and Vale of Carmarthen contain similar remains, belong to the same age, and belong to the same group. To this I should also refer the stronghold at Pen y Gaer1 (Figs. 23, 24), characterised by its chevaux de frise (Fig. 25) of slabs of stone firmly implanted in the ground, as in the great fort of Dun Aengus in North Arran in the Bay of Galway.

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B. Blocks & slabs (supporting)
C. Pointed stones fallen

Fig. 24.-Section of Pen y Gaer

The larger and better constructed camps throughout Wales were probably occupied in the Pre-historic Iron Age, and in some cases there is the same close relation to the Roman forts as in England. At Caerleon and Caerwent they are coupled together, as in Manchester and the two Dorchesters, the position of the Roman fort in each case being determined by the older strongholds.

1 Gardner, Arch. Camb., 1906, p. 157.



[blocks in formation]

Wall remaining.

Wall restored to probable original height.

'Chevaux de frise restored original
position on glacis H.I. & in ditch E
·Probable original Ground level before excavation

Fig. 25.- Chevaux de Frise restored, Pen y Gaer (Arch. Camb., 1906)

We must also note the drift of the population in Wales, as in the rest of Britain, from the higher grounds to the valleys.

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We may now consider a few of the more important finds. The round, conical beehive querns found in various parts of Wales (Fig. 26) are of the same type as those of England, belonging to the Pre-historic Iron

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