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found two burnt coins, a neatly made bone stopper suitable for a bottle, and a leaden weight with a piece of iron through the ring.

7. Adjoining No. 6, to the south, was a room 22 ft. 4 in. by 17 ft. 2 in., paved with white concrete. Upon the white concrete floor were several flue tiles, giving one the impression that the room had been warmed by means of a flue laid round the floor. If so the hot-air supply came from the adjoining hypocaust (No. 6), or that destroyed under Nos. 2, 3, and 4. These small flue tiles measured outside 8 in. by 5 in. and 54 in. deep. The entrance to this chamber was in the south wall.

8. A tiled passage, 9 ft. 6 in. wide by 22 ft. 4 in. long, dividing Nos. 7 and 9. At the west end of it was a step descending to

No. 13 passage.

9. Room, 21 ft. 7 in. by 17 ft. 6 in., paved with red tesseræ set on a bed of concrete laid upon tiles. This floor, 8 in. thick, was suspended on twenty-eight rows of chalk blocks, each row being 18 in. high and about 6 in. apart. On referring to Plate C it will be seen that there is a low wall, built with tiles, which divides the rows into two equal portions. Another view is given (Plate D) of this hypocaust looking north, shewing the space between the rows and wall for the passage of hot-air from the furnace. On the extreme western side of the hypocaust it will be observed there is also a space between the wall and the chalk rows. This was apparently filled with pile of tiles, as the bottom tile of a double row of columns remained. For the purpose of exposing as much as possible of the construction of this interesting hypocaust the greater part of the floor above it, which was in a very dilapidated state, was removed, leaving only the more perfect portion. The walls of the apartment having been razed to the floor line it was not clear to what extent the hypocaust had been fitted with smoke flues. One existed in the east wall, and there were others probably in the west wall.

10. The furnace of No. 9. Reference to the Plan will shew that the fire kindled in it discharged the heat into the hypocaust at right. angles on either side of the central wall between the chalk rows. This peculiar arrangement was possibly adopted to prevent both fire and flame coming into contact with the chalk blocks in the hypocaust, which would have succumbed to their action. At the opening shewn in the west wall of the furnace a portion of the tiled archway of the stokehole remained. It will be noted on the Plan that the passage from the stokehole communicates in a direct line with the hypocaust of No. 5, indicating that that chamber was also heated by the same fire as No. 9.

The furnace we have described was really a hypocaust itself, as it was partitioned off from north to south with low walls 12 in. apart, very roughly built with tiles, the partitions being divided in the centre by the passage leading from the stokehole alluded to above. Over all was a thick floor constructed with layers of roof tiles embedded in concrete. No. 10 may therefore be regarded as a chamber through which the members of the household passed from No. 9 to No. 5.

11. A mean apartment, possibly a kitchen, without pavement, the east side of it measured 9 ft. 7 in., the west 10 ft. 2 in., the north and south sides 10 ft. In the west wall was an entrance 4 ft. wide. Against the east wall was a rude kind of fire-place constructed with two tile walls 8 in. apart and 2 ft. high. The space between was filled with wood-ash, shewing that fire had been kindled in it. On the north side of it a semi-circular hole, 3 ft. in diameter, had been carefully cut out to a depth of 2 ft. in the chalk bottom; in it was found a circular bronze enamelled brooch, a bone pin, and a green glass bugle bead. This hole may have been originally lined with lead, and used for a cistern.

12. An unimportant room, 12 ft. by 10 ft., entered from the tiled passage (No. 13). The west wall is imperfect, but there was evidently a doorway in it leading to the outside of the house.

13. A corridor, 46 ft. 10 in. by 10 ft., paved with tiles. Half the west side is bounded by the wall of the eastern court-yard; between the wall and the pavement may be seen on the Plan a narrow gutter, 20 ft. long, 1 ft. wide, and 1 ft. deep, which leads into a cistern, 4 ft. by 2 ft., cut in the chalk floor of the stokehole (No. 14) to a depth of 1 ft. Whether the gutter and cistern had been originally lined could not be ascertained. In the latter a portion of a millstone was found.

Along the corridor we discovered two leaden bowls and a large iron knife.

It will be seen by the Plan that the main approach to Section A was by the great corridor in front of the house.

14. The stokehole to No. 10. The north side of this chamber was so mutilated that it is difficult to determine its relation to the corridor (No. 13), but we are of opinion that the south wall of No. 9 extended to that of the court-yard, thus dividing the corridor from the stokehole, with simply an opening in it for the gutter before mentioned to pass under, hence the entrance to the stokehole would have been through the south wall from the outside. In this chamber we found a bronze chain, fragments of glass, a bronze bangle, and

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iron articles, including a knife, a piece of iron looped at each end, and portions of what appeared to be the suspending irons of a bucket or cooking pot.

Before concluding Section A it must be stated that the outer wall of the block, and some of the inner walls, averaged 4 ft. in height.


15. An apartment of large proportions, the north wall being 47 ft. 6 in. long, the south 48 ft. 8 in. by 16 ft. 1 in. wide; all four measuring 3 ft. 8 in. in height and 2 ft. 11 in. in thickness. Against the centre of the north wall was a buttress, 14 ft. 10 in. wide and 4 ft. 10 in. thick. There was also a buttress, 6 ft. wide and 3 ft. thick, outside the south-west corner, at the junction of the south wall with that of No. 20. The floor of the room was white concrete, and over its surface round charred places were visible where camp fires had been ignited by ancient vagrants after the villa fell into decay. The interior walls had been elaborately decorated with fresco painting, a portion of which was most kindly copied by my friend and colleague Mr. George E. Fox, F.S.A. The plaster upon the walls was 2 in. thick and of very fine quality. The room was entered through the south wall from the great corridor, and as far as could be ascertained the doorway was about 4 ft. 9 in. wide.


16. The stokehole of No. 17. East wall 11 ft. 5 in. long, return wall to the north 2 ft. 6 in., entrance 2 ft. 4 in. wide. The archway of the hypocaust was entirely built with tiles, its position in the east wall of No. 17 being indicated by an arrow in the Plan. Height to crown of arch 3 ft. 11 in., width 1 ft. 5 in. The size of the opening was reduced at some time by the insertion of several courses of tiles in the head of the arch, thus reducing the height of it to 1 ft. 11 in. Upon the floor of the stokehole was found a piece of enamelled bronze which Mr. C. H. Read, F.S.A., suggests was probably the inlaid decoration of some piece of furniture.

17. Room with hypocaust beneath (Plate E). East wall 9 ft. 3 in., west 9 ft. 9 in. The floor of this chamber had apparently been removed together with the pile on which it was suspended. There were eighteen of the latter as shewn by the 11-inch square base tiles remaining in situ; upon some of these were two or three 8-inch square tiles of the pilæ. The walls of the hypocaust were faced

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