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The tumuli seem to occur in groups, possibly each group may have been the burial place of a family of the tribe. But, at the same time, it must not be forgotten that many more tumuli may have been covered up with vegetable growth.
The first group consists of Nos. 1, la, 2, and 3. No. 2 is important, as there seems to be a double cist, though possibly one of the stones may have been displaced. The diameters of the mounds Nos. 1, 2, and 3, are 12 feet, 24 feet, and 12 feet respectively.
Fig. 2.-Cist No. 17, Bryniau Ridge (Photograph by II. Foyn) The next group situated to the south of No. 1 consists of nine mounds (Nos. 4-12), and three of these contain remains of cists. Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 are simple mounds. No. 6 has two sides of a cist remaining, which measure 40 inches and 21 inches, the cist lying from E.S.E. to N.N.W.; the enclosing circle has a diameter of 24 feet.
A little further south is a small group of four (Nos. 13-16), simple mounds.
To the S.S.E. of the last is a group of three (Nos. 17-19), arranged in triangular form. No. 17 contains a large cist (Fig. 2). Respectively, the length of the three inclosing stones are 3 feet, 4 feet, and 4 feet 3 inches, their thicknesses being 5 inches, 4 inches, and 4 inches. There are two covering stones measuring 25 inches by 19 inches, and 26 inches by 16 inches. Mr. A. E. Elias found in this cist a flint flake or scraper.
All the above tumuli adjoin the track from Llanfairfechan,
Fig 3.—Cist No. 22, Bryniau Ridge
(Photograph by H. Poyn) or from Craig Lwyd towards the pass between Tal y fan and Foel Lwyd. ; Almost due south of No. 1, near the bottom of the dip, and near the source of the stream Afon Maes y Bryn, is an important group of seven (Nos. 20-26). No. 22 contains a good cist (Fig. 3), the direction of its length being N.N.W. by S.S.E., two of the inclosing stones are 5 inches thick (15 inches above the ground), and 4 feet 3 inches and 2 feet 3 inches long respectively. There is a capstone close by, measuring 45 inches by 40 inches by 5 inches. The inclosing circle (33 feet diameter) is formed of a well-defined set of single stones set on edge, and inside are signs of two other burial-places.
No. 25, excavated by Mr. A. E. Elias, contained at the base a flat stone, under which was black mould. Numerous pieces of coarse gritstone also were found, and these seemed to show traces of fire. This circumstance was also noticed in No. 26.
To the south-west of the last group, on the other side of the stream, and on the rising ground towards Foel Lwyd, is a fairly good hut-circle, and to the S.W. of this is No. 28 (Fig. 4), the well-defined mound of which (38 feet in diameter, and with a good outer circle of stones) contains a very good cist, lying from E.S.E. to W.N.W.
The two side stones are 51 inches and 64 inches respectively, from 6 inches to 10 inches thick and 24 inches high above the ground; the stone is 27 inches long, 24 inches deep, and 7 inches thick. The internal width of the cist increases uniformly, from 17 inches at the W.N.W. end to 24 inches.
There is on one side a large capstone, 70 inches by 43 inches, and 9 inches thick; it is perfectly flat on the under surface.
2. About 380 yards to the east of the Druids' Circle, and 20 yards to the north of the road leading to the Red Farm, is a large tumulus 40 feet in diameter, and to the east of this are indications of two small circles, with openings to the N.W. There are also two tumuli at some distance to the S.S.E. of the Druids' Circle.
Between Penmaenmawr Mountain and Moelfre, are several
opened tumuli. One of these, in the corner of a field situated on fairly high ground, to the north of the track from Llanfairfechan to Penmaenmawr, and to the north of Moelfre, is about +8 feet in external diameter, and five upright stones mark out a rough circle. Inside this, is a mound of stones forming a heap in the centre, but now partially displaced.
3. Several tumuli lie to the north of the track between Waen Gyrach and Tyddyn Grasod. The E.S.E. portion of the group is formed of a large circle about 56 feet in diameter, with traces of two tumuli inside (Fig. 5). This abuts on another circle, about 14 feet in diameter, with traces of an entrance to the W.S. W., and on the western side are several stones still upright. Forty-six feet to the west of this is a tumulus 12 feet in diameter, with a few large stones on their larger edges, and inside the tumulus is a cist with the south and east sides perfect, the side stones measuring 4 feet by 5 feet 3 inches, with traces of walling on the west side; close by is the capstone, oval in shape, which measures 4 feet 10 inches by 4 feet 4 inches.
4. About 600 yards south of Caer Bach (Caer Fach may be more correct), is a tumulus 23 feet in diameter, containing a cist with three sides complete, the open side facing S. to S.S.W. On the Drum ridge, on the next peak to the N. of Drum (about 2000 feet) is a large tumulus measuring 48 feet by 50 feet; the position is just outside the “uplands area defined above.
The inside diameter is, at the present day, 14 feet, and the depth is 4 feet 9 inches ; at a depth of 4 feet on the west, is one side of a cist, the length of which was probably 3 feet. Possibly this tumulus may be Carnedd y ddelw, where a gold cross was discovered many years ago.
The large burial mound discovered in March, 1889, in Ty Mawr Field, Penmaenmawr, by Mr. C. H. Darbishire, J.P., has already been described in Arch. Camb., 1891.
UPLANDS NEAR FOEL DDUARTH.
Bwlch y Ddeufaen separates Foel Lwyd from the ridge Drosgl, which runs nearly up to Drum, and to the N. W. from the last-named there is a succession of summits, among which may be mentioned Bryn Du (“ Black Hill”), strangely noted for the great number of blocks of white quartz, Foel Ganol, and Foel Dduarth. This chain of hills forms the northern boundary of the Anafon Valley, and to the N. of it is the “Roman Road,” which, after meeting a track from Bodsilin, gradually descends, and passes between walls to Pont Newydd. The uplands to the N.W. and W. of Foel Dduarth are of great interest, as they abound in tumuli and dwelling-places. Most of the tumuli are situated near the place marked Carneddau