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and 11, but it is level with the court. between them (12) had the same floor level as the Sacellum for 9 ft. inwards from the court, when it rose abruptly to the height of that of the adjoining chambers. From this point on it was filled with stamped clay. It is evident that these special precautions (a mass of clay round its walls and a drain under the floor) were intended to keep the chief room of the Prætorium dry. The ground on the W. being higher, it was from this side that percolation of damp was to be feared. This may explain why the clay packing did not extend all the way on the N. side.

The side of the wall next the clay was not properly faced.

The walls of the Sacellum, except those on the W. end, were standing 3 ft. high. The N. and S. walls had no foundations, but were built on the top of the stamped clay. I consider, taking into account the construction of these walls, that they were of a later date than the other portion of the Prætorium.

It possessed no underground chamber, and the floor was paved, below which was 1 ft. of stamped clay. Finds. The only find in space 12 was a dolphin fibula of a late period.

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In the Sacellum, a few pieces of unadorned Samian and black pottery, and several pieces of lead, which had evidently been melted by fire.

A space, probably containing two rooms, still awaits exploration in the S. W. angle of the Prætorium.


(Continued from p. 60.)




In very early times primitive man lived in a cave, but the only example in this neighbourhood is that of Kendricks Cave, Llandudno. Here were discovered remains of the long-headed Neolithic people, generally known as Iberians; similar remains were found by the late Mr. H. D. Pochin at the Gop, near Newmarket, Flintshire.

As man increased in numbers the accommodation afforded by caves was insufficient, and he had to turn his attention to some other form of dwelling. He copied the round shapes of nature. In this way was evolved the simplest form of hut-dwelling above ground, resembling the wigwam, made of boughs arranged in a circle, and inclined to a central point, where they were supported by a post fixed upright in the ground. To give greater protection against wind and rain, a low circular wall was built; at first this consisted of earth, thrown out from the interior of the circle; this was, later on, strengthened with a few large stones placed at intervals, examples of which may be seen near Llyn Dulyn, and in Wern Uchaf Field, Llanfairfechan. By degrees the single circle was replaced by two concentric circles of stones, the space between being filled with the earth thrown out. Good examples of these may be seen in the hut-circles on Conway Town Mountain. Lastly, no earth was used, but a thick dry rubble walling, as may be seen in a circle on the slopes of Foel Lwyd.

As stone was plentiful in North Wales, it was used freely, and as the skill of the builder increased the walls were made higher; and, in order to cover the hut, the stones of each succeeding course projected inwards, so as to form a dome-shaped roof, making a hut like the bee-hive huts of the South Aran Isles, Ireland. Some of the huts on Penmaenmawr Mountain exhibit this kind of construction.

The following rough classification of the most important circular houses in the district under review will be adopted :

1. Hut-circle villages.

2. Hut - circles associated with camps or hillfortresses.

3. Detached hut-circles.


These occur at heights ranging from 350 feet to 1700 feet.

Hut-circle Village above Gwern Engan.

This is situated at a height of about 600 feet on an upland flat, with rising ground at its back on the W. and facing E. Close by is a lakelet, called Gwern Engan, which would afford a plentiful supply of water; the village is, moreover, just above an ancient trackway running from the summit of the Sychnant Pass to the Conway Valley near Trecastell, Thus there was easy communication between Dwygyfylchi on the N., and the upper Gyffin Valley on the S.

The accompanying sketch plan (Fig. 1), by Mr. A. E. Elias, shows the general arrangement of huts, etc.; the straight lines of walling are probably of late date.

On the N.N.E. side, it is protected by a wall from 15 feet to 18 feet thick, which circles round to the W. at the N. and S. ends, finally dying away on the mountain slope. The greatest length of the enclosure is

about 258 feet, and the entrance, 9 feet wide, is at the IN.N.W. end. The enclosure is at present divided into three sections, by two transverse walls, running E.N.E. and W.S.W.

Section 1 is roughly triangular in plan, and measures 115 feet by 53 feet.

Section 2 measures 66 feet by 36 feet, and contains two huts, A and B.

Hut A is roughly circular, and measures 11 feet by 9 feet, the thickness of the wall varying from 3 feet to

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Fig. 1.-Sketch Plan, Hut-Circle Village, Gwern Engan

5 feet. Adjoining and communicating with this is Hut B, which measures 15 feet by 11 feet.

At the N.N.E. end of the second cross-wall is Hut C, measuring 12 feet by 10 feet.

Section 3 is about 134 feet from N.N. W. to S.S.E., and contains five circular enclosures. Hut D1 is of rather intricate shape, measuring roughly 9 feet by 9 feet. Hut D, is 24 feet by 12 feet. Hut E is the largest and best (Fig. 2), and is nearly circular, measuring 23 feet N. to S. by 22 feet E. to W. There is to the S.E. a double entrance, and on this side is a very definite dry rubble walling. In this hut were



found numerous pot-boilers and three stone implements worthy of attention. One is of a characteristic axe-head shape, oval in section, 5 inches long and two inches across at the widest part. Another stone is 7 inches long, rounded at each end, 3 inches wide (from top to bottom), and oval in section. Judging by the flattened edge along one side, it appears to have been used as a hand-hammer or pounding-stone. The

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third implement is 7 inches long, 3 inches broad, and inch thick; its ends are rounded, and both long edges have been flattened, possibly by pounding some animal or vegetable substance for food.

Hut F measures 12 feet by 12 feet, and abuts on the outer wall or mound, and is 10 feet from Hut E.

Hut G is much higher up, measures 18 feet by 17 feet, and has a wall 4 feet thick; the entrance is at the S. E.; the distance from the entrance of Hut F to the inside wall of G is 36 feet.

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