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row of square post-holes found skirting the arena on the northwest arc continue along the south-west arc.
"The diameter of the arena from north to south has already been determined, and it is desired in like manner to determine that from east to west. With that object in view the inner curve of the eastern bank will be explored with the spade. The west rampart having been cut through, it is also proposed to make a cutting or cuttings in the east rampart, probably on both sides; but it is unlikely that a section will be driven right through from crest to base, as this would be a work of some magnitude and expense and there is popular feeling against it, as likely to disfigure the earthwork permanently.'
In a later communication it is added: "The great embankment, which has not yet been cut through, has been examined to ascertain if there were any indications of tiers of seats or ledges for seats of any description; but none have been found in the north-west quarter. According to Valerius Maximus it was forbidden by a decree of the Senate, under the influence of Scipio Nasica, for any person in or near a town to place benches so as to enable spectators to witness games in a sitting posture. Scipio incurred popular dislike because he assigned separate places to the Senate and to the common people. On the other hand, we read in Ovid's Ars Amatoria, I, 108: Romulus, 'twas thou didst first institute the exciting games. On the steps made of turf sit the people.'"
MANOEUVRE DAMAGE.-It is satisfactory to report that definite instructions have been issued by the Military Authorities to the troops engaged in the Grand Army Manœuvres with regard to any wanton or thoughtless damage. The commons are not to be damaged by digging, and all antiquarian remains are to be protected. Golf greens are forbidden ground for mounted men and wagons, and entry into burial grounds is altogether forbidden.
"BRONZE URNS FOUND IN FLINTSHIRE."-Under this heading The Times of September 3, inserts a communication from a correspondent of the discovery of two "Bronze-Age" urns:—
During a recent visit of the Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments (Wales) to Downing Hall, Flintshire, at one time the home of Pennant the antiquary, and now part of the estate of Lord Denbigh, the Commissioners were invited to see the antiquary's library. Arranged on the top of a bookcase was a collection of Egyptian pottery. Mr. Edward Owen, secretary of the Welsh Commission, seeing an earthen pot of a different character from the rest, almost hidden by the other articles, requested that it might be brought down for inspection, and it was recognised as a perfect specimen of a cinerary urn, of the early Bronze Age. In shape, though not in size, the urn is like that found in the reputed grave of Bronwen the Fair in Anglesey a couple of centuries ago, which is now in the British Museum collection.
Inside the urn was found a smaller one, a specimen of the 'incense
cup' type, which contained a much faded letter intimating that the urns had been found in a tumulus on a neighbouring farm, and had been sent as a present to the antiquary's son. The urns will shortly be transferred by Lord Denbigh to the Welsh National Museum at Cardiff."
The Earl of Denbigh very kindly forwards a copy of a letter to Mr. Pennant accompanying the urn.
August 26, 1832. My Dear Sir,-On my way to Caerwys Edward Williams of Rhydwen gave me the enclosed, which he had just found on clearing an old tumulus on one of his fields. Many other things were also found, but not one of them so perfect as the one I sent you. He thought it a curiosity, and therefore begged you would accept it. There were bones found, and the other vessels were very much larger than the one I sent you. Yours in--E.R.
EARLY MAN.-At the Anthropology Section of the British Association, Professor G. Elliot-Smith, President, some interesting papers on "Early Man" were discussed. Professor Boyd Dawkins read a paper by Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, describing a human jaw of Paleolithic antiquity from Kent's Cavern, Torquay. It was discovered in 1867, but apparently no detailed account of it had ever been published. It was a human upper jaw, of which a good deal had been destroyed. The remaining parts included the alveolar margin and palatine process, as well as four teeth. The most important points were (a) the transverse width at the level of the pre-molar teeth, and (b) the dimensions of the molar crowns. regard to these points, the specimen came fairly into line with those examples of human jaws and teeth to which Palæolithic antiquity was definitely assigned.
Professor Boyd Dawkins, commenting on the paper, said all the discoveries which had been made pointed to one uniform type belonging to the River Drift horizon. All the other forms, which were more or less assimilated to the existing type, were open to suspicion, and in all cases where he had examined the evidence he had been forced to reject it as insufficient to establish the existence of other types of man in the Pleistocene period, either in this country or on the Continent. All the alleged cases of modern types of skull being found in caverns belonging to that period were worth nothing. He took it that the Neanderthal man held the field as against all other types in the middle and north of Europe.
The President said he regretted very much that pressure of time precluded them from discussing the very provocative remarks of Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Professor Keith protested that the whole thing was ridiculous, and was not even scientific, for the specimen had not been shown in the position in which it had been found.
A paper by Mr. W. Crooke, on "The Study of Customs connected with the Calendar in Scotland," called attention to the importance of the study of calendar customs in Scotland, many of which seemed
to be survivals of the primitive method of reckoning time by season, not by solar or lunar changes. It was suggested that traces of this primitive mode of reckoning might be found in the dates of hiringfairs for domestic and agricultural servants.
In a paper on "Folklore as an Element of History," Mr. E. S. Hartland said that folklore investigates the sayings and doings of the people as distinguished from the ruling classes, with a view to ascertaining their modes of thought and the practices handed down from remote and unknown ancestors, and it thus provided an element often overlooked, but essential for understanding the evolution of civilisation. The north-eastern counties of Scotland were for ages the battleground of races whose descendants formed the present population, and a collection of its folklore should therefore present many interesting features having an important bearing on the history of the country.
Canon J. A. MacCulloch, in a paper on "Fairy and other FolkBeliefs in the Highlands and Lowlands," remarked that there was great ultimate similarity of folklore everywhere, and any attempt to prove particular ethnic influences was a matter of difficulty, especially in Scotland, where races had mingled and civilisation and religion had altered so many old beliefs. Yet there was a possibility of arriving at some definite results by a careful comparison of folkbeliefs with earlier race-traditions and older pagan beliefs where these were available, and with the characteristics of the folk themselves. Illustrations might be drawn from the fairy-belief as found in three districts of Scotland-the West Highlands, the Lowlands, and the northern districts and islands, representing respectively and in the main Celtic, Teutonic, and Scandinavian cultures. Similarity of general beliefs in fairies and in kindred beings prevail in all parts of the world. The main differences must be looked for rather in the setting and in the characteristics of the fairies themselves than in the actions related of them.
Discussing "Ethnological Traces in Scottish Folklore," Mr. J. W. Brodie-Innes remarked that of the original inhabitants of Scotland before the first coming of the Celts practically nothing was known, but here and there old and unidentified folk-tales might some day give a clue. There were various migrations of Celts, Iberi, and and Celtiberians, and if the Tuatha de Danaan could be identified with the Danai of Homer, it might account for similarities with Greek legends; and if the Iberi were the same as Ibri, and thus connected with Hebrews, and with the Ibah-Erri, the men of the river or the Crossers-over, the parallelism between Gaelic and Old Testament stories would have a special interest. It might be possible in some such way to analyse the blend of the old Celtic folk-tales which were much the same in Ireland and in the Western Hebrides. On these again was grafted the Scandinavian cycle of legends, brought by the Norse invaders and conquerors. These might be sometimes distinguished by comparing the folk-tales of the West of Ireland with the same stories as told in the Highlands.
Both were to be met in the Isle of Skye, and sometimes a blend of the two. The Saxon or Teutonic colonists, usually cailed Lowland Scots, had an entirely different group and character of folk-tales. The blending of all kinds of folklore was found in the province of Moray, which, for that reason, was one of the most interesting parts of Scotland for the study.
In the afternoon Professor A. Keith and Dr. E. Ewart presented a joint paper containing an account of the discovery of human remains in a raised beach near Gullane. They pointed out that the interest of the find lay in the fact that in the same place there were cairns containing remains of the Iron Age, a grave belonging to the Bronze Age, and the human remains now found belonging to an earlier period, which, in Dr. Ewart's opinion, represented a Neolithic people in Scotland almost identical with the Neolithic inhabitants of Switzerland. The exhibits included a number of flint and jasper instruments, which had been collected in the vicinity of Gullane, and human bones which showed the remarkable muscularity of a very powerful short race.-The Times.
A THEORY OF THE MENAI STRAIT.- Mr. Edward Greenly (at the meeting of the Geology Section, British Association) submitted a theory of the Menai Strait. In the main, he accepted Ramsay's view of the Strait as a glacial furrow; but he showed from the general glacial phenomena, and from soundings, that the middle reach of the Strait could not be explained in that way. Evidence was adduced to show that this reach was excavated by glacial waters during the recession of the ice at a time when the mutual relations of the ice of the mountain land and of the sea basin
admitted of the accumulation of a temporary lake. Post-glacial erosion and subsequent changes of level had completed the bed of the Strait as it now existed.
CARDEN HALL, CHESHIRE.-This fine mansion, built towards the end of the sixteenth century- -a very perfect specimen of the ancient black and white timbered buildings of the county-was destroyed by fire on September 16th. It was charmingly situated in a park long celebrated for its fine herd of deer, surrounded by an abundance of large timber, behind which rises the higher range of the Broxton Hills. It was plundered by Cromwell's troops in the Civil War, June 12, 1643, and the John Leche of that day taken as prisoner to Nantwich. John was the name of each successive head of the family (with one exception) for sixteen generations. The founder of the family was John Leche, surgeon or leech to Edward III, and the grant of the three ducal coronets in the escutcheon is said to owe its origin to the fact that this John attended the Black Prince when he waited upon his three prisoners in London.
CAERWENT. The account of the recent discoveries of the remains of an Amphitheatre and the foundations of a Temple is deferred until the next number of Arch. Camb.
ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF CONTENTS
VOL. XII. SIXTH SERIES.
Abergele Church, 165; Meeting
Aberconwy Abbey, Removal, 144
Altar, Jupiter Dolichenus, 330;
Amber Beads, 79, 82
Ardres Motte, 400
Armitage, E. S.-Early Norman
Baildon, W. P.-"Ghost-houses,"
Barclodiad y Gawres, 58
Barrow, Colwinston, Glam., 82
Beacon Towers, Bedwellty, 331
Bentinck, Wm., E. of Portland,
Berwyn Hills, Iron Celt, 92
Beste, Rev. K. D.-Siamber Wen,
Bettws y Coed, 132
Beuno Maen, Glacial Markings, 394
Boroughs, Welsh, Mediaval His-
Bourdon, Pilgrim's, 13
6TH SER., VOL. XII.
Brachy-cephalic skull found with
Braich y Ddinas, 159-161; Report,
Brass, Maurice Gethin, 140
Bridelton, Ed. de-Incised Slab,
Brochmael, Stone, 142-3
Bronze imported into Wales, 81
"Bygones of Domestic Life," 299