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episcopal jurisdiction. It is possible that he was a member of the same family as Gilbert de Fresnoy, who in June, 1221, came to start the Order in England.
Incised Slab, Rhuddlan Priory (Photograph by Mr. J. D. Polkinghorne, 1911)
Near this slab is another, having, within a quatre-foil, a cross raguly, with a shaft proceeding from below so as to form the whole into a sepulchral cross. By the side of the shaft a sword indicates the profession of the deceased. The inscription, much mutilated, reads (HijC IACET EDVARDVS.
BRIDELTON CVIVS A'I'E PROPICIET[VR DEVS].
In the wall on the E. side of the farmyard is the figure of a Knight of the thirteenth century. There is no inscription, and the stone is much worn away.
Above a doorway is a sculptured stone with inscription upside down HIC IACET MARLII.
It may be mentioned that this ancient Abbey was sold by auction in 1910, with a farm of 108 acres. Bidding was brisk, and at £4250 the property was bought by Mr. Conwy Bell, agent for the adjoining Bodrhyddan estate.
The carriages commenced the return journey well within the time arranged, reaching Abergele shortly after 1.30.
After luncheon, the Cambrians drove to Rhyd y Foel, in the Dulas valley beyond Cefn yr Ogo, and thence climbed up to Pen y Corddyn, which had been so ably described by Mr. Willoughby Gardner in his lecture the previous evening.
On the spot he explained that the excavations made several years ago were for the investigation and preservation of the fortress, and, to prevent injury to the lambs reared on the height, filled up again. But the N.-E. entrance, with its guard-chambers and gatepost holes, were re-opened for inspection by Members of the Association, He pointed out the excellent dry masonry of the walls, and the configuration of the rampart left and right, as in the illustrations (Arch. Camb., 1910). Clearly at one time here was a
very strongly fortified refuge, but no trace of a habitation was to be found within it. All the evidence of occupation so far discovered was that of the refuse heaps. These lay near the N.E. entrance, just beyond the gate of timber balks placed one above the other in the slots pointed out. It was natural that the sentinels should throw their scraps there.
An interesting discussion took place about the entrances and the
method of closing them on emergency.
Rev. Eyre Evans mentioned a similar construction at Carn Goch. Mr. Gardner conducted the party to the highest eminence, from which a magnificent outlook was obtained over the valley of the Dulas and its tributaries, and he explained the relation of the fortification on Pen y Corddyn to the series of ancient fortresses on the neighbouring bill-tops.
Castell Cawr, a wooded hill, 600 ft. high, was next visited. On all sides, especially on the N.E. face, the approach is difficult, and the summit was consequently a position of great strength. It was also defended by a huge rampart of stone, ditch, and outworks, but the trees and undergrowth made the exact nature of the fortifications difficult of examination. Mr. John Inglis, Lady Dandonald's agent, acted as guide through the dense wood. One of the party, an honoured Local Secretary from South Wales, had an awkward fall
on the precipitous slopes, and another Member had the misfortune to get lost in the wood.
The main entrance is about the middle of the W. side. The ancient name of this hill-fort was apparently Din hengryn.
Ffos y Bleiddiaid (Ditch of the Wolves), locally called Ffos y Rhufeiniaid, which was next visited, is a remarkable chasm across the N. end of Castell Cawr Hill. This chasm is about 1000 ft. long, and extends from the surface at a height of 450 ft. to a great depth. It is, in fact, an old lead mine. About 1780 there was a renewal of mining activity in this district, and a level driven into the Ffos led to the discovery that the vein had been largely exploited by ancient workings dating back to the Roman occupation. In some of these workings
curious hammers and other tools, almost decayed to dust, with the golden hilt of a Roman sword,” are recorded to have been dug up.
EVENING MEETING. A large gathering of Members and of the principal residents of the district assembled at 8.30 in the Church House for the installation of the President-Elect and the reception of the Association by the Abergele Urban District Council.
Amongst those present were the Countess of Dundonald, the Bishop of St. Asaph, Sir J. Herbert Roberts, Bart., Mr. H. E. Prichard (Chairman of the Urban Council), Canon Jones (Vicar of Abergele), together with the Members and Officials of the Urban Council.
Archdeacon Thomas, who presided, said he had in the first place to express great regret at the absence of the retiring President, who was unfortunately prevented from being with them. The speaker recalled the retiring President's thoughtful and comprehensive address last year, and the genial and active interest he had taken 6TH SER. VOL. XII.