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THE MILITARY SCIENCES.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF OFFICERS AND OTHERS
THE DIFFERENT SERVICES,
ORIGINALLY EDITED BY
A COMMITTEE OF THE CORPS OF ROYAL ENGINEERS,
SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED, 1857-1860.
WITH NUMEROUS PLATES AND WOOD-CUTS.
LOCKWOOD & CO., STATIONERS' HALL COURT.
Fortification is the art both of securing a military position against surprise, and rendering it defensible by a small number of men against the attacks of a larger body. This is effected by occupying portions of the ground to be protected with works of defence, making, at the same time, every possible use of the natural obstacles and advantages which the position may afford.
Whatever may be the nature of the ground to be fortified,-whether, for instance, occupied by a dockyard, arsenal, town, or army,-certain great principles which should govern the construction of all works of defence, remain the same; the degree to which these principles can be carried out, varying with the time and means available, as well as with the skill of the superintending Officer in making the most of his re
These great principles are as follows:-
1st. To afford cover or protection to the defenders from the effects of every description of fire which the enemy can bring to bear.
2nd. To arrange the works so that the defenders may be able to use their weapons with the fullest effect against the enemy, from the time when he first appears within their range, up to the moment of his coming in contact with them.
3rd. To make the most of every natural obstacle in the way of the enemy's approach, and to interpose every practicable artificial one, in order that he may be constantly checked under fire; taking care, on the other hand, to remove everything which might afford him cover in his advance.
4th. To neglect no opportunity of directing the prolongation of the faces of the works on rocky or marshy sites, where the enemy would not be able to place guns to enfilade them. A due regard must be also paid to economy both of time and material. When works are to be constructed to secure some permanently important posts, and ample time and means are available for their erection, it has been customary to designate the branch of Fortification which treats of them as "Permanent Fortification." When, on the contrary, a position requires to be held only temporarily, and time and means are comparatively restricted, the term employed is "Field or Temporary Fortification," which branch of the science will now be treated of.-C. S. H.
"La fortification de campagne simple dont l'exécution est ordinairement confiée a l'Officier qui est chargé de leur défense, cette première espèce de fortification doit faire l'étude des Officiers d'Infanterie."
"La fortification de campagne composée, elle ne peut être dirigée que par des Ingénieurs, et elle doit faire partie de leur service."
By Captain C. S. Hutchinson, R. E.