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interest that fifty-three of its examples came from two descendants of the last proprietor at Usk-Miss Olive Parkhurst and Miss R. J. Lewis, in whose families they had been handed down as productions of the two factories. It is probable that a few of these were made elsewhere, obtained perhaps to serve as models ; but there is no question that the tradition is true of the majority, most of which have an early nineteenth - century facies and may reasonably be assigned to Usk, while the remainder are of earlier character. The former seem to be representative of the later goods, and are only noteworthy for their good workmanship and neat and careful decoration. There are in the Museum many earlier pieces which can, with greater or less certainty, be attributed to the Monmouthshire factories, and these are distinguished by their harder lacquers, more tasteful and vigorous decorations (often on a 'tortoiseshell' ground) and the prevalence of pierced ornamentation.
From the top landing, the Natural History Room is entered, the chief feature of which is the collection of birds of Wales. The present collection was begun about sixteen years ago, only a few of the rarer specimens of the old being retained for it.
Each species occupies a separate case, and although the collection is so far complete that only very few species remain to be represented, comparatively few of the cases have as yet their full equipment. The general aim is to exhibit the adult male and female, the young in their first plumage, and the nest and eggs; the deficiencies, however, are constantly being reduced as suitable specimens come to hand. Each group is in a setting which represents its natural haunt, as far as the limitations of the case admits. In many instances, the nest is shown in a portion of the actual tree in which it was found, with the foliage reproduced in wax. The collection contains many rarities—as the rusty grackle, the only specimen known to have been taken in the British Isles ; Pallas's great grey shrike, the first example
recognised as a British species ; nutcrackers from Monmouthshire; a hoopoe from Porthcawl; honey buzzards from Ruperra Castle and Cardiganshire; and the white-winged black tern, glaucus gull, and little gull, all local. In forming this collection, the Cominittee have had the enthusiastic and untiring help of Mr. T. W. Proger, in whose Birds of Glamorgan particulars of many of the Museum specimens will be found. Noteworthy among the other natural history exhibits are a series of skeletons of primates, groups to illustrate protective resemblance and seasonable change, and models to illustrate stratigraphical geology.
We now pass to the Menelaus Room, in which most of the oil paintings are hung. The largest of these,
Noon on the Surrey Hills,' is one of the finest works of Vicat Cole, R.A. The pictures forming the Menelaus Bequest are hung here, and specially noteworthy among them are "A Misty Mountain Top,' by Peter Graham; ' Landscape near Dedham,' by Constable ; * The Challenge Refused,' by J. E. Hodgson ; 'Poetry' and · Prose,' by Alina-Tadema ; 'Le Hetre,' by Corot; · Le Coup de Canon,' by P. Jean Clays; and “The Parting,' by Tissot. Among the other pictures several of special interest from a Welsh point of view are works of Richard Wilson, Thomas Barker, Mark Antony, Cuthbert Grundy, Christopher Williams, and others. Another, "Italian Women Washing Linen,' is an unusual example of Romney. Among the more recent acquisitions may be mentioned impor tant works by William Müller, Alfred Parsons, Philip Connard, Wilson Steer, Wynford Dewhurst, Le Sidaner, Eugene Boudin, A. D. Peppercorn and W. Nicholson.
Of the water-colour pictures of the next—the Small Art Room—the larger number belonged to the late Mr. James Pyke Thompson, J.P., and were presented by his executors. Mr. Thompson recognised that water-colour was an indigenous and peculiarly national art. In forming his collection (a large portion of which is now in the Turner House at Penarth), he had the
able co-operation of Mr., now Sir, Frederick Wedmore, who for the last six or seven years has been Art Adviser to the Committee, and under whose guidance the Cardiff collection has been brought to its present dimensions. The pictures are roughly arranged in chronological order, beginning on the left hand as the room is entered with examples of Sandby, Hearne, Wheatley, De Wint, and other pioneers of the British School, and ending on the right with a selection of those of present-day artists. Of the seven examples of the first, five in this room and the neighbouring corridor are views of Welsh castles and other buildings. Turner is represented by two, one of which is an interior of Ewenny Priory, a notable early work; Cotman by four ; Prout by as many, one of which is a fine example of his pencil drawing; and of the seven by David Cox, three are Welsh views.
Among the moderns' are two Welsh views by Clarence Whaite.
The Small Corridor adjoining this room is chiefly devoted to etchings and engravings, a selection from a much larger number possessed by the Museum. Among them is a series of Turner's Liber Studiorum in various states, several by Rembrandt, Aldegrever and David Lucas, a fine example of Frank Brangwyn's work, and a masterly wood engraving by Lepere.
Scattered about the rooms, with a few on the staircase, are examples of sculpture of Welsh interest, among which Sir Goscombe John, R.A., is represented by his · Morpheus,” · Parting,' and busts of Sir John Williams, the late Canon Thompson and Dr. William Taylor, J.P. (his 'St. John the Baptist' being temporarily placed in the News Room of the Library); Milo ap Griffith, by several, and Thomas Edwards by a huge statue, Religion.' In the Menelaus Room are two marble busts, the one of the late Mr. William Menelaus by Brock, and the other of Mr. William Adams, F.G.S., by Onslow Ford. In the same room is a collection of fictile ivories to illustrate the art of ivory carving from Roman to late mediæval
times, and in the central compartment will be noticed an original leaf of a diptych found at Llandaff about eighty years ago, which, after a sojourn in America, has found a resting-place in this Museum.
It is a choice example of French ivory-carving of the thirteenth century, depicting the Crucifixion. Hard by are cases containing a portion of the Gorsedd Regalia, a selection of Pompeian, etc., bronze statuettes and busts, and a number of choice Japanese lacquers and ivories lent by Mr. Emile Andrews, of Cardiff ; while in the Small Art Room is a collection of Bow, Chelsea, Chelsea-Derby, and Derby porcelain, lent by Mr. W. S. de Winton.
Since the above was written, the Committee has acquired the collection of ancient stone implements formed by the late Mr. Henry Stopes, F.G.S., F. Anthrop. Inst. It is probably the largest private collection of the kind ever made, and includes many implements of rare forms and of rare occurrence. The collection is too large ever to be exhibited as a whole, and many months must elapse before a selection can be made for this
ROMAN ROADS IN NORTH WALES.-II
By WM. B. HALHED
(Continued from Arch. Camb., 1912, p. 226)
In continuing this subject, it is desirable to point out, in the absence of historic record, that reasonable surmise, backed by any confirmatory evidence that results from diligent research, is in the main the only method open to those who endeavour to arrive at conclusions as to the pioneer course of the first Roman generals who penetrated the country. Ordnance Maps are not of much service except when deciding on one probable track as compared with another. A reference to the contours of the land and going over the ground itself, helps in approving of the most likely route. Opinions will differ, and a fair illustration in that respect is found as to the line Suetonius Paulinus adopted from Varae to the Conwy River. The leading authority in this country on Roman matters inclines to a route by the present Sarn Rug, Bettws yn Rhos and Gofer to Tal y Cafn, in contrast with the route suggested in the first paper. But while that alternative road was doubtless laid out later in the Roman occupation, there were presumably reasons strategic, and otherwise, to decide against it, apart from the fact that the river is not fordable at Tal y Cafn. For example, the Britons of the extreme North of Wales were decidedly inimical, so much so that Agricola was probably compelled to crush them as well as the Ordovices eighteen years later, before he too followed Suetonius Paulinus to root out what was apparently the controlling influence in Mona. That section of Britons lay in great strength within a short distance of the Sarn Rug, as evidenced by the size of their camps. Again, Kanovium presents now, as in the
6TH SER., VOL. XII.